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pamphlet is available from the Council for
the Preservation of Rural England, 4
Hobart Place, London, S. W. 1, England,
priced at sixpence.




The Glacier View Dam Project

Conservation groups have been active in their opposition to the proposal
advanced in the preliminary studies of the Corps of Engineers to include in the
Columbia River projects a huge dam at Glacier View across the North Fork
of the Flathead River in Montana which would flood 20,000 acres of Glacier
National Park.

The Corps of Engineers is free, under law and past policy to make surveys for
flood control and navigation projects within National Parks. National
Parks, however, are exempt under the amendment passed by Congress in 1921
to exclude National Parks from Federal power projects. By order of the Secre-
tary of the Interior, the U. S. Reclamation Service may not enter National
Parks to make surveys for reclamation projects.

Col. Theron D. Weaver, Division Engineer of the Corps of Engineers of the
U. S. Army, held numerous local public hearings on the Glacier View project
at which objections were filed by conservation organizations, including the
American Planning and Civic Association. President Shreve of the United
States Chamber of Commerce issued a statement in opposition to the encroach-
ment on the Glacier National Park.

As the outcome of these hearings, Col. Weaver recommended definitely six
multiple-purpose dams and reservoirs in the interest of flood control, naviga-
tion, power and other uses in four States of the Columbia River Basin and a
tentative recommendation for the Glacier View Dam and reservoir con-
ditional upon the approval of the Secretary of the Interior. The Secretary
of the Interior, however, opposed the intrusion in Glacier National Park.

This dilemma has now been solved, at least tentatively, by a Joint Agree-
ment between the Secretary of the Army and the Secretary of the Interior
which defines the responsibilities of the Bureau of Reclamation and the Corps
of Engineers in the Columbia Basin. According to the Agreement:

"The Glacier View project, which is one of the most economically
favorable projects considered for the plan and which is approved by the
State of Montana and local interests generally, is strongly opposed by
many because it would encroach upon Glacier National Park. A
possible alternative to Glacier View, the Paradise project, is objected
to by the State of Montana and local interests. It is concluded that
neither of these projects should be authorized at this time, and that
recommendations for a project or projects that will accomplish the pur-
pose of the Glacier View project should be presented after further study
which can be carried on while other elements of the main control plan
are under construction."

Congratulations are due the Secretary of the Army and the Corps of Engi-
neers for their part in the Agreement, which may be the forerunner of a new
policy on the part of the Corps of Engineers to ensure protection of National
Parks and Monuments in flood control and navigation projects similar to the
protection afforded under the Federal Power Act and the policy of the De-
partment of the Interior for reclamation projects.

The conservation organizations hope that the Glacier View project will
never be authorized, for they take exception to the statement that Glacier View
is "one of the most economically favorable projects" since economy in the de-
velopment of power would be achieved at the expense of national values in
Glacier National Park upon which it would be impossible to put a price tag.

We present a series of pictures showing western Glacier National Park
which would be affected by the Glacier View reservoir.

Cover Picture. Horseback party from The Quarter Circle M Ranch, Glacier
National Park.

On the opposite page. The Glacier View Dam would flood this part of
Quartz Creek, viewed from the North Fork highway bridge.

Above. This view, looking downstream, is taken from the west
bank of the North Fork of the Flathead, about a mile above Whale
Creek. If the Glacier View Dam were built to its projected height of
416 feet, all of the foreground area would be flooded. Since it is near
the upper end of the projected lake, any extensive drawdown would
expose denuded flats. All the mountains on the skyline are in Glacier
National Park.

Below. Within the projected lake
area lies some of the finest western
yellow {ponderosa} pine forest to
be found in the northern Rockies.
Much of it is in State ownership;
some of it is privately owned. This
view is taken on the North Fork
road, about a mile north of Ana-
conda Creek.


Above. Camas Creek, the North Fork road is closely bordered by
tall, slim lodgepole pine.

Above. The waters would flood out this Logging Creek ranger
station and the nearby camp grounds.

Below. Huckleberry and Glacier View Mountains seen across the
southern end of Mud Lakea favorite haunt of moose.

The Wilderness Trail Trips, referred to again in later pages, utilize
pack horses and "shank's mare" during much of their course, but they end
with a boat ride down the North Fork of the Flathead. This view, looking

The pole bridge at Pole-
bridge provides the only
vehicle crossing of the North
Fork of the Flathead be-
tween the Canadian border
and the junction with the
East Fork. The view above
is of the upstream side, and
is pointed across the river at
lands within the Flathead
National Forest.

