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Prefatorj^ Note iv

List of Officers v

Committees vi

List of Members vii

Papers :
L Theophilus Eaton: First Governor of the Colony of New-
Haven ; by Simeon E. Baldwin i

IL The Founding of Yale College; by Charles Henry Smith 34

HL Joseph Earl Sheffield ; by Henry W. Farnam 65

IV. Saybrook in the Early Days ; by Samuel Hart 120

V. Yale College in Saybrook ; by Franklin Bowditch Dexter 129

VL Rev. E. Edwards Beardsley ; by Edwin S. Lines 141

Vn. Why New Haven is not a State of the Union; by Ernest

H. Baldwin 161

VHL Elisha Williams, Minister, Soldier, President of Yale ; by

Francis Parsons 188

IX. The Redding Loyalists ; by Rebecca D. Beach 218

X. The Henry Whitfield House and the State Historical

Museum ; by William G. Andrews 237

XI. The Lost Dukedom, or the Story of the Pierrepont Claim;

by James Kingsley Blake 258

XII. Student Life at Yale in the Early Days of Connecticut Hall ;

by Franklin Bowditch Dexter 288

XIII. Meriden and Wallingford in Colonial and Revolutionary

Days ; by George Munson Curtis 298

Index 329

lPrcfator\> 1Rotc

The New Haven Colon}^ Historical Society has piibHshed seven volumes
of its papers; Vol. I, in 1865; Vol. H, in 1877; Vol. HI. in 1882: Vol.
IV, in 1888; Vol. V, in 1894; Vol. VI, in 1900; and Vol. VII, in 1908.

The Society docs not consider itself committed to the support of the
positions taken in any of the papers thus published. For the statements
or conclusions of each, the author is alone responsible.




©fficcis of tbc 1Rcw) Ibavcn Colony
Historical Societi^



First Vice President:

Second Vice President:


Assistant Secretary:


Advisory Committee
(Constituting with the above named a Board of Directors) :
Arthur T. Hadley, President of Yale University, ex-officio,
John P. Studley, Ma.vor of the City of New Haven, until January ist,
1908; and after that date, James B. Martin, his successor in office,
Frederick E. Whittaker, Town Clerk of New Haven, ex-officio.

Honorary Directors in Permanency

(With power of voting in Board of Directors) :

Arthur M. Wheeler, George B. Adams,

Frank E. Hotchkiss, Henry L. Hotchkiss.

Directors for Three Years: Directors for Two Years:

Simeon E. Baldwin, Edward E. Bradley,

Cornelius S. Morehouse, Richard F. Lyon,

Henry F. English, Benjamin R. English,

Thomas M. Prentice, George D. Watrous,

George L. Dickerman. Francis B. Trowbridge.

Directors for One Year:

Edward C. Beecher, Charles R. Palmer,

Burton Mansfield, Rutherford Trowbridge,

Henry H. Townshend.

Librarian and Curator:
Frederick Bostwick.

Colonial Hall, the building of the Society, is open to the public daily,
except holidays, from 9.30 a. m. to 12.30 p. m., and from 2 p. m. to 5 p. m.

StanMno Committees for 1907^1908

Executive Committee:
The President,
The Secretary,
Edward E. Bradley,
Henry F. English,
Edward C. Beecher.

Finance Committee:
Benjamin R. English,
Cornelius S. Morehouse,
Eli Whitney.

House Committee:
Arthur M. Wheeler,
Simeon E. Baldwin,
Henry F. English,
Charles Ray Palmer,
Rutherford Trowbridge.

Publication Committee:
The President,
The Secretary,
Simeon E. Baldwin,
Burton Mansfield,
Rutherford Trowbridge.

Committee on Papers to he Read:
The President,
The Secretary,
George D. Watrous,
Arthur M. Wheeler,
Charles H. Smith.

Library Committee:
The President,
George B. Adams,
Frederick Bostwick,
Frank E. Hotchkiss,
Henry H. Townshend,
Amory E. Rowland.

Committee on Placing Memorial

Henry T. Blake,
Simeon E. Baldwin.

Committee on A'cw Members:
Cornelius S. Morehouse,
Henry H. Townshend,
Thomas M. Prentice.

Committee on Relics:
Edward C. Beecher,
Thomas M. Prentice,
Cornelius S. Morehouse,
Rutherford Trowbridge,
Richard F. Lyon.

