Mr. J. C. Cor bin, principal of the Branch Normal School, Pine Bluff,
says, " To illustrate many points, to train the eye, to train the muscles,
to teach the art of taking pains, to impress forms of letters, countries,
Mr. Thomas J. Gray, principal of the State Normal School, St. Cloud
Minnesota, says, *' We use drawing as a means of expression of thought,
hence it accompanies all branches of study." An enclosed slip quotes the
following from the Ammaire de VE}iseignenient Elenientaire for the year
1886, published in Paris by the French Minister of Public Instruction.
* See Appendix C.
t See Appendix D.
436 TEE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION.
The reference is to the educational exhibit at the World's Exposition in
New Orleans. He says, "I wish specially to mention the showing made
by the three normal schools (of Minnesota), and above all that of St.
Cloud, which had its entire system of pedagogy set forth in very interest-
ing tables. All the pupils of this school execute physiological and his-
torical diagrams on a large scale, which they take out with them to assist
in their own work in teaching. The same plan is pursued in geography
Mr. H. S. Jones, superintendent of schools of Erie, Pennsylvania, says,
" Drawing as an instrument in education is used in all the grades, — ^that
is, as a means of imparting and receiving ideas Every one is helped
by drawing in a broad sense, it is a pleasing and valuable language and is
slowly but surely winning a place in all good school work."
Miss Anna Baldwin, in charge of the night school connected with Hamp-
ton Normal and Agricultural Institute, Hampton, Virginia, says, " The
scholars who work in the industrial depai'tment attend school two hours
in the evening, and most of the drawing done in the school is in connec-
tion with the various trades as represented in the evening school. We
have had this year one class of boys who have done very good work in
mechanical drawing, using instruments. Most of these were in the car-
penter and blacksmith shops. The aim is to have them make the objects
drawn and have them adapted to the trades."
Mr. Charles M. Carter, supervisor of drawing at Quincy, Massachusetts,
says, " Since I have had charge of drawing in that city, I have taken
every convenient opportunity to show teachers the importance of using
drawing, both as a means of obtaining and expressing ideas, connected
with any subject. To this end two years ago, a circular giving directions
in regard to an approaching exhibition particularly requested teachers of
all grades to make a part of their exhibits illustrate the manner in which
drawing had assisted them in connection with other studies. The result
was a number of drawings referring to all studies which had in any way to
do with form. The primary schools make considerable use of drawing in
the way indicated.
" The superintendent and teachers are alike agreed that the use of draw-
ing in connection with school studies is of great importance, and we
should gladly welcome any suggestions which may result from your com-
mittee's investigation and report to the National Educational Association."
Mr. Thoma^M. Balliet, superintendent of schools at Reading. Pennsyl-
vania, says, *' I greatly regret that we cannot be of any help whatever to
you at present in the matter. You are going to do a valuable service aud
I trust we, at Reading, shall not be the last to profit by it."
Mr. James MacAlister, superintendent of schools at Philadelphia, says^
" I am exceedingly glad that this matter is to receive attention at the
THE RELATION OF DRAWING TO OTHER STUDIES. 437
meeting' of the National Educational Association, and I trust an effort
will be made to call the attention of teachers to its importance. The use
of drawing for the purpose of illustrating other branches of instruction
would, I think, do much to promote improved methods in every grade of
school work. We intend to do what we can here to further the objects
for which your committee has been organized.'*
Mr. Walter S. Perry, supervisor of drawing in Worcester, Massachusetts,
says, *' Drawing as an aid in teaching other subjects, although much used,
is not as systematically employed as it is hoped it will be when teachers
can be brought to see its full value.''
PERSONAL OBSERVATION AND INVESTIGATION.
Personal investigation in various directions has shown that the educa-
tional value of drawing and " making " is being heartily recognized, and
that in many cases these means of development are being adopted.
