bination of the two sets of numbers thus obtained will give an expression
of the relative values of studies for use.
The Interests of Life. As above stated, we must first determine the
leading interests of life to be secured by the use of knowledge. This
part of the problem which at first sight seems simple, increases in diffi-
culty as we approach it. Mr. Spencer, in his discussion of " What knowl-
edge is of most worth," divides " the leading kinds of activity which
constitute human life " into five general classes : — 1, Self Preservation ;
2, Indirect Self Preservation ; 3, Bearing Offspring ; 4, Social and Political
Duties ; 5, Miscellaneous Activities. The studies he thinks best adapted
to secure these ends are: — 1, Physiology; 2, Mathematics; 3, Physics;
4, Chemistry; 5, Biology; 6, Sociology; 7, Parental Duties; 8, Duties to Citi-
zens (History); 9, The Arts (for Aesthetic culture). In his discussion
the conclusion is reached that the sciences stand first in value, without in-
dicating, however, which of the sciences or their relative value. His own
words are, ** Thus to the question with which we set out — What knowl-
edge is most worth ? — the uniform reply is Science — This is the verdict
on all the counts."
Whatever may be said of this celebrated essay, it does not decide the
question of educational values. It confirms, however, the principle of
fixing upon several of the leading activities or duties of life and estimat-
ing the value of studies by their relation to these activities or duties. If
such objects could be agreed upon we could then proceed as we did with
the faculties of the mind, indicating their relative values with numbers
summing the results as before.
EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF COMMON SCHOOL STUDIES.
To illustrate the method, let us take Spencer's list of activities slightly
modified and expressed in simple terms. These are:— 1, Life; 2,
Business ; 3, Enjoyment ; 4, Parenthood ; 5, Social I)uti(\s ; 6, Political
Duties ; 7, Moral Duties. Arranging these systematically, marking as
we did the mental faculties, we shall have the following table :
Natural Philosophy . .
Scale of Values, If we now mark these activities or objects of life
indicating their relative values, and also mark the studies indicating their
relative values in the attainment of these several objects of life, we can
then combine these two sets of values, as in the case of the faculties, and
thus obtain numerical expressions indicating the relative values of studies
for use. We shall thus have two expressions for the value of each study,
one for culture, and the other for knowledge ; and by uniting these two
values and dividing by 2, we shall obtain a numerical expression denoting
the relative value of each study for both culture and knowledge. These
numbers will indicate the relative educational values of the several
branches of knowledge, and the problem will be solved. *
The difficulty of deciding upon the leading activities or duties of life,
and of determining their relative values and the relative values of the
branches of study in securing these objects is so great that I shall not
venture at present to apply the numbers and complete the solution which
I have suggested. I am compelled to be content for the present with
indicating the correct solution of the problem, leaving this part of the
solution for other investigators or for a more thorough consideration of
the subject than I have yet been able to give it.
418 TUE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION.
Another classification of the activities or interests of life which seems
a little broader and perhaps better adapted to compare the practical
values of studies is the following : — 1. Life ; 2, Business ; 3, Science ;
4, Literature ; 5, Useful Arts ; 6, Fine Arts ; 7, Morals ; 8, Politics ;
9, Eeligion. The difficulty of determining relative values on this basis is
also so great that I do not venture to indicate them without further
reflection. One source of this difficulty, as will be seen by those who
may make the attempt, is that the several interests in either classification
are not distinctly differentiated, but more or less overlap one another.
This consideration leads me to remark that a simple practical method
of reaching an approximation of the relative values of studies for use is
to take some one leading object of life, as happiness or moral character j
etc., and make it the basis of comparison. Such a method, if the object
could be agreed upon, would remove several elements of perplexity and
give a conclusion that would be approximately satisfactory. Now, the
one thing for which all pupils are preparing is citizenship; and a very
fair conclusion in respect to the values of studies for use may be reached
from a consideration of the studies best suited to fit a person for citizen-
ship. What we need, however, is a satisfactory classification of the
duties or activities of life, and the solution can then be made more
scientific and reliable.
Conclndijig Suggestions, In concluding this essay, permit me to remark
that I think I have pointed out the true method of solution though I
have not ventured to complete the solution myself. The problem must be
solved from the stand-points of Discipline and Utility, or as otherwise
stated from that of Culture and Use. The outline presented indicates
what must be done in order to reach results that are even approximately
correct. My figures under the head of Culture may not be entirely
acceptable. I am not myself satisfied with several of them, — but I trust
they may suggest a marking that may be regarded as a close approxima-
tion to the truth. Maturer reflection may also enable us to ^ree upon
some system of marking studies under the several divisions of the utility
of knowledge that may be generally acceptable.
