Motier Acklin Bullock.

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professor of ancient languages; Howard Freeman Doane,
A.B. (Harvard), Boswell professor of Greek and Latin;
Margaret Eleanor Thompson, S.B. (Doane), A.M. (Uni-
versity of Nebraska), professor of English literature and
instructor in history of art; William Everett Jillson, A.M.
(Brown), professor of German and French and instructor
in elocution; Henry Hallock Hosford, A.M. (Western Re-
serve), professor of chemistry and instructor in physics and
astronomy; Joseph Horace Powers, S.B. (University of
Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Gottingen), Crete professor of biology;
John Newton Bennett, A.B. (Doane), A.M. (University of
Nebraska), professor of mathematics and assistant principal
of academy; Hiram Gillespie, A.B. (University of Chi-
cago), A.M. (Yale), acting professor of Greek and Latin;
Mildred Ethel Vance, A.B. (Doane), principal of women's
department and instructor in history and physical training;
Laura Hulda Wild, A.B. (Smith), instructor in Biblical
literature; Walter Guernsey Reynolds, diploma from Mans-
field (Pennsylvania) State Normal Conservatory of Music,
private pupil of M. Guilmant and Madame de Picciotto,
Paris, musical director, singing, pianoforte, organ, theory;
Jennie Chamberlain Hosford (Mrs.), A.B. (Smith), piano-
forte; Robert Lithgov/ Dick, S.B. (Doane), private pupil
of Miss Silence Dales and Gustav Menzendorf, violin and
harmony; Sadie Davis Reynolds (Mrs.), S.B. (Lawrence
University), instructor in art; John William Fuhrer, phys-
ical director for men ; Oscar Tretonious Swanson, instructor
in bookkeeping ; George Roger La Rue, teacher of biology ;
Perry Clayton Swift, teacher of stenography ; George Joshua
Taylor, teacher of mathematics ; Flora May Waldorf,
teacher of physics ; Flenry William Wendland, teacher of
mathematics.



248 CONGREGATIONAL NEBRASKA

Officers. — Hiram Gillespie, registrar; Joseph Horace
Powers, secretary of faculty; \\'illiam Everett Jillson,
librarian; jMrs. Eliza r\Iar.garet Boehne, mati-on.

Committee on Scholarship Funds. — David Brainerd
Perry, John Sewall Brown, Arthur Babbitt Fairchild.

Student Assistants. — William Everett Jillson, Jr., as-
sistant in Whitin Library ; Genevieve Krainek, assistant in
Whitin Library ; George Roger La Rue, weather bureau
observer in charge of Boswell Observatory ; Arthur Walton
JMedlar, assistant in treasurer's ofifice ; Alonzo Loudon
Moon, assistant in Whitin Library ; Ernest Clifford Potts,
assistant in Whitin Library.

Congregational Nebraska in its educational work now
concentrates its effort to the upbuilding of Doane College
and the five academies which enter into its unique educa-
tional system — Crete, Franklin, Chadron, Gates, and Weep-
ing Water; but it takes a profound interest in the public
schools of the state, in its normal schools and State Uni-
versity, and rejoices in the Christian men and women called
to service in these institutions. It would gladly see the
whole state Christian in the highest and best sense of the
term.

The present attitude of the churches to the educational
work in the state is expressed in the report of the Commit-
tee on Education at the Hastings meeting of the association
in 1900. The report was presented by the writer as chair-
man, was unanimously adopted, and is in part as follows :

"Your Committee on Christian Education desires in the
beginning to express its belief in the great need of a clear
understanding of what is involved in the use of the term
'Christian education.'

"i. It does not believe that the term has reference simply
to an education received in a denominational or church
school which mav or inav not be Christian.



THE COLLEGE QUESTION 249

"2. It does not believe that the term necessarily rules out
an education which is received in our public schools, some
of which are decidedly Christian in their influence, while
others may be far from it.