Doubtless the foremost leader in this work both in drawing and "mak-
ing," in primary education — a work essentially of the new education — is
Col. Francis W. Parker, of Cook County Normal School, Illinois. The
committee regret exceedingly not to have heard from him just at this
time. The influence of his work in Quincy, some years since, in this
direction is seen there now, and this work as well as that done by him
later at Normal Park has inspired a great deal of that which is now re-
ported from so many other places.
At the same time that Col. Parker was developing this work in primary
education, other thoughtful minds had recognized the use of drawing as a
feature in education. A tabular statement of the use of drawing in nat-
ural history was given by Dr. Alexander Winchell to the students of
Syracuse University about ten years ago.*
It bears so directly on this line of inquiry ^hat the committee have
thought it desirable to have it reproduced for this report. It will be found
in full in connection with the exhibit made by the committee.
In higher education the college of the city of New York is prominent
now in the use of drawing and ** making " in school work.
Gen. Alexander G. Webb, the president of the college, has the strongest
belief in these agencies in mental development.
" Making " was introduced this last year into the Art Students' League
of New York by Prof. Thos. Eakins of Philadelphia. To make his ideas
clear he used a skeleton, suspended from a frame, and a pot of clay. Tak-
ing clay, he formed a muscle and fastened it on the skeleton ; then point-
ing out a cast, he asked the living model to bring it into action. The
muscles of the shoulder, abdomen, and arms were thus taken up.
• See Appeodlz £•
438 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION,
It is interesting to know how *•' making " is used in the education of the
" The most interesting feature of the commencement exercises of the
Perkins Institution for the blind, held in Tremont Temple, June 2, 1885j
was the practical illustration given by the younger pupils of FroebePs
methods of instruction, modelling in clay and embroidering, at separate
tables, with deft facility and sometimes with quite amusing originality.
"As soon as the children began to work thus, the Rev. Edward A. Horton
made a pathetic cogent quickening and altogether admirable appeal in
behalf of the poor little blind waifs, and of the kindergarten enterprise,
presenting its demands in a manner that was inspirational."
While this appeal was being presented it was supplemented and en-
forced by some twelve young pupils, six boys and as many girls, who illus-
trated in the presence of the audience some of the fruits of their own
kindergarten training. From the class in physiology one made the model
of a heart, another the human spinal column. A boy from the class in
zoology moulded the form of a large turtle with its articulations ; another,
polyps at work on a coral reef. Pupils from the botany class made the
stem, root and leaf of a plant, describing the changes which the leaf under-
goes. Little fellows, who had studied geography, modelled in clay from
memory very good representations of the valley of the Nile, and North
America, with its capes and crannies ; and a very little girl exhibited a
book as her work and named it " Heidi," in honor of her favorite story
book. Thus they gave very effective illustrations of their object lessons,
demonstrating better than any formal address the possibility and pro-
priety of such a preliminary school as the necessities of the young blind
In Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, ''The forms of organs of the
body and even microscopic tissues greatly enlarged, as the ultimate struct-
ure of the retina and cortis organs, or mathematical surfaces, or figures
illustrating the so-called three dimensions of color, or horopter surfaces,
are made in clay by advanced special university students, with advantage.
The educational value of this is high, and it has been highly commended
and urged by many eminent biologists."
The students of Pedagogics, under Dr. G. Stanley Hall, have made a
great deal of illustrative apparatus in wood, paper, twine and thread,
clay, metal, etc. Dr. Hall will at some future time make a report in de-
tail of the work of this kind done at the University.
The collection of school papers made by the committee to illustrate
their subjects of inquiry shows Primary, Grammar, Normal, and Collegiate
THE RELATION OF DRAWING TO OTHER STUDIES. 439
work in the subjects of Number, Language, Physical and Political Geog-
raphy, Physiology, Mensuration, Botany, Zoology, Mechanics, and Physics,
and Descriptive Geometry.
The exhibition shows more of drawing than of " making." " Making '*
as connected especially with the study of form and drawing is abundantly
shown in the main exhibit of the department.