Ladies' Auxiliary Committee:
Mrs. Williston Walker,
Mrs. Arnon A. Alling,
Miss Fannie A. Bowers,
Miss Mary B. Bristol,
Miss Edith Carmalt,
Mrs. Henry Champiok,
Mrs. George L. Dickerman,
Mrs. Henry F. English,
Mrs. Harrison Gray,
Mrs. Burton Mansfield,
Mrs. C. Berry Peets,
Mrs. Talcott H. Russell,
Mrs. J. B. Sargent,
Miss Mary E. Scranton,
Mrs. James K. Thacher,
Mrs. Morris F. Tyler,
Miss Edith Walker,
Mrs. Arthur M. Wheeler,
Mrs. Eli Whitney, Jr.

flDembcrs ot tbc Socict\)

Honorary Members:
William L. Stone, Mt. Vernon, N. Y.
Henry F. Waters, London, England:
Epher Whitaker, Southold, N. Y.
William C. Winslow, Boston, Mass.
Samuel Hart, Middle tozvn, Conn.

Corresponding Member:
L. Vernon Briggs, Hanover, Mass.

William G. Andrews, Gnilfo
Roger S. Baldwin.
Simeon E. Baldwin.
L. Wheeler Beecher.
Frederick Bostwick.
Miss Fannie A. Bowers.
Edw^ard E. Bradley.
Robert Brown.
Ericsson F. Bushnell, A'. Y.
William H. Carmalt.

Franklin B. Dexter.

George L. Dickerman.

Henry F. English.

Mrs. Henry F. Enghsh.

Richard M. Everit.

Henry W. Farnam.

Frederick B. Farnsworth.

Franklin Farrel, Jr., Anson

George H. Ford.

Edwin S. Greeley.

Frank E. Hotchkiss.

Life Members:
rd. I Henry L. Hotchkiss.

Henry Stuart Hotchkiss.
Miss Susan V. Hotchkiss.
Miss Mary S. Johnstone.
George H. Earned, Hamilton, R. L
Joseph Parker.
Joseph Porter.
Edwin Rowe.
City. *Thomas Fitch Rowland, A'. Y. City.

Mrs. Joseph B. Sargent.

*Thomas Day Seymour.

Joel A. Sperry.

Mrs. Elizabeth Pratt Stevens.

Henry H. Townshend.

Frank D. Trowbridge.

Rutherford Trowbridge.

William R. H. Trowbridge.

Mrs. Robert B. Wade.

Eli Whitney.

Arthur W. Wright.

Annual Members:

George B. Adams.

Nelson Adams, Springfield, Mass.

Frederick M. Adler.

Max Adler.

Arnon A. Ailing.

David R. Ailing.

John W. Ailing.

John C. Anderson.

Joseph Anderson, IVoodmont.

George L. Armstrong.

William J. Atwater.

Samuel R. Avis.

Francis Bacon.

Leonard W. Bacon.



Frederic W. Bailey, Worcester, Mass.

Mrs. Henry Baldwin.

Amos F. Barnes.

John F. Barnett.

William E. Barnett.

Thomas R. Barniim.

George J. Bassett.

Miss Rebecca D. Beach.

Miss Elizabeth M. Beardsley.

William A. Beardsley.

William Beebe.

Edward C. Beecher.

Mrs. Edward C. Beecher.

William S. Beecher.

Frank H. Belden.

Mrs. Frank W. Benedict.

George W. L. Benedict.

Mrs. Philo S. Bennett.

Thomas G. Bennett.

Miss Emily Betts.

Frederick A. Betts.

Frank L. Bigelow.

Louis B. Bishop.

Mrs. Timothy H. Bishop.

Henry T. Blake.

James Kingsley Blake.

Clarence B. Bolmer.

Edward G. Bourne.

Mrs. S. Dwight Bowers.

Edward A. Bowers.

Andrew R. Bradley.

Miss E. C. Bradley.

Franklin S. Bradley.

Frederick T. Bradley.

Miss S. L. Bradley.

William H. Brewer.

Frederick F. Brewster.

Eugene S. Bristol.

Louis H. Bristol.

Nathan S. Bronson.

Samuel L. Bronson.

George J. Brush.

Fred B. Bunnell.

George F. Burgess.

Winthrop G. Bushnell.

Timothy E. Byrnes.

Walter Camp.

Leverett Candee.

John S. Cannon.

Le Grand Cannon.

