Neltje Blanchan.

Birds that hunt and are hunted; life histories of one hundred and seventy birds of prey, game birds and water fowls online

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Male and Female White, more or less barred or spotted with
dusky; some specimens almost entirely white, the female
usually the more heavily barred; the face, throat, and feet
being in all birds the whitest parts; legs and feet thickly
feathered; iris yellow; bill and claws black; no ear tufts.

Range "Northern portions of northern hemisphere. In North
America breeding wholly north of the United States; in
winter migrating south to the middle states, straggling to
South Carolina, Texas, California, and Bermuda." A. O. U.

Season Winter visitor.

No Arctic explorer has yet penetrated too far north to find the
Snowy Owl. Private Long of the Greely expedition, who raised
six of these owlets, released them only because food became scarce
enough for men during the second winter of hardship, much
less for such greedy pets. "They had inordinate appetites," says
the commander, " and from the time they were caught, as young
owlets, swallowed anything given to them. I remember one
bolting whole a sandpiper about half his own size. Over a hun-
dred and fifty skuas (robber gulls) were killed and fed to these
owls. It was interesting to note that, although they had never
used their wings, the owls flew well." In another volume, Gen-
eral Greely describes the snowy owl's egg as "somewhat larger
than, though closely resembling, the white egg of a hen. Ser-
geant Israel found it very palatable. The male bird showed signs
of fight when the egg was taken, while the female looked on
from about one hundred yards. The first owl observed was on
April 29th, since then one or more have been frequently seen.
The nest is a mere hole hollowed out on the summit of a com-
manding knoll, and furnished with a few scattered feathers,
grass, etc."

The lemming, ptarmigan, ducks, and other water-fowl are
the snowy owl's main dependence. It is an expert fisher, too,
and borne up by the seaweed, it patiently waits for finny prey
to swim among the rocks, when, quicker than thought, they are
captured. The Arctic hare, though double its own weight, is

348



Horned and Hoot Owls

pounced upon and immediately lifted off its feet lest it use its
strong hind legs to escape from its captor. The ptarmigan, on
the contrary, is "crushed to earth," but, unlike truth, it may not
rise again ; for the owl, spreading its great wings to render those
of its victim useless, soon ends its struggles. A bird must be
a swift flyer, indeed, that can overtake a duck in the air or a
hare afoot. The former it strikes down after the manner of the
goshawk.

But when food begins to fail at the far north, this hardy owl
that is able to endure the most intense cold since all do not
migrate by any means leaves the moss and lichen-covered tun-
dras, and, joining a band of travellers bound southward, appears
in the United States sometimes in considerable numbers, espe-
cially in the Atlantic states. A northeasterly storm drives many
migrants ashore. Some morning when trees and earth are cov-
ered with a snowy mantle that the high winds toss and blow,
you may see a wraith, a ghostly apparition, gleaming at you with
fiery eyes from the evergreen. Here is a miracle of nature: the
snow is alive! Winter incarnate sits before you. Juncos and
snow buntings whirl about among the snowflakes in scattered
flocks; and the wraith, as silently as any spectre, its downy
wings outspread, floats off from its high point of vantage in easy
circles, then suddenly swooping, seizes a hapless bird in its talons.
In boldness and grace of flight it is far more like a hawk than an
owl; and, moreover, it is a diurnal bird of prey, comparatively
little of its hunting for mice and other food being done at night.

The Hawk Owl (Surnia ulula caparoch], another northern
species that occasionally visits the United States border or be-
yond, as far as Pennsylvania, in winter, is of medium size (fifteen
inches) and without horns. Its upper parts are ashen brown, the
head and nape spotted with white, and the back and some wing
feathers barred with white; the remarkably long tail has rounded
white bars. A dusky spot and below it a white one mark the
middle throat, while the sides of the neck and upper breast are
streaked with dusky, and the rest of the under parts are barred
with dusky and white. The legs and feet are feathered, and the
wings when folded fall far short of the end of the tail. Like a
hawk in habits, as in appearance, it is nevertheless an owl, though
doubtless the connecting link between the families. While it

349



Horned and Hoot Owls

hunts its prey chiefly by daylight, it flies with the ghostlike
silence characteristic of its clan, yet with a swiftness, boldness, and
dash which would lead the uninitiated to suppose it a true hawk.
"When the hunters are shooting grouse," says Dr. Richardson,
"this bird is occasionally attracted by the report of a gun, and is
often bold enough, on a bird being killed, to pounce down upon
it, though it may be unable from its size to carry it off. It is also
known to hover around the fires made by the natives at night."
Its note is said to be a shrill cry, which is generally uttered while
the bird is on the wing.



