Nathaniel Hillyer. Egleston.

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Italy and in Greece the Hamitic stock was displaced and ab
sorbed by Aryan, as in Asia it had been by Semitic.

The European branch of the Aryans crossed the Urals and
the Volga about 2500 B. c., and occupied southern Russia till
1500 B. c. They brought into Europe a knowledge of gold,
silver, and bronze, as well as the plow and the loom. In process
of time they ramified into Thraco-Hlyro-Ligures, Greco-Italo-
Kelts, and Slavo-Germans. Thracian fortunes in Asia Minor we
VOL. cxxxix. NO. 334. 18


pass by. The Thracians were on the borders of Greece 2000
B. c., and, by a succession of conquests, wrested from the
Pelasgians most of their insular and continental possessions.
They introduced barley, the vine, and the domestic horse.
When, about the sixteenth century B. c., they yielded Greece to
the Hellenes, they indemnified themselves by the conquest of
Scythic territory north of the Danube, and the boundary line
between them or their Ulyrian brethren and the Scyths
fluctuated for many centuries, till 300 B. c., when the Kelts
occupied all the region. However, the Thracian Getse, as
Dacians, 200 B. c., still stretched from the Euxine to Germany.
The Illyrian branch, known on the north of Macedonia from
450 B. c., extended over parts of Hungary, Austria, Servia,
Styria, and Carniolaj and, as Yenetes, into Italy, and south
ward along the Adriatic. They were bounded northward by the
Scyths. Even after Keltic subjugation, the perpetuated Illyrian
tongue indicated a large Illyrian population. The maritime and
commercial Ligurian branch flourished chiefly in Italy, and in
the sixteenth century B. c. had their capital at Saturnia, after
ward Rome, being succeeded by Ombro-Latins until the eleventh
century. They had already spread into Gaul, and coastwise,
2000 B. c., as far as Spain the first Aryan people in western
Europe. The Hellenes, divaricating in the valley of the upper
and middle Danube, from the common Greco-Italo-Keltic stock,
crowded down by the shores of the Adriatic, gradually dis
placed their Aryan brethren in the south-east, and colonized
eastward and westward, penetrating the Peloponnesus as Achse-
ans in the fourteenth century. The Keltic branch of the same
stock, expanding westerly and southerly, came, in the sixth and
fifth centuries, into possession of all central Europe, Italy, Spain,
and Britain. The Slavo-Germans were under the yoke of the
Scyths as late as the end of the fourth century. The German
Bastarnians acquired independence about 182 B. c., and the
Slavs appear about 77 A. D. The Scyths were an Iranian branch
of Aryans. Leaving the shores of the Oxus after a conflict with
the Massagetes, they crossed the Dnieper about 1500 B. c.,
reached the Danube about 950 B. c., crossed the Danube 700 B. c.,
and in the fifth and fourth centuries asserted their authority
nearly to the eastern Alps, driving the Kelts to their warlike
encroachments on all the southern and western parts of Europe.
In the seventh century, the Scythic empire covered all southern


Bussia, and stretched from the Euxine to the Baltic, besides
embracing the greater part of Persia and Turkey in Asia. This
generalized synopsis of the earliest known ethnic movements in
Europe need not be brought down beyond the Christian Era, but
may be advantageously condensed in the following exhibit of
successive populations in several countries :

SPAIN. Mongoloid Cyclopes ; Hamitic Iberians, 3500 to 3000 B. c. ;
Aryan Ligures, 2000 B. c. ; Semitic ^Egypto-Phcenicians, 1000 B. c. ;
Aryan Siculi (Ligures), 1034 to 500 B. c. ; Aryan Kelts, from seventh to
fourth century B. c. ; Hamito-Aryan Eomans, 206 to 19 B. c. ; Aryan Ger
mans, fifth century A. D. ; Hamito-Semitic Moors, 711 A. D.

ITALY. Mongoloid Cyclopes ; Hamitic Iberian Sicanes, before 2000 B. 0.
in north and center, and Hamitic Pelasgians in the south ; Aryan Ombro-
Latins in nearly all Italy in fourteenth century B. c. ; Hamitic Etruscans,
1000 to 430 B. c. ; Aryan Ombre-Latins, 430 B. c. ; Aryan Kelts, 396 to
283 B. c. ; Aryan Latins, 283 B. c.