A small exhibit of clay must however be specially noted. It is from
the Perkins Institution for the Blind in Boston, and shows how wonder-
fully ideas of form can be obtained through touch alone. Among the
objects moulded are an oyster shell and an oyster, the human heart, and a
vertebra of the spinal column.
The exhibit of drawings in the Primary and Grammar grades in Number,
Language, and Geography, is from Syracuse, New York. Concerning it,
Superintendent Smith says, " All of this work is class work, and the most
of it includes all the class. The class work of Putnam junior and senior
grades was done in from 15 to 20 minutes time and with no expectation
on the part of the pupils that it was ever to be put on exhibition. The
principal value of this kind of work, to my mind, lies in the fact that it
reveals more perfectly than language is likely to, the conceptions children
have of tJis facts they are trying to learn. Some of these illustrations are
very poor ; but they reveal to the teacher just what the child needs.
" The folio of maps from Prescott school, and all this work is just as it
was used in the class work without any alteration or connection."
Mr. Wilson, the principal of Putnam School, Syracuse, says, " The fol-
lowing is a brief outline of the way the work in physical geography was
prepared : — The pupils have a textbook. They take up the subject by
topics. I talk with them and question them about the topic under dis-
cussion, usually using the blackboard while presenting the lesson. After
a subject has been studied in that way, for a day or two, the pupils are
asked to reproduce in writing what they know about it, and to illustrate
by a picture if they can. They are not required or even asked to use
color, but nearly all use it. The color used is simply colored blackboard-
crayon. I have it lying around where the scholai's can get it if they wish
to use it. Very few directions are given, my object being to discover
what is in the mind of the child. I find that errors are revealed by the
picture that do not appear in the words. For example a child will define
plateau correctly and make it like the stump of a tree. The time spent
by pupils on the papers sent us was from 15 to 25 minutes."
Special attention is called to the large folio of maps from Prescott
School, Syracuse. It begins with a drawing, showing the points of com-
pass; then follow successively in pencil and in color, a plan of the school
room, a plan of the schoolhouse, a plan of the block of land on which the
schoolhouse stands, the ward in which it is, the city of Syracuse, the
440 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION
county of Onondaga, the state of New York, the United States, North
America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa.
Concerning the exhibit of the developments of solids, Mr. W. S. Perry,
Supervisor of drawing in Worcester, Massachusetts, says, "Pupils cut
patterns out of paper and make cylinders, prisms, cones, pyramids, etc.
These models are made much use of in connection with the study of men-
suration." (A few examples accompany this note.)
Concerning the exhibit in Physical Geography, Mensuration, Physiology,
Natural Philosophy, made by the Branch'Normal College, Pine Bluff, Ar-
kansas, Mr. Corbin, the Principal, says, "I would like to have it remem-
bered that my students are colored people, who have had very limited
Concerning the exhibit from the State Normal School at Framingham,
Massachusetts, in Botany and Zoology, Miss Ellen Hyde, the Principal,
says: " Our drawing is all done from the objects themselves, and is done
in the classroom, usually on blackboard, or in the pupiPs own note-book.
These were done in the same way, only on cards for your benefit. The
drawing, as you will readily see, is not intended to be artistic but simply
illustrative. The work is done with children for the purpose of training
to careful observation, and accurate description. We require it of the
Normal School pupils for the same purpose, and in addition for the pur-
pose of teaching them how to teach these subjects in their own schools.'*
The work in Mechanics and Physics, and Descriptive Geometry, from
the college of the city of New York, fittingly completes the exhibit.
The papers in Physics should be carefully examined, noting the require-
ment at the top of the paper. Gen. Alexander S. Webb, the President of
the College, says : " The papers in Physics are the result of work in the
laboratory, from the lectures and from the instruments. They represent,
taken as I took them, the actual work in that subject on the part of the
several students whose names are upon the papers. Each paper is one
recitation of student, or record of his study of the instrument just before
him, after hearing a lecture on the subject. The student is made to draw
from the instrument. All you will receive is to illustrate first, instruc-
tion by lecture ; next, application of this knowledge. Without a knowl-
edge of drawing no one could succeed with us."