Burrowing Owl

(Speotyto cunicularia hypogcea)

Called also: PRAIRIE OWL

Length 9. 50 inches.

Male and Female Upper parts dull grayish brown spotted with
white; wing quills and tail marked with cross rows of spots,
sometimes confluent into bars; eyebrow, chin, and throat
white, the two latter divided by a dark brown collar ; under
parts white or pale buff barred with brown spots. Tail
short; head smooth, with no ear tufts; facial disk incom-
plete; legs extremely long and slim, with few or no feathers.

Range Western United States, from the Pacific coast east through
the Great Plains, north into Canada, south to Central America;
accidental in New York and Massachusetts.

Season Permanent resident; or winter visitor at the southern end
of its range.

Amusing fictions of this tiny owl living in brotherly love
with prairie dogs and rattlesnakes had a serious explosion when
Dr. Coues published his "Birds of the Northwest;" but fictions
die lingering deaths, and one still reads of "happy families,"
with the prairie owl cutting a conspicuous figure groups that
Barnum would have certainly secured for the Greatest Show on
Earth had they ever existed. "From an extended acquaintance
with the habits of the burrowing owl," says Captain Bendire,
writing for the government, "I can most positively assert, from
personal experience and investigation, that there is no foundation
based on actual facts for these stories, and that no such happy



\ *J



< .












SNOWY OWL.



Horned and Hoot Owls

families exist in reality. I am fully convinced that the burrowing
owl, small as it is, is more than a match for the average prairie
dog, and the rattlesnake as well ; it is by no means the peaceful
and spiritless bird that it is generally believed to be, and it subsists,
to some extent at least, on young dogs, if not also on the old
ones."

Enlarging the deserted burrows of numerous small quad-
rupeds, especially of ground squirrels, prairie dogs, and badgers,
but never living with them, the burrowing owl begins at the far end
of the tunnel to loose the earth and send it backward with vigor-
ous kicks until all is clear. Now dry horse or cow dung is carried
to the burrow, broken up in little pieces, and scattered over the
nesting chamber, which may be eight or even ten feet from the
entrance. In California, dry grass, feathers, weed stalks, and such
material may serve as a carpet; but however lined, a prairie owl's
nest is sure to abound in fleas. These sometimes speckle the
eggs until no one who had not washed them would suspect they
were normally a clear, glossy white. As many as eleven eggs
have been taken from a chamber where they were found arranged
in the form of a horse-shoe which is usual or piled in a double
layer when the set is exceedingly large; and so skilfully do both
mates cover the eggs, that only very rarely does one become
addled. The devoted mates remain paired for life.

Except when they have nursery duties to house them and
these are usually ended by June one may expect to see the funny,
top-heavy little owls around the entrance to their homes at any
hour of the day, for they are diurnal in habits, and not night
prowlers only, although their activities greatly increase after sun-
down. Bowing toward you as you approach your entertainer
is not shy a little gnome-like creature nearly twists its head
off its neck in its attempt to follow your movements with its
immovable eyes. Approach too near, and off it flies, chattering,
but not often further than a neighbor's burrow. Small colonies
of these owls live in perfect harmony. Doubtless it is the chatter-
ing of a disturbed bird, which does sound something like the rattle
of a snake, that has given rise to the yarn about rattlesnakes living
in owl burrows. Quite a concert of mellow coo-c-o-o-o-os, the
love note of the species, is kept up by several pairs, sometimes
for an hour or more. These notes are uttered only when the
birds are at rest and happy. Zip, tfp, they shrilly cry when

35'



Horned and Hoot Owls

alarmed ; and besides these sounds, they sharply and rapidly click
their bills when excited and enraged, just as all owls do.

