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Bark. Smooth in young or medium trees; patchy in appearance, but
not flaky, in older trees. A bushman's description is, l ' It has a cracked
sort of bark, a little resembling that of Teak, but less rough, and not

F. Fl., pi. 77.

FLINDERSIA BENNETTIANA, F.v. M. (Crow's Ash, or Bogum Bogum.)

F. Fl., pi. 78.

FLINDERSIA BENNETTIANA, Fv M (Crow's Ash or BoquTi Bogum


Timber. A fissile, pale yellow timber, with no figure to speak of. It
has certainly no dyeing properties.

It was first collected in 1828 by Charles Fraser, Superintendent of th
Botanic Gardens at Sydney, and Allan Cunningham, King's Botanist, ou
the Brisbane River. Hooker, in. describing it, says : " Its timber is found
to be very useful in various kinds of carpentry, and in the building of
boats, &c." (Botanical Miscellany, Vol. i, p. 247). So that it had acquired
& good reputation at an early date.

Mr. District Forester Pope, Casino, says of it:

It is not much used cither locally or for export, init I am convinced it is a
most valuable timber. It is very tough, and of a light yellow colour.

Mr. W. Dunn, Forest Guard, Acacia Creek, Macpherson Eange, says :

The wood cuts soft like Cudgerie (/'. t^cliottion'a). The timber is long in the
grain and strong, and inclines to be yellow in colour towards the centre of the
tree; of course, we have other varieties of timber here much yellower in colour
than this timber referred to. It is a really valuable timber.

The official catalogue of the Queensland Forestry Museum, 1904, says :

A large tree, with light-coloured, rough bark. Wood of a pale yellow colour,
and a distinctive odour. Chief uses for coach-building, railway-carriage frame-
work, boring-rods, and purposes for which strength, combined with lightness,
.are required : also cabinet-making, joinery, turnery, and picture-frames. It In
very elastic, bends well, and i.s consequently very suitable for casks.

The timber is stated to be very durable and is tough; it is used for
making shafts, swingle-trees, and yokes. It is often mistaken for Beech,
and is sometimes supplied for that timber. It is an excellent carving
wood, as a beautiful specimen of carving in the Technological Museum,
Sydney, by the late Mr. W. Ockelford, testifies.

A full account of this timber, chiefly from the point of view of the
railway carriage-builder, will be found; in MacMahon's " Queensland Mer-
chantable Timbers," p. 53. Here it is stated that:

"It is largely used in the framing of carriages and waggons. It holds paint
well, and nails may be driven into it without splitting, close up to the end of
the scantling. In the works of the Brisbane Tramways Company this timber is
a prime favourite; it is used for body-framing, pillars, and finishing; it is
found to answer remarkably well for portions of the structure of a trarncnr.
which it is necessary to bend by steam, and has, in fact, supplanted entirely
the more expensive blackwood for this purpose. For an entirely all-round
timber it cannot he spoken of too highly, and quite fills the place of English and
American ash. A departmental board of the Commonwealth Military Forces
has recently decided that this is the most suitable wood in Australia for ammu-
nition boxes."

Ki:<\ Height 80 to 100 feet, with a barrel of 4 to 8 feet in diameter in Mac-
liherson Itange. (J. L. Boorman.)

Habitat. This tree is confined to the rich brush forests of northern
New South Wales and Queensland. What its precise southern and northern
limits are I do not know, and inquiries such as these are the legitimate
and even necessary duty of a Botanical or F&rest Survey.

I have specimens in the National Herbarium from the Richmond and
Tweed Rivers, New South Wales, and also one labelled " Stroud district "
from the late Mr. Augustus Rudder, but I probably misunderstood him as
regards the locality. As regards Queensland, its range appears to be hardly
better known than at the time of its discovery ninety-six years ago.


Concerning New South Wales, Mr. District Forester Pope, of Casino,
reports :

It grows in most of the brush forests in this district, but appears to be
favourable to red soil. There is a considerable quantity of it along the Tenter-
field-road on Forest Reserves 2,425 and 1,120. It is fairly abundant in all the
brushes of the Tweed and Richmond Rivers evenly distributed. Does not
attain such a size on Forest Reserves 2,42o and 1,120 as in other localities.

