Nathaniel Hillyer. Egleston.

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would be universally binding and uniform ; and that was one
of the things in contemplation in framing the Constitution.
That would free us from the wickedness and crimes which now
shame our administration of laws; and would elevate divorce from
a system of strategic deceptions and frauds, disgraceful to sav
ages, to one of law and order. No questions of illegitimacy could
arise, and citizens of the several States having the same father
or mother, if legitimate at home, would be legitimate everywhere.
I must conclude with this brief summary :

Marriage is an institution divine in nature and origin ; estab
lished by God, whether by the fiat of his supreme wisdom or
through the operation of natural laws evolving, by survival, the
fittest wisdom ; and designed and best adapted, by its union and



MARRIAGE AND DIVOECE. 41

unification of the sexes, to confer and preserve individual happi
ness, to create the family, and thereby to perpetuate the race,
the people, and the State in the highest orders of civil govern
ment. This institution is the same, in whatever form created or
solemnized, and as such is to be recognized and supported by
the wise laws of all civilized peoples, and when created by the
contract of competent parties is something superior to their
volition, and indestructible by their separate or voluntary ac
tion. Whatever impairs or destroys its unity, and the fruits of
its unity, is injurious to personal and public morality and the
general well-being and good order of society ; and is therefore
to be repressed and restrained by law, and subordinated to the
general good. Divorce is such an evil, and is therefore justly
obnoxious to every repression, restraint, and limitation consist
ent with the administration of that justice which looks to the
common safety and happiness of man.

NOAH DAVIS.



THE ANNEXATION OF CANADA.



THE future of Canada must necessarily engage the attention
of thoughtful minds in the United States. The actual condition
of the two nations and their present and future interests and
prospects, call for calm and intelligent reflection. Settled,
chiefly, by kindred races, each has grown, and continues to grow,
rapidly, although under dissimilar institutions ; while the large
and mutually profitable trade which has for many years been
carried on between them bids fair to attain, at no remote
period, much greater dimensions. In intelligent circles in the
Dominion, French and English, one often hears discussed the
question, "Will this Confederation experiment succeed how
long will the Union last ? " People, within and without political
circles, cannot help speculating as to whether the different
provinces, sundered by vast stretches of inhospitable wilderness,
rivers, lakes, and mountains, can hold together against the
various disintegrating forces at work, including diversities of
race, antagonistic interests, and mutual jealousies, which have
prevented a close, friendly amalgamation so far, and taxed the
ingenuity of the different Canadian governments to preserve a
semblance of accord or fraternal feeling. Mere conventional
devices and artificial bonds will not stand the pressure of the
quiet but potent influences of inclination and self-interest when
they steadily operate in any particular direction. The old fogy
spirit of unreasoning traditional loyalty has largely died out
in Canada, the people taking sensible views of personal duty
and national advantage. They are liberal and practical in
temper, allowing their feelings and opinions to be mainly
molded by the generally controlling consideration of self -interest.
Even those who yet pride themselves upon a cordial attachment
to British connection, are obliged to admit that a political or a
commercial union of the Dominion and the United States could

42



THE ANNEXATION OF CANADA. 43

not but largely increase the prosperity of both. The annexation
sentiment prevails most among the young and middle-aged, who
have either lived in the Republic or become familiar with the
prospect of a future residence therein. The emigration of
Canadians, principally young people, French and English, to the
United States continues j and though many, after a longer or
shorter residence, have returned to their native land, over a
million have remained behind. According to Sir Richard
Cartwright, more than 100,000 emigrated last year.