A great many colonies are purposely located on the outskirts
of prairie dog towns for obvious reasons. The amount of food
required by a family of eight or ten hungry owls, any one of
which eats more than its weight in a day, is enormous ; and after
sundown, one sees the busy hunters on the chase, now poised in
mid air, like the sparrow hawk, above their prey; now swooping
downward on swift, noiseless wings to grasp it in their talons and
bear it away. A few well directed blows with the beak, that
break the vertebrae of the neck, quiet the struggling victim for-
ever. It is amazing how large the prey is that one of these bold
little owls will quickly overcome. The brains are the favorite
tid-bits, and often all other parts remain untouched. "Noxious
vermin," that is, mice, squirrels, gophers, and such humble quarry,
are the prairie owl's staple food, which lays the western farmer
under special obligation to see that his rapacious ally receives the
fullest protection.



352



INDEX

The figures in black-faced type indicate the page upon which the life
history of the bird is given.



Arrie, 21.
Auk, Great, 24.

Little, 25.

Razor-billed, 7, 23.
Auks, The, 5, 6, 18.
Avocet, American, 192, 198, 209.
Avocets, The, 192, 198.

Baldpate, 84, IOO.
Beetle-head, 194, 237.
Black-head, 1 1 8.

Ring-billed, I2O.

Ring-necked, I2O.
Bird, Beach, 219.

Bog, 201.

Brant, 249.

Brown, 212.

Devil's, 68.

Doe (Eskimo Curlew), 193, 236.

Doe (Marbled Godwit), 221.

Dough, 236.

Dun, 131.

Egg, 21.

Frost, 239.

Hay, 212.

Heart, 249.

Ice, 25.

Qua, 1 66.

Shad, 204.

Tortoise-shell, 159.
Birds, Columbine, 293.

Diving, 5-26.

Gallinaceous Game, 259.

Marsh, 171.

of Prey, 301.

Shore, 191.

Surf, 191, 194, 249.
Bittern, American, 152, 157.

Booming, 157.

Least, 152, 159, 339.

Little, 159.

Bitterns, The, 152, 157.
Black Breast, 217.

23



Bluebill, 118.

Little, 1 2O.

Marsh, I2O.
Blue Peter, 186.
Blue Stocking, 198.
Bob White, 260, 261, 273.

Florida, 266.

Texan, 266.

Bob Whites, The, 259, 261.
Bog-sucker, 2OI.
Booby, 130.
Brant, 86, 140.

Black, 86, 142.

Black (White-fronted Goose), 134.

Gray, 134.

Prairie, 134.

White, 136.
Brent, 140.
Broadbill (Greater Scaup Duck), 118.

(Shoveler), 85, 107.

Bastard, I2O.

Creek, 85, I2O.
Brown Back, 206.
Brown Jack, 206.
Bufflehead, 85, 91, 124.
Bull, Bog, 157.

Bull-head (Black-breasted Plover), 237.
Bull-neck, 1 1 6.
Burgomaster, 30, 36.
Butter-ball, 85, 124.
Butter-box, 124.
Buzzard, Red-shouldered, 319.

Red -tailed. 317.

Swainson's, 321.

Turkey, 155, 304.

:alico-back, 194, 249.

:halkline, 164.

Ihicken, Mother Carey's, 68.

Prairie (Pinnated Grouse), 260, 278.

Prairie (Prairie Sharp-tailed Grouse),

281.
Ihuckle-head, 164.



353



Index



Cobb, 37.

Cock, Black spotted Heath, 270.

May, 237.

of the Plains, 260, 285.

Sage, 285.
Cockawee, 125.
Coffin Carrier, 37.
Coot, 162.

American, 173, 186.

Black, 85, 130.

Broad-billed, 130.

Butter-billed, 130.

Cinerous, 1 86.

Sea, 130.

White-billed, 1 86.

White-winged, 131.
Coots, The, 171, 172, 177.
Cormorant, Double-crested, 76, 77.
Cormorants, The, 75.
Coulterneb, 18.
Crake (Little Black Rail), 183.

(Sora), 1 80.
Crane, Blue, 152, 161.

Brown, 172, 174.

Sandhill, 138, 172, 174.

Sandhill (Great Blue Heron), 161.

White, 176.

Whooping, 172, 176.
Cranes, The, 171, 174.
Crooked-bill, 235.
Crow, Carrion, 307.
Cu-Cu, Large, 223.

Little, 224.
Curlew, Buzzard, 234.

Eskimo, 193, 236.

Hudsonian, 235*

Jack, 193, 235.