SICILY. Mongoloid Cyclopes; Hamitic Iberian Sicanes, 2000 B. c. ;
Hamitic Pelasgians ; Aryan Siculi, eleventh to fifth century B. c.

GREECE. Mongoloid Cyclopes; Hamitic Pelasgians, 2500 B.C.; Aryan
Thracians, 2000 B. c. ; Hamitic u Shepherds " and Phoenicians, 1700 to
1200 B. c. ; Aryan Hellenes, fourteenth century B. c.

FRANCE. Mongoloid Cyclopes ; Hamitic Iberes, 2200 B.C. ; Aryan Siculi,
in south ; Aryan Kelts, seventh to fourth century B. c.

GERMANY. Mongoloid Cyclopes ; Aryan Thracian Dacians ; Aryan Kelts ;
Aryan Germans, 182 B. c.

MIDDLE and LOWER DANUBE. Mongoloid Cyclopes ; Hamitic Pelasgians;
Aryan Kelts ; Aryan Scyths ; Aryan Slavs. Mongoloid Mongols, thirteenth
century A. D. ; Mongoloid Osmanlis, fourteenth century A. D.

BRITAIN, particularly ENGLAND. Mongoloid Cyclopes ; Hamitic Sicanes ;
Aryan Kelts, till first century A. D. ; Hamito-Aryan Romans, till fifth cent
ury A. D. ; Aryan Germans, fifth century ; Scandinavians, ninth century ; and
Normans, eleventh century.

Bearing these facts in mind, let us next recall the testimony
of archaeology and palaeontology. Eelics of populations that
dwelt upon the soil of Europe during periods before the dawn
of European history, have been collected in great abundance.
They consist of implements, and articles of use and ornament,
formed of flint, stone, bone, reindeer's horn, wood, and bronze,
together with many crania and other bones of the people them
selves. They are found in caverns, rock-shelters, artificial
grottoes, river drifts, glacial drift, beds of peat and loess, and
sea-side kitchen-refuse heaps, in the bottoms of lakes over which
dwellings had been erected on piles, and in tumuli and mounds.
Over most parts of Europe, also, have been known from time


immemorial, huge rough, stone structures termed " megalithic,"
of which the well-known menhirs and dolmens are examples.
These are pre-Druidical. Stone and flint weapons and imple
ments have been found, also, in many portions of Asia, Africa,
and North America j and everywhere they present similar
patterns. They should be the product of some race that, like the
Mongoloid, has had a remote and world- wide distribution. At
tending to the indications of skill in the workmanship of these
articles, it becomes manifest that they belong to peoples advanced
to different grades of civilization. Attending to the circum
stances under which they occur, it is apparent that the rudest
implements are the oldest, and that there was a long period
during which European populations had no knowledge of the
metals, or of agriculture, or the loom, or house-construction.
This period has been designated the Stone Age. That part of
it during which only rough stone implements were made, is
known as the Palaeolithic Epoch, and that during which the
stone implements were more finished and sometimes polished,
as the Neolithic. Between these is often recognized a Reindeer
Epoch. The Paleolithic people, as shown by the association of
their remains with the bones of other animals, must have been
contemporaries of many species now extinct. The most impor
tant of these were the mammoth, the cave-bear, the cave-lion,
the cave-hyena, and the two-horned rhinoceros. So much for
the indications of archaeology.

G-eologically, the later events occuring in Europe are believed
to have been nearly as follows : The age immediately preceding
the present is known as Quaternary, and the next preceding as
Tertiary. The last period of the Tertiary was Pliocene, and
the two preceding were Miocene and Eocene. European geog
raphy during the Pliocene was not very different from
the present, but the climate was milder. An increase of cold
brought this period to a close. Then followed, according to
recent opinion, a succession of epochs having climates strongly
in contrast with each other. Sometimes the cold was excessive,
and the permanent snow-cap of the arctic extended into Europe.
Sometimes the climate was temperate and remarkably equable,
from southern France to Scandinavia. During the cold intervals
the atmosphere was humid, and floods filled the rivers where the
precipitation was not snowy. At other times the rivers were
flooded by the melting of the vast accumulations of snow and


