ability, denied to working men, to send them to costly schools of tech-
nology â€” if their bent lies that way â€” and with the proof in this land that
marked talent of any kind will make its way, I am sure that the great
genius for industries which God gives to any generation will now be
developed, if we supply the proper start in the common school for all.
Most critical, it seems to me, of all the things that are to be done for
them, is the selection of their masters in practice, of whom I am prompted
to say, that they should be chosen for industrial proficiency and the
natural, God-given genius for teaching, whatever book-qualifications they
may lack. Better in the school laboratory the man who can keenly stir
the practical bent of pupils and show incisively and analytically what
they are to do, than one who fails of this in the most perfect rhetoric and
manner. And as in other branches, the finest capacity of instruction will
be needed in the most elementary work. Here again the equities for
woman in industry claim place. I cannot resist the impression that with
her, more than with man, the creed is, that the head leads the hand, a fun-
damental faith which is needed to save the teaching guild from being
MANUAL EDUCATION FROM THE OTHER SIDE. 497
blown about by " every wind of " didactics^ as new phases of training arise
What you have heard has proved a sermon, perhaps prolix and dull.
I wish I could for a moment turn it into a spng of this glorious vocation
of ours, Brother Educators. Let me say with diffidence that nothing has
been advanced to-day which is not the fruit of accumulating conviction
through nearly twenty-five years. From my own stand-point on " the
other side," I have tried always to deal fairly with the question before
us, and do a little to extend the meaning of culture downward and that of
labor upward. How high and deep and broad is Education ! else could
we have room to prepare the young for so complex a modern life as ours,
or differ so as to the best means of doing it ? How wide-armed a calling
is ours, gathering in from every side materials for its uses, going the
grand round of human endowment to select what it will enrich and bless,
making all interests of society in some measure its debtors, all achieve-
ments of intellect and character in some sense its outcome, never ade-
quately rewarded, for it never can be, never appreciated in any fair degree
till we are done with it, never realizmg it own elastic ideal, but by what
it makes of man, giving him his first dim vision of what he yet may be,
setting his face rightly towards his present, which is framed here in the
material, and toward his future, which leaves it behind for the greater
glory of the spiritual, human, and divine ; its narrow scope of to-day gives
as little conception of its breadth, depth, and height in the to-morrow of
history, as the coming ages and the garnered civilizations shall unite to
make the true teacher worthy of his great name.
Elementary and Kindergarten
Elementary and Kindergarten
ToPEKA, Wednesday Aptebnoon, July 14, 1886.
At 2.30 P. M., a joint meeting of the Departments of Elementarj
Schools and of Kindergarten Instruction waa called to order at the
Methodist church by Hon. J. W. Holcombe, of Indiana, president of the
Elementary Department. At the request of the presidents of the two
departments, Miss M. W. Sutherland, secretary of the Elementary
Department, acted as secretary for both departments.
Mrs. T. A. B. Dunning, of Wisconsin, who was to have presented a
paper upon " FroebePs Principles in the Family and in the Kindergarten,"
was absent. Mr. William N. Hailmann, of Indiana, therefore proceeded
to a forcible discussion of ** FroebePs Principles in Primary School Work,"
speaking, however, sufficiently of the preceding subject to introduce his
own clear and logical paper.
At the conclusion of his address, the general discussion was opened by
Mr. I. N. Mitchell, of Michigan.
Miss Jennie L. Jones, of Minnesota, and Miss Mary C. McCulloch, of
Missouri, who were appointed to continue the discussion, being absent,
the discussion became general.
Mr. Bell, of Indiana, questioned the first speaker as to whether there
was not a time at which peremptory authority must be used. Mr. Hail-
mann answered by saying that it was easy to say "Thou shalt" and
" Thou shalt not," but to produce spontaneous motive was more difficult,
but more important. The speaker had been humbled to the point of
" Thou shalt " by an inadequate notion of child nature. He never whipped
nowadays, but had used the rod for want of knowledge of child nature.
He protested against saying that that which we are compelled to do
because we don't know a better way, is the best way.