Mr. Forest Guard W. Dunn, of Acacia Creek, Macplierson Range,
reports :

This is the scarcest Flindcrsia here. It is very careful in selecting its habi-
tation. My opinion is, it favours brush mountain regions with plenty of

Turning to Queensland, Hooker wrote in 1830, on C. Eraser's notes of his
trip in 1828 :

The south side of the Brisbane, as far as Canoe Creek, is covered with forests
of pine, or Araiicaria, to a considerable extent. The north bank, as far as
Glenmorlston'a Range, is principally OJKMI forest, not reaching far, beyond
which it is clothed with pine brushes as on the south. These forests contain-
immense quantities of Yellow-wood (Oxlci/a aKtntho j.-iil<i) (lintunlnil .l/7.srr7-
linuj, Vol i, p. 24G).


A. Flowering branch.

n. Flower.

c. Expanded flower, showing () Petals, (&) Stamens. (>> Stamin-

odia, (d) Disc, (r) Ovary. (/) Stigma.
. Part of flower () Stamens, (b) Staminodia. O) Disc, (<1') Ovary,

(e) Stigma.
K. Stamens.

r. Transverse section of ovary,
a. Calyx.


A. Part of stem, showing leaflets and articulation of petiole,

n. Capsule opening septicidally.

c. Deciduous placenta,

i). Winged seeds.

Flindersia Schottiana, E.v.M.


Botanical Name. SclioiUana, in honour of Heinrich Scliott, Director of
the Imperial Zoological and Botanical Garden of Vienna.

Vernacular Names, The aboriginal name " Cudgerie " has become its-
common, vernacidar name. The late Mr. Augustus Rudder sent it under
the names of "Ash" and "Stave-wood." "Mountain Ash" is not an
uncommon name. I may say that a great many pale-coloured 'timbers,
more or less fissile, go by the names of "Ash" and "Stave-wood" in.

I believe is to be one of the trees which has passed under the name of
" Flindosa." The origin of this name I have been unable to trace, and
would suggest that it is a timber-man's rendering of Flindersia. We have
the same word in " Flindosy Beech," sometimes applied to the tree.

F. Fl , pi. 73.


F. Fl., pi. 74.

FLINDERSIA OXLEYANA, F.v.M. (The Yellow Wood.)


Aboriginal Names. u Cndgerie," or " Cudgery," of Northern New South
.Wales and Southern Queensland.

Cudgerie and Teal:. Under F. australis, I have already drawn attention,
to the confusion that has existed for so many years between "'Cudgerie"
(F. Schottiana) and Teak (F. australis).

Leaves. Leaflets bright green and shiny in the upper surface; pale green
and dead dull on the lower; nearly eordate at base sometimes, except the
terminal one.

To look at the leaves on a growing Cudgerie in the distance, the leaves look
larger than the Teak leaves, hut upon ohtaining them we find they are not
larger. The leaves are a beaut it'nl dark green, and have a pleasing appearance
when on the tree, reminding one of Silky Oak {(ircrtl'ca roltuxtu.) (AY. Dunn.)

Fruit. Attention has already been directed to Cudgerie fruits in com-
parison with Teak fruits. Besides the roughened edges of the valves of
the latter, those of the former are flatter and less pungent.

Bark. Smooth, and often glaucous.

Timber. It is a pale-coloured (yellow when fresh, and drying to a whito
or cream colour), generally useful wood, which shrinks but little in drying.
3t is rather hard and tough, and is hence sometimes objected to on that
score. A recent special use is for railway keys. It is often used as a
substitute for Colonial Beech, which it resembles a good deal in outward
iippearance. It is used for shingles and staves, for flooring, and for general
carpentry work. It is softer than Native Teak, and not so durable as that
timber. The two timbers are really very different.

I look upon Cudgerie as one of the most valuable of New South Wales
timbers, and one whose merits will be more appreciated as it becomes better

Size. It attains a large 1 si/e, up to over 100 feet in height, and a diameter
of over :> feet. 1 have alluded to its si/e. in comparison with Teak, in
Part XVII, p. 152, of my " Forest Flora of New South Wales."

Habitat. It is confined to Northern New South Wales and Queensland.

I do not know its northern limit in Queensland. Bentham records it
from Wide Bay (Bidwill) ; Cumberland Islands (Herb. F. Mueller) ; Bris-
bane River (A. Cunningham). I have it from Cairns (E. Betche) ; Gympie
(Dr. Hamilton-Kenny) ; and other localities.

In New South Wales it does not appear to have been recorded south of
the Hastings River. From thence it is not uncommon, in brush forests,
to the Queensland border.

At' Taylor's Arm there is a fair supply scattered in the brushes. (District
Forester T. H. Wilshire.) The same gentleman says:

In speaking of the Ash from Mt. Yarrahappini. there is a fair supply to he
had; the trees attain fair height with rather small barrels. It is not used
much locally.