ice. Finally, there was an epoch of extreme cold, and glaciers
extended to central Europe. After another interglacial epoch,
a final, but less extensive, glaciation took place. Following this
were again floods, and thence a gradual approach to the present
condition of the continent. During all these vicissitudes man
was present. Palaeolithic man left traces of himself all over the
continent and in Britain before the climax of the glacial period
was reached. As the glaciers advanced he retreated south, and
the reindeer accompanied him. As the glaciers, with change of
climate, withdrew, the Palaeolithic type of man did not, in west
ern Europe, return northward. This is shown by the different
character of the post-glacial implements. A different race of
men had appeared, a superior race. They were men of the
Neolithic epoch. Dawkins thinks they exterminated the Palaeo
lithic people, but much more probably the two mergecf together.
In fact, the commingling of the two types of implements, in
certain situations, is evidence of this. "While uplifted Britain
was joined to the continent, Neolithic man found his way
thither. Twice Britain was thus uplifted, and twice it sank,
while prehistoric peoples held undisputed possession. Mean
time, came the immigrants, bringing bronze, and cereals, and
domestic animals ; and still later, iron made its appearance.

When we examine the crania of the men, we arrive at notions
somewhat more exact. MM. Quatref ages and Hamy have distin
guished six different races. We must glance over their character
istics. From the oldest deposits, and associated with Palaeolithic
implements, comes the race of Cannstadt. They had dolicho
cephalic or thin heads, with massive superciliary ridges, robust
build, and a stature of five feet six to five feet ten inches. Their
implements and arms were very imperfect, made of stone, bone,
or antlers, and they used some crude ornaments. They were
exclusively roving hunters, and their only dwellings were
caverns. Their remains have been found throughout western
Europe, from Gibraltar to Sweden, and eastward to Italy and
Bohemia. The existing cranial types most nearly approaching
this are those of the Australians and Bushmans, but their
doliehocephaly is equaled by that of the Mongoloid Eskimo.
The Cannstadt race appears to have been merged with other
populations. It is frequently met in the prehistoric dolmens,
and in the cemeteries of the Middle Ages. Its blood mingles
with that of other races in the modern Europeans, and the


cranial type is distinctly recognized in England, Scotland, Den
mark, and Germany, and frequently belongs to men of highest
intellect and force. A little later, chronologically, are found the
relics of the race of Cro-Magnon. This was also dolichocephalic,
but less so than the last. Its stature was about six feet. It was
altogether a nobler and more cultured race. It manifested a
peculiar and striking aptitude for art, and its implements under
went much improvement and diversification. It used the bow
occasionally, and hunted small game as well as large. The horse
was known, but perhaps not domesticated. There seem to have
been orders of rank, and a rude government. The people
believed in a future life, and appear to have practiced religious
worship. This type of men spread all over Europe, and con
tinued to exist through the whole Quaternary period. They were
buried in some of the dolmens, in Neolithic sepulchers, and in
the tombs of the Middle Ages. In the same valley of the Vezere
where their relics are most abundant, the same type very fre
quently outcrops in living men. But it still exists, also, in other
parts of Europe. It is common among the Kabyls of northern
Africa, and was the exact type of the now extinct G-uanehes.
Both of these are Hamitic. A modern race type somewhat con
formable to this is that of the North American Indians.

These two races of cave-dwellers were contemporaries of the
extinct mammoth and cave-bear. Another Palaeolithic race of
troglodytes, cooccupants with these, had skulls characteristically
brachycephalic, or round. It was the race of Truchere. "With
a broad head, the face was narrow and very long. The cheek
bones were massive, and the jaws slightly prognathous. The
race is not known to have been widely dispersed, but it survived
the last great geological revolution, and, whether the Lapps and
Finns be descended from it or not, they are cranially its nearest
modern representatives.

In the late Quaternary, after the glacial crises had passed,
and mammoth and rhinoceros no longer existed, three new races
of cave-dwellers of small stature appeared suddenly and simul
taneously in the country adjoining the North Sea. Two of these
were the races of Furfooz, with heads mesocephalic, or inclining
to brachycephalic ; and the other the race of G-renelle, with heads
distinctly brachycephalic. Their remains occur most abundantly
in the valley of the Lesse in Belgium. They were a peaceful people,
having no weapons but spears, using rude pottery and ornaments,


believers in the future life, and somewhat closely represented by
the Finns described by Ceesar on the shores of the Baltic.