Miss Curtiss, of the Kansas City Schools, spoke of the harmony be-
tween kindergarten and elementary work, and the necessity of improving
the latter by the spirit of the former.
ELEMENTARY AND KINDERGARTEN DEPARTMENTS. 501
Mr. Smith, of Nebraska, said that he had felt great interest in the
paper. He stated that the question of expense was always started, but
that when he asked his Board of Directors for a place to work and then
materials for work, his request was cheerfully granted.
Miss Jenks, of Kansas, was anxious to supplement materials furnished,
and had gained many new ideas from the exhibit of kindergarten work.
Mrs. Alston, of New Jersey, questioned ss to the manner of pupils
making a First Reader.
The substance of Mr. Hailmann's answer is included in his paper.
Mr. McCrea, of Indiana, questioned as to the effect of selecting work
of some children foif publication. He spoke, also, of the worth of such
literature as compared with that of standard authors.
Mr. Hailmann said that where the proper spirit exists there is no
jealousy. The compositions were not models of adult work, but were
immensely better than some supplementary readers.
B. G. Roots, of Illinois, spoke a word of encouragement to those
anxious to do good work. Miss Kuhlmahl, of Kansas, being called upon
to tell something of her work, gave a few observations as to the general
progress of good work.
Mi8. Hilliker, of Kansas, spoke of the wonderful effect of Miss Kuhl-
mahl's work upon the State of Kansas, and the national benefits conferred
by Mr. and Mrs. Hailmann.
Mr. T. 0. Hutchinson, of Oregon, asked how to bring kindergarten
work into graded schools. Mr. Hailmann could not give a prescription,
but gave some very profitable suggestions. The chief one was that a
study was to be made of all circumstances, â€” Boards, people, pupils, etc.,
and the best to be made out of such circumstances. We cannot always
have the methods of kindergarten work, but ought always to have the
The discussion closed at five o'clock. Mr. C. C. Davidson, of Ohio,
moved that a committee of three on nomination of officers for Elemen-
tary Department be appointed. Motion carried, and the Chair appointed
as committee, Mr. C. C. Davidson of Ohio, Mr. H. S. Jones, of Pennsyl-
vania, and Mr. L. Messick of Illinois. The elementary section then
adjourned to meet at 2.30 P. M. on Thursday.
A brief session of the Kindergarten Department was then held to
consider the advisability of holding, in the future, joint meetings of tlie
two sections, and for the election of officers for Kindergarten Department.
After a brief discussion it was moved and carried that next year, if
possible, arrangements be made for joint meetings of the Kindergarten
and Elementary Departments.
On motion of Mr. Klemm, of Ohio, the present officers of the Kinder-
garten Department were unanimously re-elected. The Kindergarten
Department then adjourned.
502 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION.
ToPEKA, Thursday Afternoon, July 15, 1886.
The meeting was called to order by President J. W. Holcombe, at 2.40
P. M. He proceeded at once to call for the papers upon the programme.
The papers were to constitute a Symposium : â€” A Survey of Common
The first paper, entitled, Historical Sketch, with Exposition of Aims as
Formulated in Different Countries, was by Mr. W. H. Bartholomew,
Before the presentation of the second paper, at Miss Warr's request,
the President stated that she had undertaken the preparation of the
paper upon the subject at a late date as a substitute for another had
not, therefore, been able to collect all the statistics that and she desired
for her purpose. Subject: Necessary External Conditions. By Miss
Vina L. Warr, of Iowa.
Third. Course of Study : Proper Limits and Divisions ; Supt. H. M.
James of Nebraska.
Fourth. Course of Study : Order of Subjects with Reference to Laws
of Growth. Miss Mary B. Phillips, of Illinois.
Fifth. Principles of Method and Common Errors in Teaching. Miss
Agnes I. Rounds, of New Hampshire.
Sixth. Special Conditions in Country Schools, with Suggestions for
Improvement. By Mr. George F. Felts and Mr. John C. Macpherson,
Seventh. Summary : Aims, Limitations, Subject Matter, Methods,
Results. By Hon. LeRoy D. Brown, of Ohio.