Should it be thought that the method of indicating values by numbers
is not a practical one, I reply that it is the only treatment that promises
anything like definite results. There has been a great deal of in-
definite statement in respect to the superiority of one study over another,
reminding one of the little boy's composition on the horse, in which
he wrote, '*The horse is the most useful animal in the world, and so is the
cow." The time has come when we demand something definite on the
subject, and if the relative values will not admit of a representation in
figures then they are not definite. Huxley tells us that "we shall sooner
or later arrive at a mechanical equivalent of consciousness " ; and if there
EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF COMMON SCHOOL STUDIES. 419
is even a shadow of truth in this statement it surely ^eems that it is pos-
sible to indicate our ideas of the relative values of studies by numerical
expressions. That the problem is not yet completely solved does not pre-
clude the hope that it will be more dehuitely settled at no distant day.
The suggestion of representing educational values by numbers, though
the most novel and striking part of this essay, is not regarded as its most
essential part, and I trust will not lead the attention from the fundamen-
tal principles of the solution. The method of solution indicated is based
on several fundamental considerations which will be briefly restated.
First, the educational value of studies must be determined from the two
stand-points, — Value for Culture Sind Value for Use. From the stand-point
of Culture we must determine three things ; 1. The faculties to be culti-
vated ; 2. The relative value of these faculties ; 3. The relative value of
studies to cultivate these faculties. From the stand-point of use we must
also ddoes, and
should, represent the most advanced thought on the subject. It afibrds a
means by which this thought may be ripened, gathered, and disseminated
throughout the country. Great strides forward have been made in meth-
ods and schemes since our organization ; strides that would not have been
made, if each had been, in his own little way, trying to work out his
beliefs independently of all the rest of the world.
We need to get together each summer and rub off any moss that has
accumulated during the year, compare notes, and draw on each other for
new inspiration and developments. Many of us have been teaching what
is called industrial drawing, for years; yet it is only since the organi-
zation of this department that one of the vital features of any course in
industrial drawing has become general. I refer to construction drawing
and more particularly to working and detail drawings.
It is just ten years ago that we commenced work in this subject, pro-
jection drawing it was then called, in the Columbus High School. The
next year a simple course was mapped out for our grammar grades. Our
course included front and top views of geometric solids, single and in
groups, simple, common objects, and furniture, drawn to scale from actual
objects. When I showed this course in a large eastern city, they declared
that there would be great difficulty in getting the teachers to understand
and teach it. At the first meeting of the Art Department it was shown
that this subject was one of the easiest to teach ; and it is now very
generally given its due proportion of time, being commenced in the pri-
mary grades and carried through the high school.
As a result of this work, from a desire to make our teaching objective,
ART DEPARTMENT.-'PROCEEDINGS. 429
of as practical a nature as possible, and from the very genercil agitation of
the subject of manual training, we have another new development which
is now, I believe, just three years old, about ready to go alone. I refer to
the '* made *' work exhibited on the tables and done in connection with
the work in drawing. 1 will not say much on this subject for fear of
occupying ground that may be covered in one of the papers.
The pupil has been making working drawings of things. What more
natural and practical than for him to be led to make the objects from his
drawings ? What simpler and easier method could be proposed for giving
a thorough knowledge of working drawings, their value and use, as well
as for creating a love for mechanical pursuits? And what better means
of introducing manual education into the schools in an elementary form
and without expense ? It surely will prepare the way for the manual
training class or school which is certain to come.
Industrial drawing was advocated long ago for its value to all in-
dustries. What more fitting than that the teacher of industrial drawing
should now. in connection with the drawing, take the first steps in indus-
trial or manual training ? If the lowest primary pupil is led to shape
objects of clay, to form them with sticks, to cut them from paper, and
later to form them of wood, metal, or other material, what is to prevent
the pupil from acquiring a love for mechanical pursuits and demanding in
earnest the manual training school, fully equipped for the various lines of
work ? This new feature of our work in drawing will popularize it im-
mensely, and is of greatest value educationally.
Another thing showing the value and influence of this department
occurs to me. In looking over some former reports of the Ohio State
School Commissioner, I find that six years ago in a contribution, I con-
tended that '* any course in drawing, suflSciently broad to be termed in-
dustrial, should provide for three lines of work : construction of objects,
representation of objects, and decoration of objects." Now we find
these quite generally accepted terms and the course of study provides for
an equal and symmetrical development of each. Formerly the pupil in
the lowest primary grade commenced his drawing with the line. Now he
is given clay, solids, sticks, and surfaces, which he handles, shapes, or
As soon as a new idea of value presents itself, through such meetings
as this, and through our exhibitions, it becomes known and is spread
broadcast, gathering strength and force? as it goes, like the mountain
stream, as it flows on, gradually expanding into the swift and mighty
river. May this department of the National Association grow in like
manner. There are many important problems seeking solution, upon
which some among us, with our varied and constantly enlarging experi-
ence, ma3' be able to throw some light.