Below. The area in the park which would be flooded by water of
fluctuating levels contains most of the winter habitat of Glacier Na-
tional Park's mammals moose, mule deer, whitetail deer, elk, and
beaver particularly. Only in Glacier, among the western national
parks, are whitetail deer found in any numbers; building of the dam
would wipe out about 56 percent of their winter range. The loss of
winter range for the other mammals would also be extremely serious.
The evidences of aquatic vegetation here in Mud Lake show why it is
popular with moose.

Roads lead in to Two Medicine Lake
and Many Glacier, and the park is
crossed by the Going-to-the-Sun Highway,
which leads from park headquarters, at
the foot of Lake McDonald, across the
Continental Divide and down to St. Mary
Lake. A previous picture has shown the
character of the North Fork road, leading
northwest from Lake McDonald, and
providing access to the lower ends of
Bowman and Kintla Lakes. Yet Glacier
is essentially, and overwhelmingly, a
wilderness park. It has always had a
great appeal to the hiker and to those who
can afford to travel in the saddle or at
least with pack animals. Only by getting

a way from the roads is it possible for the visitor to come to intimate
terms with scores of isolated lakes, with dozens of glaciers, small and
large, and with hundreds of miles of rushing streams. For the past
two seasons, H. Frank Evans has been conducting "Wilderness Trail
Trips" in Glacier, under permit from the National Park Service.

Above. A party composed almost entirely of people from the north-
eastern United States, about to start on a W-day hike, under Evans'
direction, to Boulder Pass. The Polebridge Ranger Station is their
starting point.

Left. The "trail trippers" are self-propelled, but they walk un-
encumbered by heavier burdens than cameras and field glasses.
Such pack strings as this carry their tents, bedding, and food.

Virtually everything in sight in the picture across the top of these
two pages, except the mountains which form the skyline, would be
under water if the Glacier View dam were built. Looking southward,
the picture (a combination of two} includes Big Prairie, the dam
site {Huckleberry Mountain} and McFarland's Ranch.

Left. Since the North Fork road is just rough gravel, it is sought
by those who want to take their cars on the byways and to camp away
from the crowds. This pair from St. Louis are at the Logging Creek
Campground, from which a trail extends back to Logging Lake and
the wilderness.

Next page. Two moose forage in a pond near Camas Creek. All
photographs in this supplement by George H. Grant, National Park

State Park

Compiled by JAMES H. HUSTED, National Park Service

The Midwest State Park Asso-
ciation held a. meeting May 4, 5
and 6 at Pere Marquette State Park,
Grafton, Illinois. Officers re-elected
were as follows: V. W. Flickinger,
President; Arthur Elmer, Vice Presi-
dent, and Kenneth Cougill of In-
diana as Secretary-Treasurer. On
the program were Charles P. Casey,
Director, Department of Public
Works and Buildings, Springfield,
III.; George F. Ingalls, Chief, Land
and Recreational Planning, Region
II, National Park Service, Omaha;
Dr. L. B. Sharp, Director, Life
Camps, New York; Carroll E.
Bazler, Associate in Charge of
Recreation, Ohio Experimental Sta-
tion, Chillicothe, O.; A. E. Elmer,
Chief, Parks and Recreation Di-
vision, Department of Conservation,
Lansing, Mich.; Ray Hubbs, Super-
intendent, Division of Parks and
Memorials, Springfield, III.; C. L.
Harrington, Superintendent, Forests
and Parks, Madison, Wis.; Russell
Reid, Superintendent, State His-
torical Society, Bismark, N. D.;
Bryan Stearns, Director, Division
of Forestry and Parks, Little Rock,
Ark.; and R. E. Chiles, Director,
Division of Recreation in State
Parks, Oklahoma City, Okla. The
next meeting of the Association will
be April 5, 6 and 7, 1950 at Petite

Jean State Park in Arkansas, with
Bryan Stearns as host. Tom Morse
President of the National Confer-
ence on State Parks, was present,
and Buck Allison, President of the
Southeast State Park Directors
Association, Bill Hay of Tennessee,
and Bill Wells of Louisiana.