Little, 236.

Long-billed, 193, 234.

Red, 221.

Short-billed (Eskimo Curlew), 236.

Short-billed (Whimbrel), 235.

Spanish (Long-billed Curlew), 234.

Spanish (White Ibis), 151, 153.

Straight-billed, 221.
Cut-Water, 59.

Dabchick, 6, II.
Darter, Big Blue, 314.

Little Blue, 312.
Diedapper, II.
Dipchick, II.
Dipper (Horned Grebe), 9.

Little, 124.

(Pied-billed Grebe), n.
Diver, Dun, 87.

Great Northern, 14, 16.

Hell (Horned Grebe), 9.

Hell (Pied-billed Grebe), II.

Pigeon, 25.

Red-throated, 1 6.



Divers, Lobe-footed, 8.
Dove, Carolina, 296.

Greenland, 25.

Mourning, 293, 296.

Sea, 7, 25.

Turtle, 296.
Doves, The, 293, 294.
Dovekie, 7, 2$.
Dowitchee, 206.
Dowitcher, 193, 206.

Long-billed, 193, 208.

Western, 208.
Duck, Acorn, III.

Barrow's Golden-eye, 123.

Black, 84, 97.

Bridal, III.

Buffalo-headed, 124.

Canvasback, 85, 101, 114, 1 1 6.

Crow, 1 86.

Domestic, 93.

Dusky, 84, 97.

Dusky Mallard, 97.

Eider, 85, 128.

Fishing, 87.

Golden-eye, 85, 91, 121.

Gray, 84, 98.

Greater Scaup, 85, Il8.

Harlequin, 85, 127.

Lesser Scaup, 85, I2O.

Long-tailed, 125.

Mallard, 84, 93.

Old Squaw, 85, 125.

Pintail, 84, 109.

Raft, 118.

Red-headed, 85, 114.

Ring-necked, 85, I2O.

Ruddy, 85, 131.

Scaup, 1 1 8.

Sea, 128.

Spine-tailed, 131.

Spirit (Bufflehead), 124.

Spirit (Horned Grebe), 9.

Sprigtail, 109.

Summer, III.

Teal, Blue-winged, 84, 105.
Cinnamon, 105.
Green-winged, 84, 103.
Salt Water, 131.
Summer, 105.
White-faced, 105.

Tree, III.

Velvet, 131.

Wild, 93.

Winter, 109.

Wood, 84, 91, III.
Ducks, Fishing, 83, 87.

River and Pond, 83, 84, 93, 187.

Sea and Bay, 83, 84, 114.
Dunlin, 217.

Eagle, American, 326.



354



Index



Eagle, Bald, 302, 326, 333.

Bald Sea, 326.

Black, 326.

European Golden, 325.

Golden, 302, 324.

Gray, 326.

Mountain, 324.

Ring- tailed, 324.

War, 324.

Washington, 326.

White-headed, 326.
Eagles, The, 301.
Egret, Blue, 152, 163.

White, 152, 156, 164.
Egrets, The, 151.

Falcon, Mountain, 328.

Peregrine, 328.

Rock, 328.

Rusty-crowned, 330.

Wandering, 328.

Winter, 319.
Falconry, 329.
Fowl, Flocking, Il8.

Jungle, 260.
Flamingoes, 151.
Fly-up-the-Creek (Least Bittern), 159.

(Little Green Heron), 164.
Fute, 236.

Gad wall, 84, 98.

Gallinule, Common, 173, 184.

Florida, 173, 184.

Purple, 173, 186.
Gallinules, The, 171, 172, 177.
Garbill, 89.
Garrot, 121.
Geese, The, 85, 134.
Godwit, Great Marbled, 221.

Hudsonian, 222.

Marbled, 193, 221.

Red-breasted, 222.

Rose- breasted, 222.

White-rumped, 222.
Goosander, 83, 87.
Goose, Barnacle, 140.

Blue-winged, 136.

Brant, 140.

Canada, 86, 137.

Diving, 87.

Gray, 137.

Laughing, 134.

Lesser Snow, 86, 137.

Sea, 196.

Snow, 86, 136.

White-fronted, 86, 134.

Wild, 86, 137.

Goshawk, American, 302, 315.
Gray Back, 209.
Great Head, 121.
Grebe, Carolina, II.