Eighth. General Discussion. Opened by Miss Ida Joe Brooks, of
The discussion was continued by Mr. H. G. Larimer, of Kansas, who
had not seen any of the papers, and could, therefore, consider only a few
of the points which he had noticed as the speakers proceeded. He
thought that much that had been said in regard tg the employment of
kindergarten methods could be applied only to graded schools. The same
objection held against manual training in schools. Teachers qualified for
such work could not be obtained. The great mass of pupils have but one
teacher to prepare them for life through common school instruction. The
speaker protested against cast-iron grading, stating that to shut out a boy
from a higher gi'ade when he was prepared in grammar, arithmetic, etc.,
because he could not tell the capital of Indiana, or ^.nswer some kindred
question, was absolutely wrong. He was much pleased with what had
been said concerning the beautifying of schoolhouse and grounds. The
school should be made like a cheerful home. These were simply thoughts
that had been suggested as he sat listening.
ELBMENTABY AND KINDERGARTEN DEPARTMENTS. 503
Mr. McCosh, of Kansas, thought that a school building should not ex-
ceed two stories in height. Two storied buildings were preferred to one,
as the passing from one floor to another gave physical training to pupils
of sedentary habits.
Mr. Boots, of Illinois, understood that the reference had been to coun-
Miss Curtiss, of Missouri, thought that the height />f a school building
was a very important consideration.
Mrs. Hard, of Ohio, wondered if there were no woman here to begin a
crusade against buildings of three or more stories. The poor physical
condition of woman is due to constant climbing. The very pupils sent to
the higher rooms are the ones most likely to be injured by climbing.
Nothing having a bearing upon the development of the highest type of
womanhood should be neglected.
Mr. Lane, of Illinois, indorsed all the sentiments in regard to improve-
ment of buildings. He was in sympathy with principles uttered requir-
ing perfect models in every respect. It is important that teachers be
gathered together in order that they may learn these things. There is no
reason why pupils should be gathered from attractive homes to spend five
hours each day in unattractive schools. Work should be illustrative so
far as it is possible to make it. The foundation is laid in kindergarten
instruction. Children sl)ould be led into paths of science in its simplest
forms. There are many new books to aid in this work. Kindergarten
and manual training are both of great importance.
Mr. T. 0. Hutchinson, of Oregon, said that schoolhouses ought to be
made so as not to injure health ; but more girls are injured by not taking
exercise for fear of being called torn-boys than by illy-constructed school-
houses. Then again, pupils are required to be too quiet. However, the
difference in individuals should be considered in school arrangements.
Owing to the lateness of the hour the discussion was then closed.
President Holcombe returned thanks to the Department of Elementary
Instruction, for the honor conferred in his election to the presidency of
the department ; to the accomplished Vice-President, Mr Klemm, and to
the Secretary, for assistance in carrying on tlie work of the department ;
but especially to the ladies and gentlemen for their carefully prepared
papers and their work in coming so far to deliver them. He returned
thanks to the audience for their presence and polite attention.
The Committee on Nominations reported as follows :
For President â€” W. H. Bartholomew, of Kentucky.
For Vice-President â€” Elizabeth Baumgardner, of Illinois.
For Secretary â€” Margaret W. Sutherland, of Ohio.
The department then adjourned.
Margaret W. Sutherland, Secretary.
APPLICATION OF FROEBEL'S EDUCATIONAL PRINCIPLES
TO THE PRIMARY SCHOOL.
[synopsis of the address of w. n. hailmann.]
For the purposes of this sketch, Froebers Educational Principles are
classed under three heads : the religions/ ethical^ and physio-psychical.