"3. Neither does your committee believe that Christian
education is all summed up in the chapel exercises, reading
the Bible in school, and in devotional services of various
kinds, valuable and helpful as these are in the development
of Christian character. Indeed, these may be so conducted
as to narrow ratlier than to enlarge the student's spiritual
range of vision and limit the field of his spiritual activities.

"4. Your committee does believe that Christian education
brings into harmonious relations and adjustment scientific
and philosophical truth and the teachings of the Gospel of
Christ.

"(i) It is just as easy -to create a sect in scientific or
philosophical teachings as it is in religious instruction.
Christian education avoids both, but ever seeks to discover
the truth, and then show that truth is not inconsistent with
itself, but in the ultimate analysis is in perfect harmony in
all its relations.

''('2) Christian education goes still further and empha-
sizes the personal relation of Him who is the embodiment
and incarnation of truth with and to the individuals, so that
the feeling of personal responsibility and accountability is
established and maintained, and human conduct regulated
by the teachings of the Scriptures.

"(3) It is evident, then, that the detennining agent in
making evident the character of a school is the teacher him-
self. Are the teachers in our schools men and women of
broad culture, sterling integrity of character, possessed of
the true Christian spirit, who have the ability to show that
the truths which they are called to teach harmonize with
the religion whose center and life is Christ himself, who



250 CONGREGATIONAL NEBRASKA

comes into personal relation to those whose eyes and hearts
are opened to the reception of all truth as it is made known
to them? With rare exceptions we believe they are. We
also believe that the greatest care should be exercised in
the selection of such teachers.

"5. Your committee still further believes that in estab-
lishing and maintaining the Christian school and academy
the location should be such as to make imperative the de-
mand for the Christian school in that place.

"(i) What are the elements which enter into this de-
mand? (a) The inefficieyicy of the public schools to do the
nQcessary work, due to a lack of equipment, mental, moral,
and material, (b) The failure of the public schools to
maintain Christian instruction in accordance with the above
interpretation. (c) Inability on the part of the public
schools to afford thorough preparation for our colleges or
universities should be deemed sufficient reason for the es-
tablishment of a first-class secondary school in the destitute
region.

"6. Your committee is also convinced that the determi-
nation to maintain, for the present at least, only one denom-
inational college in the state is eminently wise, and that
earnest efforts should be made to increase the endowment
and enlarge the field of operation of that institution which
is already the pride of the state and whose superior work is
its best recommendation to the citizens of Nebraska, viz.,
Doane College of Crete. Doane College and Academy are
seeking to afford opportunities for the best instruction in
college work, and, through the application of modern meth-
ods, to bring out the best thought of the student in the de-
velopment of the symmetrical education, which is not only
literary, scientific, and philosophical, but decidedly Christian.
Through personal visitation and examination of work done,
vour committee is assured that Doane College has an able



THE COLLEGE QUESTION 25 1

faculty whose instruction is limited only by the equipment
of the institution, and that the enlargement of its work must
be preceded by the enlargement of its endowment. In a
commonwealth whose State University has entering into it
such a large measure of Christian influence as we are glad
to see in our state university, a denominational college, to
hold its own in educational competition, must be able to
give the very best service in laboratory and class room, to-
gether with a personal influence which may be lacking in
the larger universities. It is right here that the small college
has a distinct and unique field of usefulness. It is not so
much that the student in the large university does not come
into personal contact with the head professors as it is that
he is liable, in the course of his university life, to come under
the influence of some one or more teachers of agnostic trend
of thought who unsettle the Christian belief of those whom
they may influence. In this respect the Christian college
holds a preeminent position of influence for good, as it is
the business and aim of its trustees to keep in its faculties
only men of positive Christian faith as well as of sound
learning with ability to teach. It is not always easy to do
this in a state institution where political and other reasons
may influence, to a greater or less degree, the action of its
regents. But in all these institutions their influence will be
determined by the character of the teachers and the spirit
of the student body which is in part determined by the gen-
eral influence of the faculties.