Mrs. Henry Champion.

Edwin L. Chapman.

Minotte E. Chatfield.

Edward M. Clark.

Livingston W. Cleaveland.

Ward Coe.

Frank Addison Corbin.

Charles E. Curtis.

George M. Curtis, Meriden.

George W. Curtis.

Mrs. T. W. T. Curtis.

John P. Gushing.

Leonard M. Daggett.

Edward S. Dana.

Harry G. Day.

Miss Mary E. Day.

Charles S. DeForest.

Eugene DeForest.

Clarence Deming.

William H. Douglass.

Miss Eliza deForest Downer.

John I. H. Downes.

Miss Helen R. Dwight.

Timothy Dwight.

Mrs. Daniel C. Eaton.

Benjamin R. English.

Lewis H. English.

Alexander W. Evans.

Henry W. Farnam, Jr.

Miss Katherine K. Farnam.

Miss Louise W. Farnam.

William W. Farnam.

Mrs. W. W. Farnam.

Bruce Fenn.

Wallace B. Fenn.

William T. Fields.

Irving Fisher.

Samuel H. Fisher.

John B. Fitch.

Charles J. Foote.

Ellsworth I. Foote.

Pierrepont B. Foster.

John S. Fowler.

John Currier Gallagher.


Levi C. Gilbert.

Samuel D. Gilbert.

Wilbur F. Gilbert.

Charles E. Graham.

Mrs. George M. Grant.

Frederick D. Grave.

Arthur C. Graves.

Mrs. George Harriman Gray.

Mrs. Mary F. Woods Greist.

Mrs. Mary T. Gridley.

Arthur T. Hadley.

Charles S. Hamilton.

Alfred E. Hammer.

Edward A. Harriman.

Mrs. Lynde Harrison.

William T. Hayes.

John Edward Heaton.

James S. Hemingway.

Samuel Hemingway.

John Henney.

James Hillhouse.

Mrs. Horace P. Hoadley.

Clarence R. Hooker.

Thomas Hooker.

Hobart L. Hotchkiss.

Justus S. Hotchkiss.

Mrs. Justus S. Hotchkiss.

Norton R. Hotchkiss.

James A. Hpwarth.

William H. Hull.

Mrs. M. E. I. Humphrey.

Samuel W. Hurlburt.

Mrs. Charles L. Ives.

Moses Joy.

Greene Kendrick, JVest Haven.

Andrew Keogh.

Fred. J. Kingsbury, Watcrhury.

Mrs. William L. Kingsley.

H. M. Kochersperger.

George T. Ladd.

David D. Lambert.

Henry R. Lang.

Lyman M. Law.

Henry Barrett Learned.

Wilson H. Lee.

Charles S. Leete.

George W. Lewis.

C. Purdy Lindsley.

Edwin S. Lines, Nezvark, N. J.

H. Wales Lines, Merideii.

Harry K. Lines.

Samuel Lloyd.

Graham Lusk, A"". Y. City.

Henry A. Lyman.

Richard F. Lyon.

Burton Mansfield.

Mrs. Burton Mansfield.

Edward F. Mansfield.

Mrs. John W. Mansfield.

John T. Manson.

George B. Martin.

Arthur Marvin.

A. McClellan Mathewson.

Charles M. Matthews.

John P. McCusker.

Virgil F. McNeil.

Charles S. Mellen.

Miss Mary E. Mersick.

Eli Mix.

Phelps Montgomery.

Arthur Blair Moody.

Cornelius S. Morehouse.

Samuel C. Morehouse.

ElHott H. Morse.

Miss Julia Moseley.

Seth H. Moseley.

Mrs. Seth H. Moseley.

WilHam H. Moseley.

C. LaRue Munson, Williamsport, Pa.

Charles H. Nettleton.

Henry G. Newton.

Charles D. Nicoll.

Arthur D. Osborne.

Lewis Osterweis.

Samuel K. Page.

Charles Ray Palmer.

Frank W. Pardee.

William S. Pardee.

John G. Parker.

Henry F. Parmelee.

Salmon G. Pease.

Henry H. Peck, Waterbury.

C. Berry Peets.

William Lyon Phelps.


Andrew W. Phillips.

Watson L. Phillips.

Miss Lina M. Phipps.

Edwin W. Potter, Hamden.

Thomas M. Prentice.

Miss Lillian E. Prudden.

Horatio G. Redfield.