The first of these, the religious principle, concerns the idtiraate aim of
education, which it finds in unity and wholeness of life. In accordance
with this principle, education has to do at every step with the whole child
in all his relations, and in all these relations is to lead him to conscious
peace. As an individual^ the young human being is to be set towards full
accord in all the phases of his being; his knowings, feelings, willings,
and doings, â€” thought, motive, and conduct must lie on the same plane,
and tend towards the same unity which to thought is truth, to motive
principle, and to conduct righteousness. Socially his life should be
attuned to the strong, sweet voice of love ; he should sympathize with his
surroundings in all that concerns true welfare ; his deepest yearnings â€¢
should be to allay suffering, to relieve from sin, to make smooth the paths
of peace, these should become to him joy, glory, wealth â€” more precious
than all else that goes by these names. He should be at one with his race,
placing himself in knowledge and action on the basis of highest achieve-
ments, in tendency in the current of highest ideals. In nature and the
universe he should learn to read the Creator's laws ; their contemplation
should teach him active obedience, and thus secure to him the inner free-
dom by which he may approximate the Father's perfection.
The second of these, the ethical principle, concerns the proximate end
of educational activity which lies in character, in the persistent drift of
being towards goodness and thoroughness, towards perfection. Whatever
the educator says or does, plans or executes, his example, his adjustments
of surroundings, his courses of study and practice, his lessons and tasks,
must look towards the formation and establishment of character. All
educational activities are good in the measure in which they do this, and
there is nothing else that can give them a claim for consideration. Every
educational activity, worthy of the name, must be, even in its minutest
details, an organic part of a larger process that runs through the pupil's
entire being, having its roots far down in the depths of feeling, pushing
its branches under the quickening influence of sunny thought into the
mobile regions of conduct where it may yield a rich harvest of golden
APPLICATION OF FR0EBEV8 EDUCATIONAL PRINCIPLES. 505
deeds. All educational activity that sees no end beyond itself is doomed
to die and to burden the pupil's life with dust and ashes : here it burrows
in the feelings and is stifled to death in their rich soil ; here it soars aloft
heedlessly, and lingers out of life on the barren heights of frosty thought ;
here it is wafted over the arid plains of moral precept or exhales a scanty
life in the pitfalls of aimless busy-work.
The third or physio-psychical principle concerns the immediate essential
feature of the human being under education, which it finds in growth and
development. At every step it regards and respects the spontaneity of
growth, and leads it through the medium of the trustful obedience of
faith to the conscious masterful obedience of freedom. Nothing less will
do : the spontaneity of growth furnishes the springs of action and life ;
tiTistful obedience secures the life sustaining strength that comes from
practice and habit; and in freedom alone man reaches true humanity.
An education that stops at spontaneity of growth makes a despot ; another
that stops at trustful obedience makes a slave ; only conscious masterful
obedience to a law whose terms are known and understood makes free ;
only this can free us from the disgraceful shackles of suicidal appetite,
snatch us from the inglorious ease of self-seeking prudence, and lift us
into the pure heaven of principle which is the only worthy abode of man.
The methods of an education based on these principles are necessarily
physio-psychological J i. e., obeying the recognized laws of physical and
psychical development, so far as the pupil is concerned ; and analytico-
synthetical, so far as the subjects of instruction are concerned. At every
^int the pupiPs physical and psychical power, the stage of development
he may have reached and the influence and bearing of whatever we may
propose to do upon these things, are to be considered. The child who can
lift only one pound is not to be asked to lift two, nor is his strength to be
frittered away in efforts that lie far beneath his capacity ; the little learn-
er whose interest is still bound up in external variety should not be
repelled, by having presented to him a surfeit of considerations of inner
unity, nor should he be held on the lower planes of interest with childish
tricks and gewgaws, when he has commenced to feel at home on the
higher plane ; the pupil whose innocent heart is open to consideration of
pleasure alone, should not be prematurely forced into considerations of
grim-visaged prudence, nor have suspicions aroused against the behests of
stern principle, nor should his heart be closed to the voice of duty by too
long continued efforts to gild even the nearest duties with some artificial
The presentation of subjects of instruction, as a whole and in their
various departments and parts, should be analytic-synthetical. They
should come to him on the side of feeling and through thought be led to
his will. Feeling analyzes, will synthesizes, and thought mediates be-
506 THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION
tween the two. Feeling gets and learns ; thought holds and makes ready ;
will gives and does. The school must cease to pay almost exclusive atten-
tion to the first half of these activities, and must begin to look upon the
second half as at least of equal value, making them getters, learners, and
holders for the sake of making them givers and doers. It should do this
in every detail of its work in the various subjects of instruction. Thus
in arithmetic, not only in its study as a whole should the child first and
analytically find numbers, their properties, and mutual relations, and then
learn to use this knowledge in and for life from the lower commercial
applications to its higher applications in scientific research and invention ;
but each new fact or principle that comes to him should at once be suit-
ably applied in all convenient and feasible ways of synthetic activity.