It would be highly impolitic on the part of the public men
of the United States to manifest indifference to a freer and
more extensive trade with over 4,400,000 of a kindred race, living
along their own Northern border. Canadian official returns
show that, despite the existing artificial wall of hostile tariffs,
the Dominion imported from the United States in 1883 $56,032,-
333 of merchandise. The addition of the Canadian exports would
constitute an international trade of $100,000,000. The political
or commercial union, even, of the two countries opens up a vista
of boundless possibilities of mutual gain, when we reflect that
during the ten years of the Reciprocity Treaty the trade of
Canada with her neighbor trebled, rising to over $180,000,000.
The removal of the wretched fetters which cripple their trade
would accomplish wonders for both nations. Even were the
Canadian North-west left out of the account, it is my belief,
considering the enormous mineral, forest, and agricultural
wealth of Old Canada, her contiguity to the Northern States,
favorable geographical position, magnificent natural channels
of trade, her splendid railway system, immense tracts of virgin
soil, and other advantages already turned to considerable ac
count by her sparse and struggling population, that union with
such a country, possessing a territory of nearly half a million
of square miles, with an enlightened, enterprising, and law-
abiding population, should be an object of the most ardent
desire to so great a power as the United States.

In order to a proper appreciation of the question of annexa
tion and something like an adequate exhibition of its importance
to the United States, I shall state facts and reasons to show that
the realization of this project would benefit the Republic as
much as, if not more than, its northern neighbor, and could not
fail to confer incalculable material and moral advantages upon
both.



44 THE NOETH AMERICAN REVIEW.

Few Americans, and, indeed, only a small number of Cana
dians themselves, have anything like a fair knowledge of the
almost illimitable extent and resources of that new North
western empire, recently acquired from the Hudson's Bay
Company and by political arrangement with the people of
British Columbia, which is being opened up by the Canadian
Pacific Railway. Till within the last dozen years, few, save the
hunter, speculator, or adventurous lumberman, have penetrated
its northern and remote districts. But such explorers have
exhausted their imaginations and vocabularies in attempts to
express the raptures which this region has aroused. Its bewil
dering extent, soil of phenomenal richness, wonderful natural
arteries of communication, numerous coal-beds, bursting through
the prairie ; its iron and other mines, only a portion of them as
yet known; its wealth of game, healthy climate, favorable
seasons for agriculture, all combine to justify the enthusiastic
laudation it has elicited. Its extraordinary fertility has caused
Americans as well as British and Canadian visitors to style it
" the future granary of the world." The volume of wheat and
other cereals obtained, even under the crudest farming, averages
about thirty bushels to the acre, as against twenty-five to fifteen,
in even good regions, further south and east. The Canadian
Pacific Railway will soon effect through communication between
tide water on the St. Lawrence and the Rocky Mountains, some
three thousand miles, leaving but a gap of less than three hun
dred miles to complete the connection with the Pacific Ocean,
when the North-west will undoubtedly become one of the most
important regions of this continent.

The total area of the Dominion amounts to 3,304,381 square
miles, at least, allowing 193,355 for Quebec, and about 200,000
for Ontario, according to the contention of her Government ;
Nova Scotia, 21,731 ; New Brunswick, 27,322 ; Manitoba, with
her recent additions, over 100,000 ; British Columbia, 213,000,
and the North-west Territory about 2,700,000. This constitutes
an enormous, perhaps an embarrassing, heritage for a population
not wealthy, and numbering scarcely 4,500,000. The total area
of the United States is 3,602,990, not quite 300,000 miles more,
but with a population of 50,155,783.

Quebec and Ontario possess large areas of good land, promis
ing mines, and valuable belts of timber, in their newer back



THE ANNEXATION OF CANADA. 45

regions, which, would afford profitable employment to vast
amounts of capital and labor. In Ontario, particularly, much
has been done, and with gratifying results, during the last
decade, to make the most of her substantial resources. Among
the most efficient means resorted to, I might mention good
colonization roads, and the construction of railroads through
the back country. Many emigrants have thus been induced to
settle in Ontario and the newer region further west. If the
advantages of Quebec were better known, she would doubtless
attract more capital and immigrants; but her rulers have
allowed immigration to pass her doors, devoting their means
and energies to less profitable undertakings. They have sacri
ficed large amounts to bring back (" repatriate ") French Cana
dians living in the United States, though with but indifferent
success. Official reports state that there are in Quebec over
5,000,000 acres of land available for cultivation, and capable of
yielding large crops, and many other resources inviting capital
and labor. Ontario has a soil, climate, and population resem
bling those of New York and Ohio, and an extensive domain fit
for settlement and adapted to the growth of various products.
The Provincial Bureau of Statistics reported an average yield of
fall wheat, for 1883, of twenty-six bushels per acre against six
teen for Ohio, sixteen for Illinois, and nineteen for Kansas ; and
a larger yield of barley than all the best States, Dakota alone
surpassing Ontario by one bushel. As to oats and rye, she
ranked among the best States.