"The demand, then, for a Christian college of broad cul-
ture, large equipment, modern methods of instruction, pos-
itive Christian character, where students of small means
may receive the very best instruction at moderate cost, will
continue and grow m.ore imperative with passing years.
We believe that Doane College has such possibilities, and
that it is for the Congregationalists of Nebraska to say how



252 CONGREGATIONAL NEBRASKA

largely these possibilities siiall be realized. In order to
realize them, Doane College must have a material equipment
second to no college in the West.

"7. It is not the aim of this report to enter largely into
the individual needs of our different institutions. These are
presented in the special printed and other reports at hand.
Nor is it in the province of this committee to apply the prin-
ciples of Christian education to these different institutions.
They are applying them themselves, and are their own best
exponents of their right to be and their right to ask a gen-
erous support. But your committee does feel convinced
that, if these institutions of Christian learning are to have
a healthful, vigorous development it must be through the
generosity of Congregationalists in Nebraska. One college
and five academies looking for financial support and for stu-
dents among two hundred churches, a large number of
which are on the home missionary list, is a heroic test of
faith! It is not to be wondered at that these institutions
aft'ord examples of painful self-sacrifice and self-denial.

'Tt is evident that the growth of these institutions will
depend largely upon the growth of Congregationalism in
the state. The enlargement of the work of our Home Mis-
sionary Society will enlarge the foundation for their greater
prosperity.

■'The growth of our churches must precede the growth of
our educational institutions, or churches and institutions
will enter upon a period of arrested development. 'The de-
nomination which educates' is the denomination which ez>a)i-
gclizes that it may educate. The churches must be the base
of our educational pyramid and furnish the power which
generates the light streaming from its apex through college
and academ.y, a light to the world, or that light will be flick-
ering and uncertain, and leave us in total darkness when
electrical storms of agnosticism, infidelity, and pessimism



THE COLLEGE QUESTION 253

are upon us. For the sake of Christian education in Ne-
braska, increase the Congregational forces in the state.
And, for the sake of an enUghtened Congregationalism,
enlarge the equipment and increase the efficiency of our
Christian institutions of learning.

"M. A. Bullock,
"L. A.' Turner,
"]. H. Beitel,
"Coiiuniffcc on Edncation."^^



""minutes, 1900, pp. 50-54.



254 COXGREGATIOXAL NEBRASKA



CONGREGATIONAL ACADEMIES IN NEBRASKA

At the request of the writer the Rev. G. W. Mitchell, for
ten years pastor at Franklin, chairman of "The Academy
Endowment Fund," prepared the following statement of
the academies which enter into our educational system. As
j\Ir. Mitchell is thoroughly acquainted with the work and
needs of the academies, no one is better qualified than is
he to give this brief resume of the Congregational acad-
emies in Nebraska :

"Doane College is the center of a Congregational educa-
tional system in Nebraska that has. in addition to Crete
Academy, its ovvU preparatory department, four outside
academies, Avhich stand to it in the relation of feeders,
though there is no organic connection.

"These academies are at Chadron, in the far northwest
corner of the state, at Franklin, in the southwest, at Neligh
(Gates Academy), in the northeast, and Weeping Water in
the southeast. The total student enrolment in this system,
in the year 1903-4, was 768, of whom 555 were in the
four 'corner' academies.

"Franklin and Gates academies were established in 1881,
soon after the homesteaders settled the new country. At
Franklin, in 1880, four or five men, members of the little
home missionary Congregational church, used to gather fre-
quently at the home of one or another of them, and talk
and plan and pray for their children and the welfare of the
new country. They agreed at last that a Christian academy
would be the best contribution thcv could make to the new



250 CONGREGATIONAL NEBRASKA

"This mutatis mutandis might be stated as the origin and
motive of each of the other three academies. FrankHn
Academy has three good buildings set in a campus of ten
acres with an athletic field of five acres adjoining. The
first principal was Rev. W'. S. Hampton, who for five years
did a splendid work in organizing and laying foundations.
Prof. Alexis C. Hart, principal since 1888, the Nestor among
academy people in Nebraska, has made Franklin Academy
the foremost Christian academy in the A\'est.