Indeed, each new subject should come to the child as an outcome of
analytic activity. At first, all subjects are more or less blended in the
universal interest of eai-liest school life, and successively gain prominence
and independence as analytic processes successively develop the need for
special instruction in certain directions } and, again, each new subject so
^ found, should, by a kind of larger synthesis, aid and lift all other subjects
and life as a whole, at every step.
The course of study, therefore, demands a concentric arrangement of
all subjects and of all material of instruction. At the center stands the
child with free, full, all-sided outlook. Nothing within the reach of his
power and interest is excluded. All subjects are open to him ; â€” number,
form, and size, object and phenomena of nature and of art, the concerns of
man and of society are open to him ; all these things he may observe,
test by experiment, contemplate and use ; limitations lie not in these sub-
jects but only in his power. The fact that he cannot divide seven-ninths
by three-fourths does not rob him" of the pleasure he may find in finding
one-half of three-fourths ; his inability to determine the square of
three hundred and seventeen does not keep him from the control of the
square of two or of three; his failure to appreciate meteorological
laws does not exclude him from the observation of wind and weather ;
his lack of interest in the wars of the Spanish Succession does not keep
him from a lively concern in the history of his village or the story of
The course of study should be managed so that at every point it may
lift and help the learner towards the accomplishment of his life purpose,
which is productive of creative activity. Even where a subsequent divis-
ion of labor on economic grounds, assigns to one or the other human
being mediatory activities, these will always derive their dignity from
their bearing on the creative work of mankind. Every subject of instruc-
tion, in its beginnings and its progress, should, therefore, be closely related
to modifying, arranging, adapting activities in which the child may exer-
APPLICATION OF FR0EBEV8 EDUCATIONAL PRINCIPLES, 507
cise his power as a maker of things, and learn to feel the mastery of
spirit over matter. In this lies the value of manual training, practiced
in the kindergarten and in the La Porte primary schools, and proposed
by Froebel as an essential element of all school education, â€” a manual
training distinct from industrial training, inasmuch as it looks to art more
than to artisanship, and looks for its criteria not in the external product
but in the internal development of the child. Neglect of this causes so
much of our educational work to ** end in smoke," subjecting the pupil to
the mortification of finding himself when he enters life rather hampered
than helped by what the school gave him. The influence of the college
and university, too, is much reduced in scope and value because of its dis-
regard of the creative soul of man. Too often it prepares only for a life
of refined leisure which it dignifies with the name of culture.
Again, while the course of study is to permit and foster growth, it
should not overlook the necessity of guidance and watchful care. Not
unfrequently the notion that education should be a growth or rather a
development from within outward, has induced teachers to look upon
guidance and guardianship as improper interferences with the require-
ments of free development. This is a pernicious error ; free growth is
by no means inconsistent with guidance and watchful care ; on the con-
trary, these are needed to keep growth free, to keep it from going astray,
to secure for it the best direction, to shield it from weedy parasites and
enervating water-shoots, to protect it from the inroads of noxious insects
and fungi. The kindergaiten has suffered much from errors in this
direction on the part of ill-advised persons who seem to look upon it as
an institution run by little children ; and certain primary schools who
take pride in " new departures " "on the kindergarten plan " frequently
are remarkable only for extraordinary lack of order, method, and healthy
FroebeFs educational principles, far from being adverse to method in
the course of study, rather look upon method as an important proximate
end of the work in all its phases. If the child^s senses are to be culti-
vated, this should be done in such a way as to lead him to a methodical
use of his senses; teaching him to see, hear, etc., in an orderly manner,