The United States Forest Service
has requested its regional foresters
to put a representative group of
camp, picnic and winter sports areas
on a charge basis at the beginning
of the 1949 vacation season. This
will continue the experiment started
in California last year. Rates to be
charged are 50 cents per day per
car of up to six persons for camping,
and 25 to 50 cents per car of up to
six persons for picnicking, with no
charge for children under 12. The
Forest Service will continue "to
maintain many small free camp and
picnic areas in addition to areas on
which charges are to be collected."

In response to a request from the
Legislative Reference Service of the
Library of Congress for information
concerning wilderness areas, the
Wilderness Society compiled a 47
page booklet on the subject, en-
titled A Statement on Wilderness
Preservation in Reply to a Question-
naire. It contains a number of
definitions, an analysis of the out-


Planning and Civic Comment

standing conflicts involving wilder-
ness areas at the time, and sug-
gestions regarding a national wilder-
ness preservation system.

Crisis Spots in Conservation, a
booklet summarizing the many as-
saults being made on national parks,
national forests, state parks, and
other areas by grazing, power,
timber, and other special interests,
has recently been issued by the
Izaak Walton League.

A report entitled Leisure Time
Activities of Collier's Adult Readers
has recently been published by the
Crowell-CoIIier Publishing Com-
pany, 250 Park Avenue, New York
17, New York. This presents in
tabular form by percentages what
activities the people who answered
the questionnaire prefer, the type
of equipment they use, and detailed
information about many of the
activities. The questionnaire used
is also included in the report.

Three publications of interest to
state park authorities who provide
organized camp facilities are: A
Camp Aquatic Program, by Sidney
C. Hazelton, obtainable direct from
the author, at 7 Dana Road, Han-
over, New Hampshire, for $2.25 per
copy; Manual oj Minimum Stan-
dards Jor Camps, obtainable from
the Greater Boston Community
Council, 261 Franklin Street, Bos-
ton, Massachusetts, for $1.25 per
copy; and Legal and Legislative
Aspects of Camping, which may be
obtained for 50 cents from the
American Camping Association, 343
South Dearborn Street, Chicago 4,

Dr. Ernest S. Griffith, Director,
Legislative Reference Service, Li-
brary of Congress, presented an ex-

tremely interesting and informative
lecture on "Recreation's Stake in
Our Natural Resources" at the
Department of Agriculture's audi-
torium on February 7. This was
one of the lectures arranged by the
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Graduate School on the general
subject of Resource Utilization and
Conservation. The school is plan-
ning to publish the entire series.

Recently, data concerning county
and metropolitan parks has been
compiled, analyzed and printed by a
committee of the American Society
of Landscape Architects, entitled
Analysis of Policy Information,
County and Metropolitan Park De-
velopment in the United States. This
tabulation was subdivided into three
headings, "General Information,"
"Land Acquisition Policies," and
"Recreational Use Policies."

Alabama. The new entrance road
to Chewacla State Park has been
named the "Shell Toomer Parkway"
in honor of Mr. S. L. Toomer of
Auburn, who was mainly responsible
for the establishment of both the
park and the parkway. The March
issue of Alabama Conservation, which
carried this story, also contained
an article entitled "Parks Anticipate
Biggest Year," which described the
facilities, accommodations, and ac-
tivities at all of the parks.

Arkansas. The Arkansas Re-
sources and Development Com-
mission has resumed the publication
of their monthly bulletin, with the
first issue being released in March.
The April issue contains an attach-
ment called "Arkansas Per Capita
Retail Sales by Counties, 1948,"


Planning and Civic Comment

which stated, "Baxter County, site
of Norfolk Dam, has shown an
increase of 350 percent in per capita
spending since the project was com-
pleted. The fact that the tourist
industry has raised Baxter County
from one of the lowest brackets
to a rank within the top one-third
for the State is of significant im-

California, The project of re-
storing Columbia Historical State
Park, by the Division of Beaches
and Parks, is now under way, ac-
cording to the article, "Restoration
of Gold Rush Columbia," in the
April issue of Travel USA. The
historical survey made by Dr. V.
Aubrey Neasham of the National
Park Service has been completed,
and the master plan of restoration
is now in the process of being pre-
pared. The article concludes, "Upon
completion of the restoration, which
will take from five to ten years,
State Park officials plan to make
Columbia a living mining town by
encouraging activities consistent
with the atmosphere of the town
during its golden days."