The above facts suggest the practicability of astonishing
industrial results and provincial growth, with a sufficient
volume of capital and intelligent population, devoted to the
development of the great natural wealth of the country. The
notion that formerly prevailed with most people on both sides of
the Atlantic, that Canada was mainly an inhospitable, imprac
ticable region of Arctic climate half the year, is now pretty well
exploded. The maritime provinces also enjoy valuable natural
advantages in the shape of good land, timber, fisheries, and
minerals, including coal.

Now, let us glance at the business done by the colonists.
The trade of Canada for 1883 was the largest known, the
imports exceeding those of the year previous by nearly $13,000,-
000. The exports were $98,085,804 ; the imports, $132,254,022.



46 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW.

The following figures show the revenue and expenditure for the
same year: Revenue, $35,088,336 5 expenditure, $28,805,229;
surplus, $7,064,492.

The Government officials report, for 1883, 133,303 immi
grants; for 1882, '112,000 5 and, for 1881, 47,000. Of course
great efforts were made the last two years to entice European
emigrants, the Canadian Pacific Railway Syndicate and various
colonization companies owning lands in the North-west vigor
ously cooperating with the Government, which spent over half a
million with this object, each season. While such details should
deeply interest the public of the United States, on grounds of
comity and honorable regard for the onward march of that true
civilization, in which both nations are already mighty factors,
they should naturally excite, in addition, the greatest concern in
connection with the extensive business relations which must
spring up between them.

From even a brief survey of the great natural advantages of
the Dominion, it would be injudicious to exclude the following
statements, mainly gathered from official documents: New York
is 3040 nautical miles from Liverpool; Montreal but 2783;
Quebec, 2645 ; and Port Nelson, on Hudson's Bay, only 2941,
it being within 300 miles of Lake Winnipeg, the center of the
vast river systems which drain the entire country between the
forty-ninth and fifty-fourth parallels, from the Rocky Mountains
to within less than a hundred miles of Lake Superior. Again,
going westward, we find the Pacific ports of Canada nearer
China and Japan than those of the United States. Japan is
4470 nautical miles from San Francisco; from Buzzard Inlet,
near the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 4374. That
road will cross the Rockies, at the highest point, only some 3646
feet above the ocean level, while the United States railways to
San Francisco rise in several places to a height of nearly one
and a half miles, and for 1300 miles the Union Pacific is every
where higher than the loftiest point of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. The distance from Japan to Liverpool saved by the
Canadian route, as compared with that vid San Francisco and
New York, is 935 miles; but the Canadian route, vid British
Columbia and Port Hudson, Hudson's Bay, would be but 9734
miles, or 2353 less than by the United States. The latter Can
adian route, however, could only be used from May till October.
These facts and statistics will convince the most prejudiced



THE ANNEXATION OF CANADA. 47

or skeptical that the new nation to the north of the Republic,
as regards all the elements of national strength, wealth, and
independence, has already attained the status of a very respect
able power, with every prospect of reaching, ere long, an envia
ble place among the nations of the earth.

But the lavish expenditure of money by the Canadian
Government, of late years, has excited genuine alarm in many
quarters. The outlay upon the Canadian Pacific Railway and
other public works, last year, mounted to the ominous total of
$14,171,413, over ten millions going to that road. Add to those
disbursements the following fresh obligations, incurred last ses
sion, to swell the debt of the Dominion, and no one will wonder
at the alarm felt: Loan to Canadian Pacific Railway Syndi
cate, $30,000,000 ; Vancouver Island Railway, $750,000 ; settle
ment of provincial debts, $4,000,000; new railway subsidies,
at least $9,000,000; amounts stated in supplementary esti
mates, $1,379,000; total, $45,129,000. The disbursements in
1868 were $13,687,928 ; meantime the population has not grown
more than one million. This is one of the most serious griev
ances of the country, and bodes danger to confederation. But
there are others.