Mrs. Edward M. Reed.

Horatio M. Reynolds.

Charles L. Rockwell, Meriden.

Edward H. Rogers.

Edwin P. Root.

George A. Root.

Henry C. Rowe.

Amory E. Rowland.

Talcott H. Russell.

Thomas H. Russell.

Mrs. Edward Elbridge Salisbury.

Charles E. P. Sanford.

Mrs. Henry B. Sargent.

Gustave R. Sattig.

Emmett A. Saunders, Mij/iazc;a^a,/;i

John C. Schwab.

Miss Mary E. Scranton.

Morris W. Seymour, Bridgeport.
Joseph Sheldon.

Bernard Shoninger.

Simon B. Shoninger.

Frederick W. J. .Sizer.

Waher C. Skiff.

Clarence E. Skinner.

Andrew H. Smith.

Augustus B. Smith.

Charles H. Smith-

James B. Smith.

Levi T. Snow.

James E. Stetson.

H. Merriman Steele.

Ezekiel G. Stoddard.

Anson Phelps Stokes, Jr.

Edward Taylor.

John H. Taylor.

Clarence E. Thompson.

Frank I. Thompson.

Mrs. Sherwood S. Thompson.

George H. Townsend.

John W. Townsend.

Joseph H. Townsend.

Charles F. Treadway.
Courtlandt H. Trowbridge.
Elford P. Trowbridge.
Francis B. Trowbridge.
Frederick L. Trowbridge.
Hayes Quincy Trowbridge.
Winston J. Trowbridge.
George Henry Tuttle.
Roger W. Tuttle.
Julius Twiss.
*Morris F. Tyler.
Victor Morris Tyler.
Mrs. William R. Tyler.
Isaac M. Ullman.
Addison VanName.
Howard C. Vibbert.
Williston Walker.
Mrs. Williston Walker.
Thomas Wallace, Jr.
I Henry A. Warner.
I William A. Warner.
i Herbert C. Warren.
George D. Watrous.

Mrs. George H. Watrous.
Wheeler deForest Watrous.
William A. Watts.

Mrs. Francis Wayland.

Pierce N. Welch.
j Mrs. Pierce N. Welch.
! Arthur M. Wheeler.

John Davenport Wheeler.

Walter O. Whitcomb.

OHver S. White.

Roger S. White.

Mrs. Eli Whitney.

Mrs. Eli Whitney, Jr.

Miss Henrietta E. Whitney.

Mrs. William D. Whitney.

James M. Whittemore.

M. Maturin Whittemore.

Charles W. Whittlesey.

Fred'k Wells Wilhams.

Arthur P. Woodford.

Rollin S. Woodruff.

Theodore S. Woolsey.

William A. Wright.

Albert Zunder.



By SiMEO^f E. Baldwin^ LL.D.

[Read Jan. 21, 1901.]

Theophilus Eaton is one of the picturesque figures of
early New England.

Of the unique Colony of New Haven, self-founded on a
self-constituted cliurcli, Davenport stood for one side of the
task of working out their ideal into living form, and Eaton for
another. Davenport was more than anyone else answerable
for the theocratic theory. Eaton was relied on to bind it to
earth in some practical way, — to see to it that the law they
had set up was not without its sanction.

He was not like Davenport, a university man. But he was
what counted for much more in the founder of a colony, — a
man of affairs, well acquainted with the great world. His
native faculties were good, and they had been quickened and
broadened by participation, from his earliest manhood, in
large commercial concerns, and to some extent with those of
courts. He had not only traveled abroad, but he had lived
abroad for years, and under circumstances which gave hiui
ample opportunity to observe a form of government founded on
principles not unlike those of his own country, and yet combin-

t[g them with much more of those drawn from the Roman law.
1 this, Davenport and he stood on similar ground, Daven-
port had lived three years in Holland: Eaton had lived at least
as many in Denmark. But Eaton's participation in forcigTi


life had been more intimate and from a more advantageon.s

It is the purpose of this j^aper to gather together suqh of
the scattered bits of information to be fonnd in the records of
the seventeenth century regarding this leader in the beginnings
of !New England history, as may best serve to throw light on
the character of the man, his personal surroundings, and his
training as an English merchant for his work as an American.

He was born in Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire, the eldest
son of what was to be a family of nine children, in 1590.* His
father, Rev. Richard Eaton, M.A., B.D., a graduate of Oxford
University, was then the parish clergyman there, but on Janu-
ary 12th of the following year became vicar of the church of
the Holy Trinity in Coventry.