"Gates Academy, the predecessor and successor of Gates
College, at Neligh, was opened in September, 1882. In
1886 college work was begun; in 1899 the college charter
was given up, and the institution continued as an academy.
It has two substantial brick buildings, a library of 5,000
volumes, well equipped laboratories, and in 1903-4 enrolled
171 students.

''Weeping Water Academy was started in 1885 in the
hearts of a few Christian people who wanted their own
boys and girls to prepare for college. The students have
come from many counties in southeast Nebraska, and an
unusually large per cent of them have gone on to college.
Its home has been the old church meeting-house. The first
new permanent building, Hindley Cottage, a dormitory for
young women, is now completed at a cost of $9,000.

"Chadron Academy was established in 1888. In 1890 a
fine brick building was erected which, two years later, was
totally destroyed by fire. School continued >vithout a day's
delay, and a new brick building was soon erected. Chadron
Academy has a contributory territory of not less than 35,-
00a square miles, a region of vast cattle ranges, isolated
ranch homes, and scattered farms. It is just the place for
a Christian academy, and has well fulfilled the ideal and
purpose of its founders.




17



GATES ACADEMY, NELIGH, NEBRASKA
1 — Girls' dormitory. 2 — Main building. 3 — Laboratory,



258 CONGREGATIONAL NEBRASKA

"Not less than 5,000 different students have attended
these four academies, about 500 of whom have completed
the full three-years courses, and 400 of them prepared for
college.

"January i, 1902, a committee of five was organized to
help the academies secure funds to pay off all debts, pro-
vide for current expenses, and raise a permanent endow-
ment fund of $100,000. June 30, 1904, the committee
reported :

Cash received $58,300 00

Pledges still unpaid 5.170 00

Making a total of $63,470 CXD

"The cash received, $58.3

Normal 59

Music 3

The normal students in Wesleyan University have from
two to three years' work in college courses, so that they
can hardly be classed as academy preparatory or college
students. They are normal students.
Number of students graduating from Doane college in

1904 • 19

Number of Doane akunni 219

Number graduating from Wesleyan University in 1904.. 16
Number of Wesleyan alumni 203

College preparatory students in —

Weeping Water Academy 37

Gates Academy 35

Chadron Acadeniy 28

Franklin Academy' 5^

Crete Academy 55

Total in Congregational schools 206

College preparatory students in Nebraska Wesleyan
University 186



A COMPARATIVE STUDY 263

By college preparatory we mean those who, upon grad-
uation, are entitled to enter the college or university.

Enrolment in —

Weeping Water Academy 69

Gates Academy 171

Chadron Academy 149

Franklin Academy 181

Doane College and Crete Academy 180

Total number students in Congregational schools. 750

Students in Nebraska Wesleyan University in all de-
partments including summer school 803

Total number for school year 710

Total expenses of schools for 1903-4 —

Weeping Water Academy $ 3^239 00

Gates Academy 3.586 00

Chadron Academy 4,800 00

F'ranklin Academy 7,150 00

Doane College and Crete Academy 21,850 00

Total for Congregational schools $40,625 00

Nebraska Wesleyan University $33,464 11

This enumeration does not include moneys for new build-
ings, which should be classified as special, and will vary
from time to tim.e in each institution.

Wesleyan spent last year for conservatory of music
$10,261.97; for greenhouse, gymnasium, etc.,- $2,518.71.

Weeping Water spent for new building, a dormitory for
girls, $Q,ooo.



264 fOXGUCGATIOXAI XF.BKASKA

Total number of teachers employed in-
Weeping Water Academy 5

Gates Academ\- 5

Chadron Academ.y 6

Franklin Academy 8

Doane College 18

Total number in Congregational schools 42

Number of teachers in Nebraska W^esleyan University. . 38

Estimated cost or value of buildings and grounds —

Weeping Water Academy $ I-2430 00

Gates Academy 17.536 00

Chadron Academy 12,800 00

Franklin Academy 20,000 00

Doane College including Crete Academy.. . 116,500 00

Total cost or value of Nebraska Congre-
gational schools $179,266 00

Estimated cost or value of Nebraska Wesleyan

University Methodist-Episcopal $175,000 00

Indebtedness —

Doane College $2,300 00

Wesleyan University

In this study the reader is asked to draw his own con-
clusions as to the advantages of either system. This will
not be difficult to do. He can easily see which thus far
reaches the larger number of students and which costs the
more money per year. The two systems have been in exist-
ence side by side now for several years, and this study for
the year 1903-4 may fairly be taken as representing the
comparative merits in the educational work of both
denominations.