Grebe, Dusky, 9.

European, Red-necked, 8.

Holboell's, 6, 8.

Horned, 6, 9.

Little, II.

Pied-billed, 6, II.

Red-necked, 8.
Grebes, The, 5, 8, 10, 13.
Greenback, 239.
Green Head, 93.
Grouse, Blue, 260, 267.

Canada, 260, 270.

Canadian Ruffed, 260, 277.

Columbian Sharp-tailed, 260, 282,
284.

Dusky, 260, 267.

Family, 259, 261.

Fool, 267.

Gray, 267.

Gray Ruffed. 260, 277.

Mountain, 267.

Oregon, 260, 277.

Pine, 267.

Pinnated, 260, 278.

Pin-tailed, 281.

Prairie Sharp-tailed, 260, 281.

Red Ruffed, 260, 277.

Richardson's, 267.

Ruffed, 260, 261, 272.

Sage, 260, 285.

Sharp-tailed, 260, 282, 284.

Sooty, 267, 268.

Spotted, 270.

Spruce, 270.

Willow. 281.

Wood, 270.
Guillemot, 22.

Black, 7, 20.

Brtinnich's, 21.

Foolish, 21, 23.
Gull, Black-headed, 42.

Bonaparte's, 30, 44.

Burgomaster, 30, 36.

Flood, 251.

Glaucous, 30, 36.

Great Black-backed, 30, 37.

Herring, 30, 39, 42.

Ice, 36.

Iceland, 37.

Kittiwake, 30, 32, 35.

Laughing, 30, 42.

Mackerel, 49.

Ring-billed, 30, 41.

Risible, 42.

Rosy, 44.

Summer, 49.

Winter, 39.
Gulls, The, 29, 30, 35, 43, 50.

Hagdon, 66.
Hairy Head, 91.



355



Index



Harrier, 302, 311.

Marsh, 311.
Hawk, 162.

Blue, 311.

Blue Hen, 315.

Broad-winged, 302, 322.

Chicken (Cooper's), 314.

Chicken (Red-shouldered), 319.

Chicken (Red-tailed), 317.

Cooper's, 302, 313, 314.

Duck, 302 , 328.

Fish, 302, 332.

Great Footed, 328.

Hare-footed, 323.

Hen (Red-shouldered), 319.

Hen (Red-tailed), 317.

Killy, 330.

Marsh, 302, 311.

Mouse (Marsh Hawk), 3x1.

Mouse (Sparrow Hawk), 330.

Partridge, 315.

Pigeon, 302, 330.

Pigeon (Sharp -shinned Hawk), 312.

Red, 317.

Red-shouldered, 302, 317, 319.

Red-tailed, 302, 317.

Rough-legged, 302, 323.

Sharp-shinned, 302, 312.

Snake, 309.

Sparrow, 302, 330.

Swainson's, 302, 321.

Western Red-tailed, 319.

Winter, 319.
Hawks, The, 301.
Hawking, 329.
Hen, Fresh-water Marsh, 178.

Fresh-water Mud, 179.

Indian, 157.

Marsh, (American Bittern), 152,

157-

Marsh (Clapper Rail), 177.

Marsh (King Rail), 173.

Meadow, 186.

Moor, 1 86.

Mud (American Coot), 173, 186.

Mud (Clapper Rail), 177.

Mud (Sora Rail), 180.

Night, 147.

Pine, 267.

Prairie, 278.

Red-billed Mud, 184.

Salt-water Meadow, 177.

Water, 184.
Hern, 162.
Heron, Black-crowned, Night, 152, 166.

Freckled, 137.

Great Blue, 152, 156, 161, 174.

Green, 152, 164.

Little Blue, 152, 163.

Snowy, 152, 164.

Tribe, 151, 171.



Herons, The, 152, 157.
Holopode, Lobe-footed, 196.
Honker, 137.

Ibis, White, 151, 153.

Wood, 152, 155.
Ibises, The, 151, 153.

Wood, 151, 155.

Jaeger, Arctic, 32.

Long-tailed, 29, 34.

Parasitic, 29, 32.

Pomarine, 29, 34-

Pomatorhine, 34-

Richardson's, 32.
Jaegers, The, 29.

Kestrel, American, 330.
Kildee, 242.
Kildeer, 194, 242.
Kite, Fork-tailed, 309.