With the donation of $29,000
by the Daughters of the American
Revolution to match State funds,
the final tract necessary to complete
the National Tribute Grove, which
is located in Mill Creek Redwoods
State Park, was recently purchased.

The State of California Recreation
Commission has issued its first
annual report, covering the period
from October 17, 1947, when the
Commission was organized, to Octo-
ber 16, 1948. It has also published
two excellent booklets, entitled Com-
pilation of Laws Relating to Recrea-

tion, and Institutes for Recreation
Leaders. On February 9-10-11 of
this year it sponsored the First
Annual California Recreation Con-
ference, at which over 25 subjects
relating to recreation and parks
were discussed in special sessions.
One of the general sessions was de-
voted to "Mountains and Beaches,"
with the Director of the Department
of Natural Resources, Gen. Warren
T. Hannum, participating.

Florida. The Florida Park Ser-
vice recently issued its Biennial
Report, which contains discussions
of administration, development, land
acquisition, and state park use pro-
grams together with several per-
tinent tabulations.

Iowa. The State Conservation
Commission has named a tract of
88 acres located in close proximity
to Des Moines in honor of Mrs.
Henry Frankel, the name to be
"The Margo Frankel Woods." Ad-
ditional acquisitions are contem-
plated to the area. It is an area in
which Mrs. Frankel had much to do
with the acquisition, and the Com-
mission felt it fitting to name it
after her in honor of her achieve-
ments in conservation, especially
in the State of Iowa. A new entrance
marker will be erected so that the
public will know of its location.

Illinois. Ray Hubbs has suc-
ceeded George W. Williams as
Superintendent, Division of Parks,
and Memorials. Mr. Williams, who
held this position for several years,
resigned on February 28.

Kentucky. "Kentucky is Ready


Planning and Civic Comment

With New Facilities for Vacation
Time" is the lead article in the
Spring edition of In Kentucky. It
describes the many improvements
which have been made in the state
park system since last year, in-
cluding the building of new vacation
cabins, construction of a new dam
and reservoir, and the acquisition of
a whole village at Kentucky Dam
State Park from the TVA. "A
State Park Acquires a Collection"
is the name of another interesting
article describing the donation to
the State of an outstanding collec-
tion of Indian artifacts, guns, pistols,
old glass, and other pioneer relics,
which will be housed in Blue Licks
Battlefield State Park. A descrip-
tion of the Wolf Creek Project of
the Corps of Engineers is described
in the article, "Wolf Creek Dam
Will Produce New Recreational
Area in Kentucky," also in this

Louisiana. A well-illustrated ar-
ticle called "The Louisiana State
Park System," by William W.
Wells, Assistant Director, Louisiana
State Parks Commission, appears
in the March issue of Parks and

Maine. Governor Payne in his
message to the Legislature stated,
"Maine has more natural resources
than are found in any other State.
In these resources of forests, recrea-
tion, agriculture, minerals, and sea
and shore products, we have a vast
potential wealth that can mean
increased employment and economic
prosperity. It has been my desire
over the years that Maine might
adopt a progressive program of

industrial and recreational develop-
ment around these resources."

Massachusetts. An interesting
scientific booklet, called Geology oj
Rocky Woods, by Harvey Woodburn
Shinier, has recently been published.
This Reservation is a state-owned
area administered by the Trustees
of Public Reservations.

Minnesota. A thorough discus-
sion of recreation entitled "The
Need for Play, Recreation, and
Youth Participation" is included
in the Report oj Governor's State
Conference on Youth. This confer-
ence, the first of its kind in Minne-
sota, was held last October.

An excellent booklet dealing with
the economic phases of the vacation
and tourist industry has been issued
by the Department of Business
Research and Development, called
Steps to Better Vacations in Minne-

The Ninth Biennial Report oj the
Department oj Conservation has been
issued in six sections, one of which
relates entirely to the Division of
State Parks. This section, contain-
ing 55 pages, is an excellent pre-
sentation of subject matter, with
ample use of illustrations, charts,
tables, and maps to supplement the
written text.