Later than the advent of these races appeared the Neolithic,
with round heads and a style of civilization distinctly improved.
They warred for a time with the long-heads descended from the
early Quaternary, especially the Cro-Magnon people 5 but ulti
mately there was a fusion, and we find in the Neolithic dolmens
a mixture of the two cranial types, with the superior Neolithic
industries predominant. Thus, no ancient European race be
came wholly extinct. The principal races, at least, were merged
in situ with the successive invading and superior races, and
modern European populations are the outcome of this mixture.
But, after the lapse of thousands of years, the fusions are
incomplete, and the ancient types crop out atavistically every
where. In portions of Sweden, England, Germany, and Poland,
the round-heads seem to have been least numerous, and the
long-heads developed a civilization of their own. These events
belong to the Stone Age, and preceded the introduction of

Thus, in hasty outline, we have before us three classes of
facts, each shedding some light on the mystery of European
man during the prehistoric ages. Each group is intensely
interesting in itself, and each has generally been studied by
itself. But these different facts all bear on one history. There
must be some mode of coordination among them, and our final
conception of prehistoric, and even of historic, man in Europe
will grow out of such coordination. It is too soon to expect a
finality, but it can do no harm to offer a tentative. To begin
where the light is clearest, there is scarcely a doubt that the
advent of Indo-Europeans coincides with the beginning of the
Bronze Age, and a knowledge of the cereals and of the domestic
animals. This probably was somewhat later in the north than
in the Mediterranean countries, where the the east
and the Ligurians in the west were present twenty centuries
before our era. At the other extremity of the series, we feel
equal certainty in identifying the Cyclopes of tradition with the
Palaeolithic cave-dwellers of archaeology and the long-headed
races of anthropology the Neanderthal, Cro-Magnon, and
Truchere. The remotest immigrants into the territory of the
Cyclopes were Iberes. Our knowledge of their social condition
entitles them to rank with the Neolithic people to whose mixed


craniography they supplied the mesocephalic element. We thus
get a conception of a vast Hamitic empire existing in prehis
toric, Neolithic times, whose several nationalities were centered
in Mesopotamia, Canaan, Egypt, north-western Africa, Iberia,
Greece, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and central Europe an intelli
gent and powerful ethnic family, the first of the Adamites to
emerge into historic light, but with the record of its achieve
ments buried in a gloom almost as dense as that which covers
the ruder population that the Hamites everywhere displaced.
To this family, chiefly, are to be traced the dark complexions of
the nations and tribes still dwelling around all the shores of the
Mediterranean. This blood was mingled with that of the fair-
complexioned Thracians and Hellenes, the flaxen-haired Scyth
ians, Germans, and Kelts, and everywhere resulted in that
distinction of light and dark haired populations and indi
viduals which anthropologists have designated xanthochroic and
melanochroic. Among the Kelts it was noticed by Caesar, who
found the dark-haired tribes predominant in the south,
and the light-haired predominant in the north. Among the
Germans and Irish it gives the dark-haired type in the midst
of a light-haired race. From this Hamitic contamination the
remote Scandinavians and Danes have most completely escaped.
Through this mixture of Ibero-Pelasgian blood with diverse
Aryan strains of Thraco-Hellenico-Scythico-Belgic blood each
with its minor infusions of Phoenician, Carthaginian, Ligurian,
German, or Slavic emerge frequently the characteristics of the
long-headed men who dwelt in caverns and hunted the mam
moth, while secular winter and northern glaciers were bringing
devastation to Europe. Over all have supervened the influences
of conquests and colonizations accomplished since the Christian
Era. Clearly there does not exist in Europe a nation of tolerably
pure ethnic character, nor do national boundaries mark the limits
of such ethnic strains as remain discoverable. The figment of a
German nationality or a French, in any ethnic sense, is as base
less as that of an Austrian, a British, or an American. The
mixture is a conglomerate, not an alloy. Ethnic peculiarities
are everywhere protrusive ; they refuse to be obliterated, so long
a time is required to develop or destroy those physical traits
which mark a race or a species.