But S. G. F. Smith, Stewart's Pt._, llaclcay River, asserts that:

There are about feet of this (Mountain Ash) growing in one sp<
i Mount Yarrahappini ; the barrels of some are SO feet in length.

It is plentiful in the brush forests of the Macpherson Range (W. Dunn).



A. Part of stem showing articulation of petiole.

B. Flowering branch.
c. Flower.

D. Flower more expanded, showing (a) Petals, (&) Stamens, (c)

Staminodia, (d) Disc, (e) Ovary, (/) Stigma.

E. Portion of flowers (a) Stamens, (&) Staminodia, (c) Disc, (e)

Ovary, (/) Stigma.

F. Stamens.

G. Transverse section of ovary.
H. Calyx.


A. Leaf (with leaflets).

B. Capsule opening septicidally.

c. Capsule reversed, the inside of the valves turned inside out in the
process of ripening, to distribute the seeds. It would appear that
this process of retroflexion, -or turning inside out of the fruits, is
unusual in the genus.

D. Seeds (winged all round).

F. Fl., pi. 69.


F. Fl., p.l. 70.



1. Gmelina Leichhardtii (White Beech).

2. Ceratopetalum apetalum (Coach Wood).

3. Doryphora sassafras (Sassafras).

4. Litscea reticulata (Bolly Gum).

5. Castanospermum australe (Black Bean).

6. Alphitonia excelsa (Red Ash).

7. Ficus nibiginosa (Eusty Fig).

Gmelina Leichhardtii, F.v.M.

Botanical Xante. Gmelina, in honor of George Gmeliii, a German
naturalist and traveller (Georg Friedrich), author of a botanical work
published at Tubingen in 1699. Leichhardtii is also in honor of a German
naturalist and traveller, an Australian explorer, whose name is ever before
the people of Xew South Wales and Queensland.

Vernacular Names. This tree is favoured by being universally known
as J^eech, or White Beech, and by no other names; but it should be borne
in mind that hardly any term is more loosely known in New South Wales
than that of Beech. We have a true Beech (the Negro-head, Fagus Moorei),
and, in addition, She Beech, Blue Beech, Brown Beech, Bully Beech, and
many other Beeches, most of which only resemble each other in all being
totally dissimilar to the Beech of Europe.

Flowers. They are very handsome, white with purple markings, as stated
by Bentham, and sometimes almost entirely purple.

Leaves. The leaves are rather large, and show handsome venation, par-
ticularly on the underside. Like many other verbenaceous plants, they
readily fall off in drying.

Timber. A very useful timber, strong, durable, and easily worked. It
does not expand in d,amp or contract in dry weather if moderately seasoned,
hence it is much prized for the decks of vessels and the flooring of verandahs.
Speaking of this timber, Mr. Baeuerlen wrote to me:

I have just seen a staircase, and eleven months ago the tree from which the
wood was taken was growing in the forest. It was cut at once, green as it was,
and up to the present no sign of shrinking or cracking can be seen.

It warps neither in plank nor in log. It is excellent for picture-frames,
and is a wood'f requently chosen where it would" not be safe to trust a wood
of which there might be doubts as to whether it would shrink or warp. It
is used for the floats of mill-wheels, the jambs of windows, and for innumer-
able other purposes. It would be almost impossible to misplace it for
ordinary indoor carpentry work. If I were asked to name the three most
valuable timbers of New South Wales I would say, Grey Ironbark, Cedar,
and Beech.

One drawback to this valuable timber is that where it is used for flooring
which is exposed to the weather, around every nail there becomes a hole
in the course of a few years. This is usually explained by ascribing to
Beech some property which eats or rusts away the nails. For the same
reason wine-casks of Beech can never be hooped with black iron. So far as
I am aware, no chemist has ever examined Beech to see if it contains a
trace of free acid or some salt which Avould explain the corrosion above
referred to. ,

Beech is largely used for the manufacture of vats for wine, and I believe
it is an admirable wood for the purpose. It is too short in the grain to split,
so that split staves cannot be made of it.

As regards its use by coach-builders, Mr. S. Lownds, Teacher in Coach-
building at the Technical College, informed me :

?This is a very useful timber for panels and thin boards. It is pretty durable,
l>ut rather soft, but its softness is, in some instances, an advantage. Where
extreme heat or moisture has to be considered, as in bakers' carts. Beech will
be found to withstand such influences better than most timbers. It paints and
polishes well, is very easily worked, and does not readily split.