SAXTF.E NORMAL TRAIXTXG SCHOOL 265

VII

SANTKE NORMAL TRAINING SCHOOL

The Indian school at Santee, while not supported directly
by the Cong-regational churches in Nebraska, is a part of
the educational work in the state. The school was founded
in 1870 by the American Board, but in the readjustment of
our missionary work it was later on transferred to the
American IMissionary Association.

Situated in the northeast corner of Nebraska it is well
located to accommodate the Indians of the Northwest. The
principal of the school is the well-known Rev. A. L.
Riggs, D.D.

Santee is neither a college nor academy, but, as its name
signifies, is a normal training school. Prof. F. B. Riggs,
M.A., the assistant principal, has given a concise account
of the object of the school in these words:

"The fundamental purpose of Santee is the preparation
of Indian young men and women for missionary and edu-
cational leadership among their own people. Active Chris-
tians and working churches are the result of Christian edu-
cation.

■'Government schools do not and can not provide adequate
])reparation for tlie missionary teachers, preachers, and other
Christian leaders that are needed. Santee does not conflict
with, compete with, or parallel the work of the government
schools or any other schools. . . . Home life is recog-
nized as a potent educational means, and Santee dormitories
are accordingly small and numerous, each in charge of a
Christian lady who appreciates the responsibilities of moth-
ering her flock. ... In the academic work the peda-



SANTKR NORArAI, TRATNING SCHOOL



>67



.cjo^ical (k'vel()i)nicnts at Santcc arc not (Hily alji'cast ol thr
times, Imt often ach'ance into originality. The eourse of
study is essentially unique. The secondary value of "form
stud}-,' such as language and mathematics, is recognized.




■X. A. I.. RIGGS, D.D.



and the 'real studies,' or 'thought studies,' as history or the
humanities, and the sciences, are made the hasis of all
'form study' teaciiing.

"The order, relative value, and most advantageous use
of studies is made a constant pedagogical and psychological




^^ HI,



fe o



270 COXGKIIGATIONAL X!:i:RASKA

study at Santee. . . Industrial training occupies half of
every pupils school day.

"Jjcsidcs the domestic training that the pupils inciden-
tally receive in the care of their rooms, houses, and clothes —
both boNS and girls — the school, cooking school, shop, and
farm give the;n more systematic instruction planned to fit
the possibilities of their home conditions. Santee pupils are
taught to make good bread, and to prepare plain, nourish-
ing food economically, and from such materials as the\' have
at home, or should be able to have.

"The students are practiced in the essentials of stock
raising and general farming. And in laboratory they have
experimental demonstration of the more important theories
of agriculture.

"With the mechanical arts the object is not trade training,
but 'manu-mental' instruction, development of the mind and
character through the hand and body. Blacksmithing, car-
])entering, printing are used for their mental and ethical
value, a means to' all-around development."^

The school also has an extension course with lectures by
Santee teachers. Special classes are formed for adults who
have had none or but few educational advantages. These
are called "adult primaries.''

In 1903 there were 230 students catalogued, of whom 123
were in the correspondence school, 8 in the high school, 51
in the intermediate, including from the fourth to the seventh
grades, 7 in the adult-primary, 40 in the primary, 18 in in-
strumental music, and i unclassified. The music scholars
are included in the other grades.

Looking at the bright and intelligent faces of the high
school pupils one can hardly realize that these are the chil-
dren of "wild Indians." They illustrate what Christian
training can do and is doing for the Indian races.


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