430 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION
The questions have sometimes been put to me, "What can we do in draw-
ing in the ungraded country school, and is it of any use to attempt it?
What books can we use V
Most of you, perhaps, realize the situation : thirty or forty scholars in
one room, ranging from six to sixteen years of age, nearly as many classes
as there are pupils, studying everything from the work of the lowest
primary grade to that of the high school, and a new teacher nearly every
six mouths. The county superintendents in some states, in arranging
courses for their schools, include drawing and are anxious to have it
taught. The question is, What of all the varied work the city child gets
in its carefully graded and logically arranged twelve years course, should
be selected for this case ? Were the teacher a fixture for more than, a
term or two, the question would be of easier solution; or were there
properly condensed books and manuals for such cases, it would be differ-
ent. A teacher of wide knowledge of drawing is certainly necessary in
such a position, to properly select, condense and adapt to the case in
hand, but in nearly every instance it is some one with no knowledge of
the subject whatever.
It seems to me that the first requisite is a good handbook, a manual
giving the teacher the needed instruction in the three principal lines of
work, construction, representation, and decoration, or perhaps better, a
manual of each. This should be arranged, not with reference especially
to each exercise occurring in a drawing book, but to give the teacher
quite full knowledge on the subject with hints on teaching it in various
grades. Such a manual would be equally valuable for the normal school
student, for those wishing to prepare themselves for examinations in any
one of the above subjects, or for the regular teacher of the graded school.
There might perhaps be a set of three or four drawing books graded and
condensed for such schools.
The next step would be to provide as far as possible for the instruction
of such teachers, by means of institutes or normal schools. It seems to
me that this is a proper subject to refer to a committee to investigate and
report at a future meeting.
In many states, particularly in the West, county or township institutes
are held, more especially during the summer months. In some states it is
required that every county hold at least one each year. They vary from
one to six weeks in length, those of one or two weeks being most numer-
ous. They are more in the nature of normal schools than conventions,
regular lecturers or Instructors being employed, and it is frequently the
case that drawing is one of the subjects. The teachers in attendance may
be from graded or ungraded schools, and a large number may know nothing
whatever of drawing, yet they and the managers are anxious that
sufficiently practical work be presented, so that they can go away and do
ABT DEPARTMENT,— PROCEEDINGS. 431
something with it in their schools. I have worked in numbers of these
institutes, where there were, perhaps, two lessons a day of an hour each,
for five days. These institutes present, in many states, the only means of
instructing the teachers of country or village schools.
The question arises then, " What are we to do in ten hours' time, with
one hundred to three hundred people, who are from all grades of schools,
who have perhaps no knowledge whatever of drawing, but are very
anxious to carry away enough practical knowledge to be able to apply it
in their schools.
It seems to me that about all that can be done is to present the subject
in the shape of lectures, fully illustrated with pupils' work, or similar
work on a large scale, and passing paper and pencil, have the teachers get
as much hand practice as possible. One cannot be told how to play the
piano ; he has got to do it himself. So must one get the pencil into his
own hand or he will never have the confidence to stand up before a class
to teach drawing. During the session of the institute they should draw
all there is time^for on paper, and if possible, on the blackboard. The
instructor should be careful not to attempt too much, nor to talk too
much. Anything the class is able to do will be remembered. That which
they are only told- about they mat/ forget. 1 would divide my time some-
thing as follows, in an
INSTITUTE COURSE OF FIVE DAYS, TWO LECTURES A DAY OF ONE HOUR EACH.
1. Preliminary remarks on character and value of the study — elemen-
tary ideas of form developed by handling objects and forming them of
clay ; use, preparation and care of clay.
2. Handling of pencil. Practice various positions for drawing differ-
ent kinds of lines, straight and curved ; sketching and brightening.
3. Methods of giving lessons, — from objects, blackboard, copy, dic-
tation, designing, arranging sticks and tablets, cutting, analysis of form.
4. Construction, — top, front and end views, sections, dimensions, geo-
metrical solids used. Freehand.
5. Construction, — working drawings to scale ; geometric or common
objects used. Kule and compass.
6. Representation, — measuring in space. Drawing objects of two
dimensions. Elementary principles. The circle, cylinder, cone.
7. Representation, — principles governing straight lined objects.
Cube, rectangular prism, triangular prism, pyramid.