A history of the Department of
Conservation, including the Divi-
sion of State Parks, is contained in
the March-April issue of The Con-
servation Volunteer. Another article,
by Lew E. Fiero, Director, Division
of State Parks, called "State Parks
Beckon in May," is included in this


Planning and Civic Comment

New Mexico. Creation of a state
park north of Clovis was authorized
by State Senate Bill 172, accepting
a 99-year easement of 3,120 acres of
land from the Soil Conservation
Commission to create "Running
Water Draw State Park." The
measure, introduced by Sen. Claude
E. Gamble of Clovis, appropriates
$100,000 for construction of a 40-
foot dam to create a 377-acre lake.
Total cost of the project is expected
to be $175,000. Plans and specifica-
tions are under way, and actual
construction will begin this fall.
Tentative plans call for stocking the
reservoir with fish, reserving some
of the shoreline for waterfowl and
permitting boating.

New York. Charles A. Van Ars-
dale, who has served as Executive
Secretary-Treasurer for the Genesee
State Park Commission since its
inception in the mid-twenties, re-
tired on June 1. The well-known
Letch worth State Park, as well as
Hamlin Beach on Lake Ontario,
have been planned and developed
under his guidance.

Fort Niagara, which was trans-
ferred to the State by the Federal
Government in 1948 and is now
administered by the Niagara Fron-
tier State Park Commission, is the
subject of an interesting article
called "Old Fort Niagara, Shrine
of Three Nations" in the March
issue of The Highway Magazine.
The author recounts the history of
the fort and describes the stone
trading post, moats, drawbridges,
gun emplacements, earthworks, and
other features of this historical fort.
The Father Millet Cross National
Monument, which is administered

by the National Park Service, is
located entirely within Fort Niagara
and will be transferred to the State
to become part of this park, if a
bill introduced in the present Con-
gress is enacted.

Chester R. Blakelock, Executive
Secretary of the Long Island State
Park Commission, has written a
History of the Long Island State
Parks. This is an extremely inter-
esting description of state park
activities on Long Island from 1902
when the first Commission was
formed to the present time.

The Long Island State Park
Commission has just released a
well-illustrated booklet, called
Northern State Parkway Extension.
This was issued on the occasion of
the opening of the first 5 miles of
the 13-mile extension of this park-

Metropolitan Park Needs, a report
made by the New York State Coun-
cil of Parks with the cooperation of
the New York City Department of
Parks and the Westchester County
Park Commission, was issued in
March of this year. It is an up-to-
date analysis of future metropolitan
park needs in and adjacent to the
city of New York. State parks in
the Palisades and Long Island re-
gions play a major role in these

North Carolina. The March-April
issue of the North Carolina Recrea-
tion Review, which is published by
the North Carolina Recreation So-
ciety, is devoted almost entirely to
state parks. These articles and
features include: "North Carolina
State Parks;" "Activities in Our
State Parks;" "Recreation Facili-


Planning and Civic Comment

ties North Carolina State Parks;"
and "The 1949 Camp Counselor
and Leadership Training Institute."

Oibio. According to the May
issue of Ohio Conservation Bulletin,
the Legislature has just passed a
law setting up a new Department of
Natural Resources, with the fol-
lowing seven divisions: Lands and
Soil; Water; Forestry, Wild Life,
Geological Survey; Parks, and Beach
Erosion. A Natural Resources Com-
mission of seven members appointed
by the Governor, plus the Dean of
Agriculture of Ohio State Univer-
sity, was also created. This law will
go into effect 90 days after being
signed by the Governor.

The Ohio Welfare Council has
issued a summary of the findings of
a state-wide survey of local recrea-
tion facilities and programs, en-
titled Recreation Today in Ohio. The
report states that although there
are five state agencies providing
some forms of recreational facilities,
there is no integration or coordina-
tion of their programs. It concludes
that over-all planning for a com-
prehensive program of parks and
recreation at the state level is im-
possible under the circumstances.

The Ohio State Archaeological
and Historical Society has issued a
revised pamphlet, Ob io Landmarks,
which describes some of the areas
it administers and contains a pic-
torial map of Ohio.

Oregon. Samuel H. Boardman,
State Parks Superintendent, reports
that during 1948 the state park
system underwent a process of
rehabilitation, with construction of
new roads, bridges and parking

areas; replacement of barriers, tables
and fireplaces; painting of buildings
and signs; clearing of trails, etc.
He also mentions that "the metered
electric stoves installed in Cham-
poeg State Park have proved popu-
lar with visitors and further in-
stallations are contemplated where
power is readily available. Wood,
for many years the standby of the

Online LibraryNational Conference on City PlanningPlanning and civic comment (Volume 15) → online text (page 38 of 57)