Swallow-tailed, 302, 309.
Kites, The, 301.
Knot, 193, 209.
Krieker, 212.

Lark, Sand, 232.
Lawyer, 199.
Lead back, 217.
Longshanks, 199.
Look-up, 157.
Loom, 14.
Loon, 14.

Black-throated, 6, 16.

Common, 6, 14.

Red-throated, 6, 16.

Sprat, 1 6.

Loons, The, 5, 6, 14.
Lords and Ladies, 127.

Man-of-War, 32.
Marlin, 221.

Brown, 193, 221.

Ring-tailed, 222.
Merganser, American, 83, 87.

Hooded, 83, 91.

Red-breasted, 83, 89.
Mergansers, The, 83, 87.
Murre, Briinnich's, 7, 21.

Calif ornian, 7, 23.

Common, 7, 22.
Murres, The, 5, 6, 18.

Night Peck, 2OI.

Old Billy, 125.
Old Injun, 125.
Old Molly, 125.



Old Squaw, 125.
Old Wife,



125.

Ortolan (Sora rail), 180.



356



Inde:



Ortolan (Reed Bird), 181.
Osprey, American, 302, 303, 332.
Owl, Acadian, 303, 342.

Barn, 302, 335.

Barred, 303, 340.

Burrowing, 303, 350.

Cat (Great Horned Owl), 345.

Cat (Long-eared Owl), 337.

Great Gray, 341.

Great Horned, 303, 345.

Hawk, 303, 349.

Hoot (Barred Owl), 303, 340.

Hoot (Great Horned Owl), 345.

Little Horned, 343.

Long-eared, 303, 337.

Marsh, 338.

Meadow, 338.

Monkey-faced, 302, 335.

Mottled, 343.

Prairie (Burrowing Owl), 350.

Prairie (Short-eared Owl), 338.

Red, 343.

Saw-whet, 303, 342.

Screech, 303, 343.

Short-eared, 303, 338.

Snowy, 303, 348.

Spectral, 341.

Wood, 340.
Owls, Barn, The, 302, 335.

Horned and Hoot, The, 303, 337,

344, 347-
Oyster-Catcher, American, 195, 251.

Brown-backed, 251.
Oyster-Catchers, The, 195, 251.
Ox-Bird, 217.
Ox-eye (Black-breasted Plover), 237.

Meadow, 215.

Sand, 2 I 6.

Pale-Breast, 239.
Parrot, Sea, 7, 18.
Partridge (Bob White), 261.

(Ruffed Grouse), 272.

Birch, 272.

Black, 270.

Night, 201.

Spruce, 260, 270.

Swamp, 270.

Virginia, 261.
Partridges, New World, 259.

Old World, 259, 262.
Peacock, 260.
Peep (Least Sandpiper), 21$.

(Semipalmated Sandpiper), 2l6.
Peet-weet, 232.
Penguin, 21, 23.
Petrel, Fork-tailed, 71.

Leach's, 66, 71.

White-rumped, 71.

Wilson's Stormy, 66, 68.
Petrels, The, 65, 68.



Pewee (Woodcock), 20 1.
Phalarope, Northern, 192, 197.

Wilson's, 192, 196.
Phalaropes, The, 191, 196.
Pheasant, 261, 272.

Water, 91.
Pheasants, The, 260.
Pigeon, Band-tailed, 293, 296.

Passenger, 293.

Prairie (Bartramian Sandpiper), 229.

Prairie (Golden Plover), 239.

Sea, 20.

White-collared, 296.

Wild, 294.

Pigeons, The, 293, 294, 330.
Plover, Belted Piping, 194, 247.

Black-bellied, 237.

Black-breasted, 194, 237.

Chicken, 249.

Field (Bartramian Sandpiper), 229.

Field (Golden Plover), 239.

Golden, 194, 239.

Grass, 229.

Green, 239.

Highland, 229.

Kildeer, 194, 242.

Mountain, 247.

Piping, 194, 245.

Red-legged, 249.

Ring, 244.

Ring-necked, 194, 244.

Ruddy, 219.

Semipalmated, 194, 242.

Swiss, 237.



Upland, 193, 229.

Whistlii



histling Field, 237.

Wilson's, 194, 247.
Plovers, The, 191, 194.
Pochard, American, 114.
Poke (American Bittern), 157.