Miss Josephine Locke, Supervisor of Drawing in St. Louis, sends to
the exhibit, work in " making " as follows, " Each and all of the models
illustrating the ' American Text Books of Art Education,' Nos. 1 to 9 in-
clusive ; designs in clay and reproduction of casts in clay."
HOW TO PROMOTE THE USE OF DRAWING AND " MAKING."
The Committee find very little in the replies suggestive of any definite
plan for promoting the use of these agencies, or for securing better results
in the work.
THE RELATION OF DRAWING TO OTUER STUDIES. 441
Mr. Charles M. Carter in his reply concerning the schools in Quincy,
says: "I need not point out that rules for making trees, clouds, bushes,
etc., without underlying knowledge, are not in accordance with educational
principles. While it may be unavoidable that pupils should make illus-
trative sketches which embody some principles not understood, at the
same time, the teacher should insist upon the illustrations embodying all
truths which have been brought out in the regular study of drawing.
" To secure freedom of drawing, it will undoubtedly be necessary for the
teachers to have knowledge and practice in principles — then they will
have confidence and make more practical use of drawing."
There are but one or two who suggest any connection between the
regular work in drawing and the free use of it in other studies.
In W^iltham High School, class four take drawing lessons from apparatus
used in Physics. These help in regular lessons in making clean notes.
Gren. Webb says, " I will gladly prepare for you in the fall, a full expo-
sition of our work in that Department (drawing), and in our application
of its results."
From a general survey of the work as far as known, the Committee re-
port that many advanced educational thinkers actually in school work,
not only recognize the value of drawing and "making" as educational
means to be used in nearly all the studies of public schools, but they also
carry this recognition into practical work to a greater or less degree,
although their uses of drawing seem to be as yet unsystematic, and gen-
erally indicate a lack of knowledge of the underlying principles of draw-
ing or representation.
There are also a great number of school officers and teachers who
accept drawing as a proper and desirable study, to be pursued regularly,
in the public schools ; but at the same time, they seem to regard drawing
as a special study, as something to be studied by itself, and entirely over-
look its great value as a means of developing other studies.
A great many of the replies received indicate that only the technical
side of drawing is appreciated. Many do not report drawing as used even
in Geography and Geometry. "The committee hardly think it possible
that instruction is given in these studies without some use of drawing.
It would seem rather that those reporting were so accustomed to look at
drawing as a special or technical study that they failed to realize that it
had been used in other studies. They need a broader view.
The time seems to have come when an advance step should be taken not
only in regard to the teaching of drawing, but also in regard to the uses
of drawing in other studies. The results of instruction in technical
442 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION.
drawing shown by such leading cities as St. Louis, Chicago, Worcester,
Syracuse, Newark, St. Paul, etc., show that in these cities at least, the
teachers are prepared to make the advance and boldly apply drawing, in
the teaching of other studies ; and there is reason to hope that the
developments of the next few years will show as conspicuous results in
the uses of drawing as applied to other studies, as are now shown in the
study of drawing itself.
Mrs. Mary D. Htcks, V
Walter S. Perry, >- Committee.
Anson K. Cross, j
The exhibit shows that color as well as drawing and making can be
made a very effective means of teaching, and that many teachers have
already availed themselves of it, but in a very imperfect way.
In view of the importance of the subjects and of the interest already
manifested, the committee feel that this inquiry should be continued, and
that its scope should be enlarged, so as to include an inquiry into the
study and uses of color in various studies as pursued in the schools, and
also in regard to the instruction given to pupils in " making." This in-
quiry should also embrace the nature of the instraction in these subjects,
which is given in normal schools.