We may eliminate, finally, a chronological datum. If the
Neolithic people of Europe can be identified with the Iberes,


which, on historic evidence, may be fixed at an epoch three
thousand to three thousand five hundred years before our
era, the prevalence of their predecessors, the Cyclopes or Pa
laeolithic people, could not, with any strong presumption of
truth, be located back of 4000 or 5000 B. c. We deduce a similar
outcome from Schliemann's researches on the site of ancient
Troy. The sack of the second city, or Homeric Troy, seems
fixed at about 1200 B. c. The first city existed in the Stone Age,
with the use of bronze just beginning. It was settled by Thra-
cians from Europe, and therefore must date after 2000 B. c.
This date, consequently, marks the close of the Neolithic Epoch
in Asia Minor. But in Europe its close was delayed, for the
terra-cotta whorls of Homeric Troy have been found not only
in the Swiss lakes of the Bronze Age, but also in the Neolithic
terramares of Italy, and even in the Grotto del Diavolo, whose
antiquities are attributed to the Reindeer Epoch. Such indica
tions tend to tone down certain current estimates of the an
tiquity of European man. But we remember that European man,
even at the beginning, held a high ethnic position, and his ad
vent must have dated many thousand years after the appearance
of the lower races in other quarters of the world.



THE Chinese bill established as the policy of the United
States for a period of ten years ttte exclusion of Chinese
laborers from our territory. But that bill was only a pro
visional disposition of the question. The permanent policy of
the United States is yet to be determined. The present bill
was undoubtedly a concession to the clamorous demands of
California. Its enactment was secured through party and sec
tional combination, with a view to party and personal advan
tage, rather than through conviction. The wisdom and justice
of exclusion, and its consistency with the object and spirit of
our institutions, are still open questions.

The policy of the Chinese bill seemed illiberal to Eastern
statesmen. It appeared to be contradictory of the principles
of the Bevolution and antagonistic to the spirit and sub
versive of the ends of our institutions ; whereas, it is fully in
conformity with them. The people of the Pacific coast perceive
a national danger which has escaped the perception of the
political philosophers of New England, and they now supplicate
the assistance of the sentiment which antagonized slavery when
it was sapping the manhood of the masses of America. They
object to the influx of Chinese laborers because it is calcu
lated to sweep from existence our great middle class, and to
reduce the mass of our population to the condition of laborers
destitute of property and excluded from the comforts, the refine
ments, and the means of intellectual and physical culture and of
progress which our civilization affords, and because it threatens
to overthrow our domestic institutions and the democratic con
dition of our society. The people of the Pacific coast do not
intend a real departure from the policy of the founders of our
Government. The fathers embraced the whole human race in
their philanthropic sympathy. They adopted the policy that
this country should be the "refuge of the oppressed" of all



nations, because in its ordinary operation that policy conduces
to the welfare of the race, and because at the time it seemed the
most direct and unequivocal means of benefiting our people and
the race. But the reason for the policy, ceases when its operation
threatens the destruction of our democratic society and the dis
solution of our republican institutions. It does this when it
threatens the existence of our domestic institution, and the con
tinuance of the normal industrial and economical condition of
our society.

This Chinese labor element is calculated to produce, and has
actually set on foot, a destructive social change. It is a change
similar to that wrought by slavery. Slavery undoubtedly pro
duced immense wealth both in the North and the South, but it was
effecting a fatal change in the structure of society. It was work
ing a division of society into three strongly marked classes: First,
a class of white aristocrats, composed of the white land-owners
and of the men of the professions and of literature ; second, a
class of black slaves; and, third, a class of miserable whites,
who fell from the first class to sink to a level socially little above
that of slavery. , The aristocratic class was becoming narrower
by the dropping out of bankrupt land-owners and by the con
solidation of estates. The whites of modest property were
becoming steadily impoverished by competition with their slave-
owning neighbors. The white laborers were becoming more
degraded, their condition more hopeless, and their numbers
greater in proportion to the whole white population. They
could get employment on such terms only as would make them
as profitable to the planters as slaves. The tendency necessarily
was toward a compensation which would enable them to main
tain the same domestic establishments with the plantation
hands, and enjoy the same scale of comforts. It was impossible
for them, by labor and frugality, to accumulate wealth to
become thus independent, and to furnish their children with
refining surroundings and with an education. In such a social
state, poverty and ignorance were the lot of the major portion of
the white population, or would soon be.

In 1880, an analogous condition of things seemed imminent
in the West, owing to the presence of a considerable Chinese
laboring population. The Chinese laborers in California num
ber seventy thousand or over. They easily adapt themselves
to work requiring no great capacity, and they flock to any


manual employment for which they are fitted, making the com
petition therein extreme. They are submissive laborers, but
they are incompetent for positions where managing ability,
good judgment, and energy are required. They come from the

Online LibraryNathaniel Hillyer. EglestonThe North American review (Volume 139) → online text (page 25 of 60)