8. Decoration, — elementary ideas and principles. Simple variations.
Abstract lines and forms used.
9. Decoration, — conventionalism. Natural foliage as material. Modes
10. Hesur/ie, — outline the work of each grade for country, village, and
city schools. Character of results ; care of material.
431' THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION,
These lectures, or lessons, should be very fully illustrated with objects
and examples, to give as comprehensive an idea as possible in the limited
time at command. In an institute of more than live days, the ground
covered should be much the same, though it could be more thoroughly
done and more time for practice obtained, which is greatly to be desired.
There should be carefully prepared manuals in each division of the sub-
ject, to which to refer students for more complete information and further
study. If the same lecturer or instructor could meet the same set of
teachers in an annual institute, for two or three consecutive years, much
might be done for the country and village schools.
In conclusion, I desire to express my thanks for the honor conferred on
me, and to ask your indulgence in the discharge of the duties of Presi-
dent of the department.
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON THE RELATION OF DRAW-
ING TO OTHER STUDIES AND HOW ITS USE AS A
MEANS OF ILLUSTRATION IN THIS DIRECTION
CAN BEST BE PROMOTED.
At the meeting of the Art Department of the National Educational
Association, held at Saratoga, July, 1885, a committee was appointed to
consider the relation of drawing to other studies in the school curriculum,
and how its use as a means of illustration in this direction may best be
The committee respectfully submit the following report.
In the first conference concerning the plan of preparatory work for
this report, it was decided by the committee to include "making" in the
inquiries, believing that as both drawing and making concern the study
of form, any information concerning making would be valuable.
The purpose of the committee has not been, however, to consider draw-
ing and " making " as simply drawing and making, but to consider them
as means of developing ideas connected with other studies.
The committee desire to say at the outset that this report must be
ranked no higher than a preliminary to an examination of the subjects
presented ; in fact, at this time, any report which could be made, could
not be much more than a statement of beginnings and experiments.
The first work of the Committee was to gather all possible information
concerning the actual use of drawing and " making " in connection with
This has been done
1. By circular letters of inquiry.*
2. By personal observation and investigation.
3. By gathering for exhibition a number of productions of actual
school work showing the use of drawing and making in connection with
other studies as regular class exercises.
4. By collecting published exercises bearing on the subject of inquiry.f
CIRCULARS OF INQUIRY.
The circulars of inquiry were sent out to principals of normal schools,
to superintendents of schools, and to a few special institutions. Owing
* See Appendix A.
t See Appendix B.
434 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION.
to the illness of the chairraan of the committee, these circulars were not
sent out until nearly the close of the school.
The lack of a general response to the circulars should be attributed
doubtless to the time of their issue, a time when so many demands are
made upon all school officers and teachers.
Fifty-five replies were received ; 19 from normal schools, 33 from super-
intendents, and 3 from special institutions known to be developing this
All the normal schools reporting, use drawing in connection with other
studies to a greater or less degree.
Twenty-five superintendents report drawing in connection with other
studies. Nine superintendents report drawing either as not in their course
of study, or as not used in connection with other studies.
Sixteen normal schools report " making '' in connection with other
studies ; two of these, however, report making only in connection with
Fourteen superintendents report ** making '* in connection with other
studies ; five of these, however, report "making" only in connection with
Drawing is used by those who report, in 27 different subjects, as fol-
lows, the various names given being those found in the reports : —
Trigonometry and Surveying.
Natural Science. | ^f "• ^^ PWlosophy.
Methods for Teaching.
" Making " is used by those who report, in 23 different subjects as
follows : —
Art 5 Form.
THE RELATION OF DRAWING TO OTHER STUDIES, 435
Lauguage. — Reading.
Natural History .
C Natural Philosophy.
Natural Science. -< Physics.
Casting and Modelling.
The list of subjects in which " making " is used, is, if anything, more
comprehensive than that in which drawing is used, except as regards
those falling under the head of Language.
The replies as a general thing were brief and of such a nature that they
are embodied in substance in the list of subjects.*
The lists given of objects made were in some cases quite comprehensive.
One teacher says, '* All materials have been used and the facts will jus-
tify me in saying that the variety of objects constructed, if enumerated,
would include almost everything in the heavens above, the earth beneath,
and the waters under the earth."
The detailed list of objects made will be found in an appendix. f
Some answers to questions concerning the use. of drawing are of special
interest. Mr. W. J. Corthell, principal of the State Normal School, Gor-
ham, Maine, says, " We use drawings to illustrate all natural science, all
natural history, history, geography, and all other subjects to which it is
applicable, yet we do not use it one half as much as we should."