Trinity church, though not so beautiful as its neighbor, St.
Michael's, is a stately medieval edifice, the spire rising to a
height of 237 feet, and the stone pulpit being one of the finest
in England.

On May 8, 1G04, Mr. Eaton left Coventry, hiwing become,
by succession to his father, vicar of Great Budworth in
Cheshire, a large })arish, some twenty miles northeast of
Chester. To this position was added in 1607 that of a pre-
bendary canon in Lincoln cathedral, f

While at school in Coventry, Theophilus became acquainted
with John Davenport, the son of one of his father's leading
parishioners, a lad several years younger than himself,! bur
whose remarkable abilities i:)ressed him forward in his studies

* This is the date given by Moore in his sketch of Tlieophilus Eaton,
New York Historical Collections, N. S., Vol. II, 469. I regard it as the
most probable one, although Professor Kingsley in his Historical Dis-
course (p. 77) speaks of him as dying in the 67th year of his age, and
we know that the date of his death was January 7, 1658 (N. S.). It is
erroneously entered as on the night following the 7th day of the 11th
month of 1656 (Jan. 7, 1657, N. S.) in the ancient record of Births,
Marriages and Deaths in New Haven, Vol. I., p. 6, MSS.

t N. E. Hist, and Gen. Reg., XXXVIII, 29.

X John Davenport was baptized April 9, 1597. N. E. Hist, and Gen. Reg.,
XLI, 61.


beyond those of his years, so that he was admitted to one of the
colleges of Oxford before he was fourteen.* It was probably
when his father removed to Great Budworth, a country parish,
in which Theophilus could hardly have pursued his education
to advantage, that the question was decided whether he should
be sent to the University, with a view to his ultimately entering
the church, as his parents wished, or, as he preferred, be allowed
to choose a business life. We know that he was apprenticed at
London, not far from this period in his career, and it is safe
enough to assume that he went up to the capital for this purpose
in 1604, when he was fourteen years old.

The term of apprenticeship to all trades and professions was
then seven years. That period of preparation was required
equally before the degree of master of arts could be received
from the University, and before the station of master in any
of the trades could be acquired.

Eaton's apprenticeship was, no doubt, to some London
merchant, and probably to one engaged in the Baltic trade,
under the auspices of the East-Land Company. f The costume
which he wore we can now often see on boys of the same age
in the streets of London, for it is still the dress of the scholars
at Christ Hospital. His master must have been a member of
one of the great livery companies of London (probably that of
the Mercersl), in which his apprentices, at the end of

* Mather, Magnalia, Book III, Chap. IV. He finally entered Merton in 1G13.
N. E. Hist, and Gkn. Reg., XLI, 61.

•f- Tradition calls an ancient volume, dated London, January 6, 1608, in
which the fi.rst New Haven records were entered. Gov. Eaton's ledger.
It contains mercantile accounts ; probably those of his master. See
1 N. H. Col. Eec, iii. The entries cover January and February, 1608,
and are such as would be expected in a day-book. One page is marked
as if posted. The business of the merchant was apparently that of an
exporter. The goods described include the following: Kentish Cloth,
Quarterne Flax, woolen Stockinge, Sheepes Leather, Welch Cottones,
Welch Rowles, Lyme, Norridge StuflFs, Schott, Lambe Skimies, and Pad-

^ I hazard this conjecture on account of (1) Eaton's subsequent employ-
ment by the Iving of Denmark to buy woolen cloth for him in England,
as stated on p. !) : (2) the fact that a search which I have had made in tlie
records of the Drapers' Company shows no entry of his name among the
freemen, and (3) from the entries in the day-book above described.


their service, would also have the right to be enrolled, and so to
become freemen of the city.*

Eaton, in due course, attained this dignity. Cotton Mather,
from whose Magnalia-\ most of our information about his
youth is derived, represents him at this period as a handsome
young fellow, full of spirits, energetic, enterprising and indus-
trious. He now embarked in the Baltic trade. His father
was a man of some little means, owning two small places known
as Pow House and Poos House, in Over Whitley, a to-^vnship
in Great Budworth, otherwise known as Higher Whitley, ami
near the estate of AVhitley Hall. Probably some capital or
credit was derived by young Eaton from this source, for we are
told that he soon became engaged in profitable trade as a mem-
ber of the East-Land Company.