The committee, therefore, in submitting this report, beg to add for the
consideration of the department, the following resolution :
Resolved, That the inquiry as to the uses of drawing and " making " m
connection with other studies be continued for another year ; that its
scope be enlarged to include the use of color ; and that special inquiry be
made in regard to the training of teachers in normal schools in the uses
of drawing, " making," and color, as a part of their preparation for teach-
ing in public schools.
Mary D. Hicks,
Walter S. Perry.
MANUAL TRAINING THROUGH INDUSTRIAL DRAWING.
Br CHARLES M. CARTER, AGENT OF THE MASS. BOARD OF EDUCATION
FOR THE PROMOTION OF INDUSTRIAL DRAWING.
Ladies and Gentlemen :
This is an age of remarkable interest in all educational matters.
It is an age of thought directed by the grand principles of Comenius,
Froebel, Pestalozzi, Bacon, Rousseau, and others. Truths they uttered
years ago are the underlying principles of the remarkable revival
termed the "New Education." The great strides which have been made
in all branches of education are in response to a growing belief in a
few educational truths. Learning to do by doing — making pupils
actively use their own powers, and arranging orders of development in
harmony with nature, are among the essentials of educational reform.
How to educate the " whole man " is the problem engaging the attention
of earnest educators.
It is our purpose to direct your attention as specialists, to the position
which you occupy in this reform.
All educators recognize the fact that any system of general education
must refer to things. For every moment of our existence brings us in
contact with them, either passively or actively. We all use things every
day of our lives. Many of us are engaged indirectly or directly in their
production, and all derive more or less pleasure from them according to
the degree of their use or beauty. We cannot, if we would, escape having
something to do with things. They are continually with us, and, inas-
much as common school education must have to do with matters common
to all, the proper manner in which to study things becomes an important
All of the present school studies have something to do directly or indi-
rectly with things, but while this is true, no one of them supplies us with
a general method applicable in the study of all. No one of them gives
training and knowledge which will have a direct bearing on success in
various professions and occupations.
Regarding objects about us we are struck by the fact that they all rep-
resent thought put into concrete form. Take a table for instance. Its
level top shows thought of convenience. Its height shows consideration
for the person who is to sit at it. The features of its construction repre-
444 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION.
sent thought of the capabilities of the materials, and skill in the use of
tools. The gracefulness of its form convey to us thoughts of beauty. The
object in every respect is an embodiment of thoughts which appeal to our
regard for use and beauty.
And so it is with every object, natural or artificial, they are embodi-
ments of thought either of God or man. This is a fundamental truth.
It is hardly necessary, then, to state that in studying things the most
important consideration is to master the thought which they represent ;
but this alone is not considered. Experience shows that progress in all
departments of human activity rests on the ability to exercise indepen-
dent, original thought ; otherwise we would not have to-day the printing-
press, the steam engine, and the remarkable developments in applying
Accepting the opinions of prominent educators we know that training
and knowledge are two important outgrowths of all education. We are
led to inquire — How may things generally be studied to secure training
and knowledge through the thought they represent ?
Let us briefly consider the method by which this should be done. Spen-
cer says : " In education the process of self-development should be en-
couraged to the fullest extent Children should be led to make their own
investigations, and to draw their own inferences. They should be told as
little as possible, and induced to discover as much as possible." So that,
as he further says, " In manhood too, when there are no longer teachers
at hand, the observations and inferences required for daily guidance, must
be made unhelped ; and success in life depends on the accuracy and com-
pleteness with which they are made." While most common school studies
refer to things, they do not give us what we wish, something is lacking.
We want a study which will make pupils think — a study which will
give that elementary training which will widen fields of usefulness — which
will lead to the discovery of beauty in nature and art.
All of these educational advantages have been found connected with
observing and expressing ideas relating to the Form of Things, and mainly
for these ends manual training and industrial drawing have attracted the
most marked attention.
The two subjects have generally been spoken of as distinct and apart.
We hope to show however that they have much in common. Both are
emphatic representations of the study of things.