(Little Green Heron), 152, 164.
Ptarmigan, 348.
Puffin, 7, 18.

Masking, 18.
Puffins, The, 5, 6, 18.
Purre, 217.

Quail, 260, 261.

California, 266.

Florida, 266.

Old World, 259, 262.

Texan, 266.
Quaily, 229.
Quawk, 152, 166.

Rail, Big, 177.
Blue, 184.
Carolina, 173, 180.
Clapper, 173, 177.
Common, l8o.
King, 173, 178.



357



Inde:



Rail, Lesser Clapper, 179.

Little Black, 173, 183.

Little Red, 179.

New York, 182.

Red-breasted, 178.

Sora, 173, 1 80.

Virginia, 173, 179.

Yellow, 173, 182.

Yellow-breasted, 182.
Rails, The, 171, 172, 177.
Ring-neck, Pale, 245.
Robin, Beach, 209.

Sabre- bill, 234.
Saddle-back, 37.
Sanderling, 193, 219.
Sandpeep, 215.
Sandpiper, Ash-colored, 209.

Baird's, 193, 214.

Bartramian (Upland Plover), 193,
229.

Black-bellied, 217.

Bonaparte's, 213.

Buff-breasted, 193, 231.

Green, 225.

Least, 193, 215.

Long-legged, 208.

Pectoral, 193, 212.

Purple, 211.

Red-backed, 193, 217.

Red-breasted, 209.

Robin, 209.

Schinz's, 213.

Semipalmated, 193, 2l6.

Solitary, 193, 225.

Spotted, 193, 232.

Stilt, 193, 208.

Swimming, 196.

Western Semipalmated, 193, 217.

White-rumped, 193, 213.
Sandpipers, The, 191, 192, 201.
Saw-bill (American Merganser), 87.

(Red-breasted Merganser), 89.
Scissor-bill, 31, 59.
Scolder, 125.
Scooper, 198.
Scoter, American, 85, 130.

Black, 130.

Surf, 85, 131.

White-winged, 85, 131.
Sea Swallows, The, 46.
Shag, 77.
Shearwater, Common Atlantic, 66.

Greater, 66.

Wandering, 66.
Shearwaters, The, 65, 68.
Shelldrake (American Merganser), 87.

Buff-breasted, 87.

Hooded, 91.

Pied, 89.

Red-breasted Merganser, 89.



Short Neck, 212.
Shovelec, 84, 107.
Shuffler, 118.
Sickle-bill, 234.
Skimmer, Black, 31, 59.
Skimmers, The, 31, 59.
Skua, Buffon's, 34.
Skuas, The, 29.
Snipe, 191, 192, 201.

American, 204.

Big-headed, 2OI.

Blind, 201.

Brant, 217.

Checkered, 249.

Common, 204.

Cow, 212.

Deutscher, 206.

English, 204.

Fall, 217.

German, 206.

Grass, 212.

Gray (Dowitcher), 206.

Gray (Knot), 209.

Horsefoot, 249.

Jack (Pectoral Sandpiper), 212.

Jack (Wilson's Snipe), 193, 204.

Little Stone, 224.

Meadow, 212.

Mud, 2O I.

Prairie, 229.

Quail, 206.

Red-breasted, 206.

Robin (Dowitcher), 206.

Robin (Knot), 193, 209.

Rock, 211.

Sea, 196.

Stone, 223.

Surf, 193, 219.

Telltale (Greater Yellowlegs), 223.

Telltale (Yellowlegs), 224.

Wall-eyed, 2OI.

Whistling, 2OI.

White (American Avocet), 198.

White (Black-necked Stilt), 199.

Wilson's, 193, 204.

Winter, 209.

Winter (Red-backed Sandpiper),
217.

Wood, 201.
Sora, 173, 1 80.
Soree, 180.

South Southerly, 85, 125.
Speckle-belly, 134.
Speckled Belly, 281.
Spike-tail, 281.
Spoonbill, 107.

Roseate, 156.
Spoonbills, The, 151.
Squealer, 239.
Stake Driver, 157.
Stib, 217.



358



Index



Stilt, Black-necked, 192, 199.


Tern, Wilson's 31, 49.


Stilts, 192, 198.


Terns, The, 29, 30, 35, 46, 48, 50.