This was among the more important of the English commer-
cial companies of the seventeenth century. 1 There were but
three of these organized on the basis of a joint stock, divided
into shares : the East India, Royal African and Hudson's Bay
Companies. The East-Land Company, or more properly "the
Fellowship of East-Land Merchants," had been chartered by
Queen Elizabeth in 1579, as a "regulated" company. It had
no capital stock, except a small accumulation from entrance
fees; but only those who had been admitted to its membership
could trade in the Baltic Sea, where it had in this way an abso-
lute monopoly of English commerce. Its charter privileges
were confirmed by Charles I, in 1629, and enjoyed unimpaired
until 1673. § Each member traded on his own account, and
with his own capital, but in a measure under its favor and

The management of all companies of this description was in a
governor, one or more deputy governors, and a court of

* Stuhbs, Constitutional History, III, 595.

fBook II, Chap. IX.

J See "li'he Acts and Ordinances of the RasUand Company," Camden
Publications, Royal Hist. Soc, 1906.

§ Anderson's Hist, of Commerce, II, 148, 292, 339, 521. It continued
in existence initil the nineteenth century.


It was not long before Eaton was elected deputy governor of
the East-Land Companr, "wherein," says Mather, ''he so
acquitted himself as to become considerable."*

His father, apparently, had now removed his family to Lon-
don, and was residing in the heart of the old city in the parish
of St. Mary Woolchurch Haw. The church stood next to the
''Stocks-market," where the Mansion House is now, and derived
its name of Woolchurch Haw (that is, wool churchyard) from
a beam or set of scales placed in the churchyard for weighing
wool.f Its records contain entries of his burial on July 20,
1616, and of that of his son John, a few weeks later. His will
was also proved in London.

Theophilus Eaton spent a number of years in the north of
Europe at this period of his life. Probably he was abroad
when his father died, for though he was the sole executor of
the Avill, he did not offer it for probate until January 14,
1617.t The estate was a slender one for so large a family, and
Theophilus from this time contributed largely to the support
of his mother and the education of his younger brother and
sisters. §

He had become interested in a young lady living in the same
parish. Miss Grace Hiller, but their engagement was deferred
until he should be in a better position to set up a separate estab-
lishment. This was not to be for three years, which time he
spent in Denmark in mercantile pursuits. They were then
betrothed, and their marriage followed on December 3d, 1622. |i
Two days later his sister Hannah was also married in London
to Joseph Denman of the same parish, who had been one of the
witnesses to their father's will.

* In Trumbull's History of Connecticut (I, 94) this company is appar-
ently confused \vitli the East India company, and it is stated, probably
because of this error, that Eaton was three years in the East Indies.

f Bailey, Antiquities of London, 162.

I A copy of the will, which has not been printed before, is appended
to tliis paper.

§ Mather's Magnalia, Book II, Chap. IX.

II This and several other important events in Eaton's life were brought
to light by the personal researches of Professor F. B. Dexter, in parish
registers, who has kindlj'^ communicated them to me for use in this paper.


It is probable that Eaton took his wife, at first, to Copen-
hagen. He was entrusted with important concerns there, and
mingled in court circles.*

Mather tells us that "the King of England employed him as
an agent with the King of Denmark," and that in this capacity
''he much obliged and engaged the East-Land Company, who,
in token thereof, presented his wife with a basin and ewer
double gilt and curiously wrought with gold, and weighing
above sixty j)ounds."

This King of England was James I, whose wife's brother.
Christian lY, was on the throne of Denmark. iSTot only family
ties, but religious sympathies kept these men in close touch
with each other. Eaton first went abroad soon after the
Evangelical Union and the Catholic League took shape, and
when the adherents of each in various quarters were either
already engaging in active hostilities or on the brink of it.
The Thirty Years AVar was opened in 1G18, when he was a man
of twenty-eight. It is probable that he was a resident of Copen-
hagen, not far from this period, and when that capital was the
seat of important diplomatic negotiations. The relations of
England with the Continent had become close in several
quarters. James I was the father-in-law of the Elector Pala-
tine, who was crowned King of Bohemia in jSTovember, 16 19.
Four thousand English troops were sent to his assistance ; but
a year later he was defeated at the battle of Prague.! Pive
years afterwards Christian lY took command of the allied
Protestant armies against Austria, but surrendered it to the

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