The discontent existing in several of the provinces, despite
the great expenditure in them, to develop their resources and ren
der their inhabitants contented, loyal citizens, is daily assuming
more serious proportions. Only a year or two ago, British
Columbia was deafening her sister provinces with the cry of
annexation, that demand ceasing only with the rapid construc
tion of the Canadian Pacific Railway from the Pacific coast
eastward, at an enormous expense to the Dominion. The dis
allowance of the Anti-Chinese Bill the other day is another
source of dissatisfaction to her. In Manitoba, for some time
past, men, in private and in public, have manifested great indig
nation, threatening secession and annexation in consequence of
the Ottawa Government having refused to remove the high duties
upon agricultural implements ; also on account of the locking-up
of Manitoba lands in some cases, and in others the prodigal dis
posal of them to speculators, with the maintenance of the railway
monopoly against the wishes and interests of the settlers.

The province of Quebec has been restless, dissatisfied, and
anxious under the heavy debt accumulated of late years. Start
ing in 1867, free of debt, with a respectable balance to her credit,



48 THE NOETH AMERICAN REVIEW.

her rulers, Conservatives during the whole of the period, except
for a few years, from, say, 1875 till 1878, have managed to roll up
a debt aggregating, some authorities say, $11,000,000, and others
$15,000,000. The bulk of the debt was incurred, say the Con
servatives, in self-defense, in constructing the new railways on
the north shore of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa, from Quebec
to the Federal capital, and assisting other railroads designed to
encourage the settlement and development of the province.
However correct that statement, the debt stands out in menacing
proportions, a load both irritating and oppressive. But the
handling of large amounts, the borrowing and disbursement of
millions by a knot of unprincipled politicians and speculators,
led to reckless waste and to such scandals generally as convinced
the public that vast sums of money were going to the wrong
parties that, in fact, the leading minister and his chums were
growing rich at the public expense, and that, if the system were
not speedily changed, the province would be thrown into bank
ruptcy. Leading Conservatives and Liberals alike, in alarm,
cried out for a change, which was only effected when the harm was
done. The railroads from Quebec to the Federal capital were
sold by the clique, the Ottawa end to the Canadian Pacific Rail
way Syndicate and the Quebec Line to the Grand Trunk, both
bringing about half their cost, or less than $8,000,000, and, if
report speak truly, enormous commissions to the manipulators.
The Premier, to save further mischief to the party and the
province, was transferred to the Ottawa Cabinet, leaving a
crushing load of scandals and troubles to his successors, one
of whom, Mr. Mousseau, quickly succumbed to them. The fate
of the present Prime Minister, Mr. Ross, is a matter of some
uncertainty. His Cabinet could not have been formed had not
the representatives of Quebec in the Federal Legislature obtained
the promise of " better terms," which, indeed, was the condition
upon which they voted for the Canadian Pacific Railway loan.
The financial balm, or, as Sir Richard Cartwright would call it,
the fresh bribe, to Quebec reaches some $247,000 a year, with
which it is hoped she will be able to meet her engagements.

A very serious matter is the dissatisfaction and alarm excited
in the province of Ontario, the backbone of the Dominion, by the
centralizing policy of Sir John A. Macdonald's administration.
Immediately after condemning Federal interference with the
license law and other subjects claimed to belong exclusively to



THE ANNEXATION OF CANADA. 49

provincial jurisdiction, the Ontario Government induced the
Legislature to pass strong resolutions censuring and protesting
against the assumption of their railways by the central author
ity. The provincial government feels strongly on this subject,
having disbursed $8,000,000 in addition to $10,000,000 spent by
the municipalities on those roads. Considering the difficulties
between the central and local authorities of late years, it is no
wonder that the possibility of a break-up of the Confederation,
in the event of further aggression upon Ontario, was menacingly
alluded to by ministerial and other speakers. The province of
Quebec has also protested against the same centralizing policy,
as shown in the passing of the Dominion License Act, last year,
and has resolved to disregard such Federal legislation and inter
ference with provincial rights.