It is pale-coloured, white with a tinge of brown. As a very general rule,
it is plain, but occasionally it shows a neat grain, which is ornamental. It
is rather close-grained and excellent to work. If it be glued with Russian
.glue, mixed with sour milk, it will hold like solid wood when made into
furniture. It is very extensively used for ships' blocks.

Up till a few years ago it was remarkable that no engineering tests had
been made of such an universally-appreciated timber. Professor Warren
lias rectified the omission in his work on Australian timbers, published for
the Chicago Exhibition. The timber referred to as White Beech is tho
one under discussion, the other Beech (Xegro-head) is a Fagus. Professor
Warren gives the weight of some Beech he tested as 49-1 Ib. per cubic foot.
I examined some which was bone-dry, having been seasoned over a quarter
of a century; its weight was 36 Ib. per cubic foot. On the average (as
found in the market), its weight is between 40 and 50 Ib. per cubic foot.

'Mr. District Forester T. H. Wilshire, in reporting it from Kangaroo
Creek, 30 miles from Graf ton, says that a fair amount in log is shipped to

As regards Queensland, the following is quoted from the official catalogue
just referred to:

This timber, being much prized, was extensively used in former years; the
quantity remaining now being limited. Occasional trees are, however, met with
in some of our coastal scrubs, north and south, but generally in such places as
are difficult of access.

Size. From 80 to 120 feet high, and a diameter of 2 to 4 feet. The
Sydney Morning Herald of 16th August, 1898, says:

An Enormous Beech Tree. Mr. Xicholi's steamer. '"Excelsior," which yester-
day arrived in port, brought, as part cargo, an enormous beech tree from the
Byron Bay district. The tree was cut into logs 9 feet in length, and averaged
:ibout 17 feet in girth. Only the main barrel of the giant was brought to
Sydney, and this comprises 10,000 feet of timber, which filled one-half of the
vessel's hold.

Distribution. The north bank of the Shoalhaven is its southernmost limit
in New South Wales; thence it extends along the coast, in brushes, to
Sou the rn Queensland. It is found in the Shoalhaven district and the
Illawarra, but is not plentiful. It used to be found in Jasper's Brush, but

F. Fl., pi. 33.

GMELINA LEICHHARDTII, F.v.M. ahe Beech, or White Beech.)


not on the Cambewarra Mountain. Preceding north, a few trees may be
found in the brushes about Otford, Lilydale, &c., but I have not seen any.
It skips the Sydney district and reapix?ars in the Brisbane Water district,
being cut at the present time, though to a small extent (as good trees are in
almost inaccessible localities), about Wyong Creek, Cooranbong, &c. Then
it is found here and there along the coast, but nowhere very plentifully.
There is a good deal back from the Bellinger and Coff's Harbour. It occurs
all through the Big Scrub, on the Richmond and Brunswick, and also in
isolated patches of scrub on the Tweed. It is not a plentiful tree/j it
nowhere appears to be gregarious, but in isolated trees, far apart.

Following are a few specific notes :

Never plentiful in my district; only a few trees left in very rugged places.
( Forester Martin. (Josford. )
One or t\v<> saplings only in my district. (Forester A. Rudder, Booral.)

it is found on Tallowak Mountain (back of Failford), also at John's
River, and at Pappinbarra Creek, 40 miles back from Port Macquario.
This timber is getting so scarce that notes of localities from which it is
obtained at the present time are interesting. Lattice-laths of beech were
being cut at Laurieton. (J.II.M.)

Sparsely distributed throughout the brush portion of my district. Large
quantities have been removed from this district years ago, particularly from
ilie Allgomera Forests and the rpper Namhucca; but not much remains in
easily accessible districts. ProbaMy from 20,000 to 40,000 feet might be readily
obtained ;it an advanced price. (Forester MacDonald, Kempsey.)
Very little in my immediate locality. (G. M. McKeown. Wollongbar. )
A few lives are to he found on Reserves 4,353 and 10,723, county Kons ;
1 -J.I. "in, county Buller ; 3,120, counties Rons and Buller; on Crown lands. Hay-
stack and Watershed between Xoivela and Beaury Creeks, county Buller.
(Forester Crowley, Casino.)