These are among the sources of danger to the continuance of
confederation, not to mention Nova Scotia and New Brunswick,
which, in spite of the late increase of Federal subsidies, are not
content. Everybody acknowledges that Canadian disunion, or
the secession of any one province, means a powerful impetus to
the cause of annexation. Most certainly the French Canadians
would hail it to-morrow as infinitely preferable to a legislative
union of the provinces, which is one of the pet schemes of the
Premier of the Dominion.

Would it not, then, be infinitely better for the Government of
the United States to adopt a policy calculated to remove all
obstacles to a freer trade between them and the Dominion, which
must result, at least, in more extended social intercourse, greater
mutual respect and sympathy, as well as in vastly enhanced
material benefits ? With so many Canadians actually settled in
the Republic, and a continued migration thereto from the older
provinces, what valuable advantages, present and future, might
not be looked for from a union of the two countries? What
could be more striking evidence than the facts already set forth,
of the value to the world in general, and the Republic in partic
ular, of the magnificent empire stretching from its Northern
boundary to the Arctic Ocean and from the Atlantic to the
Pacific ? Consider the vitalizing, fructifying effects of the great
waves of American capital and population which might be
directed over that "Great Lone Land"! What might not be
predicted of the proper cultivation and development of even a
few of its favored localities, with the erasure of artificial boun-
VOL. cxxxix. NO. 332. 4



50 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW.

dary lines, and the establishment of advantageous commercial
relations with the United States ? What splendid opportunities
would be afforded to the working classes of both nations to the
hard-pressed toilers of Eastern factories, mines, and foundries, as
well as to the cultivators of sterile and worn-out lands by the
rich, virgin territory of the North-west, with a climate capable of
invigorating the ague-stricken and enfeebled denizens of the hot
and unhealthy latitudes south of the line 45 ! And be it
remembered that the available first-class land awaiting settle
ment in the Republic is of no very great extent, and that ere
many years it will be all taken up. Surely, in the above facts
may be found sufficient reasons for the adoption by the United
States Government and people of a policy liberal, statesmanlike,
and friendly in character, one of whose main objects should be to
" go up and possess the land." With this country interested in
directing a large volume of its capital, and also of its immigra
tion, which reached about three millions in the last five years,
to the best sections of Quebec, Ontario, and the North-west, we
might look for the building up of a great nation on this conti
nent, insuring the largest prosperity to its inhabitants and the
happiest promise to humanity.

P. BENDER.



GOVERNMENT TELEGRAPHY.



IT is one of the incidental consequences of our peculiar Fed
eral system that the great mass of American citizens have very
little to do with the General Government. There is no parallel
to this in either ancient or modern times. A Frenchman or a
German passes his whole life in the continual presence of the
supreme authority. From the moment when he is ushered into
the world until the time of his departure from it, he is never
free from governmental inspection. In his schooling, in his
trade or profession, in all his downsitting or uprising, the State
exercises a controlling influence. Even an Englishman nowa
days cannot escape from pretty frequent contact with Parlia
mentary rule. AH legal process is in the name of the Crown,
and although there is more of local self-government there than in
any other country except the United States, there is much less
than there is here. In fact, almost the only way in which most
of us have anything to do with the supreme authority of the
State is through the Post-office. But the repulsive and unpop
ular features of Government make no appearance here. Its
proper function is to make people do by force what they ought
to do of their own accord, but the Post-office performs no such
function. In conducting that enterprise Government is acting
in a purely business capacity. It came to assume this business
quite accidentally, and it is really altogether outside of those
salutary but severe duties which are its peculiar province. But,
as this business happens to be of an especially beneficent and
popular character, it strongly tends to endear, the Government
to its subjects, and Uncle Sam is looked up to by his great
family with a very hearty affection.

Under these circumstances it is not surprising that the pro
posal that the Government should add the business of telegraph
ing to that of carrying the mails, is listened to with a great



Online LibraryNathaniel Hillyer. EglestonThe North American review (Volume 139) → online text (page 5 of 60)