Propagation. From the fruits (beech-nuts). Unfortunately, however,
they are usually attacked by an insect as they approach maturity, and this,
combined with the natural hardness of the seed, renders propagation of the
Beech usually a difficult mattter. This is to be regretted, as one see so
few seedlings and saplings of the White Beech coming forward in the
brushes. The tree, therefore, is within measurable distance of extermina-
tion in readily accessible localities. It would be nothing less than a national
calamity if this valuable tree were to practically die out. In most cases
our trees propagate themselves .readily, and what is chiefly required is to
conserve the young growth, not to make artificial plantings; but in the case
of the White Beech, I think an exception should be made, and artificial
propagation resorted to in suitable localities. Indian Teak seeds are very
similar to White Beech seeds, and indeed the two trees are closely allied.,
botanically. Both seeds take a long time to germinate under ordinary
circumstances. The method of preparing Teak seeds for germination in
India is to bury heaps of them in a shallow earthen pit which is covered
over with soil and kept moist. When the seeds begin to germinate they are
opened out and carefully planted.


.\. Corolla, opened out. showing didynamous .stamens.

n. Exterior of corolla.

c. Pistil, showing unequally two-lohed stigma.

n. Stamen, with diverging anther-cells.

F. Stamen, the anther discharging pollen.

r. Fruits.

c. Putamen (stone of .seed), the mesocarp (succulent part) removed.

208 -

Ceratopetalum apefalum, D. Don,

Botanical Name. Ceratopetalum, from two Greek words, keras (a horn)
and petalon (a petal), the petals being jagged, reminding one of a stag's
horn, in the species (C. gummiferum) on. which the genus was founded.
Apetalum, without petals, this character being distinctive of the species.

Vernacular Names. Its commonest name is " Coach Wood," so called
because of the use of its timber in coach-building. It is also called " Leather
Jacket " because of its tough, fibrous, closely-adherent bark. " Light
Wood " is a common name for it (perhaps nearly as much iu vise as
" Coach Wood," but an undesirable name as we have so- many other light
woods). It is so called because it is very light when properly seasoned,
in fact, about 40 Ib. per cubic foot would be a fair average.

Flowers. The flowers are white and not very conspicuous, but as growth
proceeds the calyx very largely increases in size, takes on a crimson or
purple colour, and becomes very conspicuous, forming what is known to
most people as the " flower."

Bark. If the bark be wounded it gives off a perfume; its smell is like
that of Tonka beans or new-mown hay, and is owing to the presence of a
substance called " Coumariii." I have kno*vn a small slab of it to be useful
for scenting linen-presses.

Timber. The one great value of this tree is. for its timber, and it would
be far more used than it is were it not for the frequently inaccessible
.gullies in which much of the best timber is found. It is tough and is used
for tool handles and for boat and coach building. It possesses a faint but
pleasant odour. It is said to be peculiarly well adapted for sounding boards,
for musical instruments, for stethoscopes, and such purposes. Its uses in
that direction have, however, been little more than tentative.

Planks of Coach Wood, both wide and thick, may be procured from the
larger timber yards in Sydney, so that enterprising people can have no
difficulty in testing it for special requirements. Much of what supplies the
Sydney market comes from Gosford.

Its value as a coach-builder's timber is sufficiently great to be insisted

It is a useful timber to the coach-builder for placing in clean, dry
situations. Und,er such circumstances it is equal to English Ash. Its
weakness is its liability to rot when left in damp or dirty places near the
bottoms of carriages which are neglected and not kept clean. For very
many years this timber has been in request for coach-building. An eminent
coach-builder informed me that " it is the grandest Australian timber for
coach-b\iilding." It is undoubtedly excellent for bodies, and a good all-round

Size. It commonly attains a height of 60 or 70 feet and even more, and
a diameter of 2 or 3 feet.

Halntat. This trees is almost confined to New South Wales. It extends
into Queensland at the Macpherson Range. It is a gully tree, and common
as it is, I believe I have never seen it out of such situations. It may be
found in most of the Blue Mountain gullies, and also a considerable distance
north and south of Sydney. The furthest southern locality I know for this
tree is Milton; the furthest western, Mount Wilson; and the furthest
northern, the Macpherson Range.

F. Fl., pi. 21.





The small twig at the right hand bottom of the plate shows the normal

The large twig, tilling most of the plate, shows the enlarged calyx-lobes,
forming the " flowers."

A. Flower.

H. Flower in more advanced stage (o) Lobe of calyx, (I)) Stamen,

i c I'erigynons disc.
(. Flower, further advanced with calyx removed (<?) Half inferior

ovary, ( r I Hecurved styles.
D. Stamen, front and back view of anther appendage.

Doryphora sassafras, Endl.

Botanical .\arne. Doryphora (Greek) Doru (a spear), phero (I bear),
perhaps in allusion to the long appendage to the anther; sassafras., because
its odour is reminiscent of that of the well-known Sassafras of North

Vernacular Name. Sassafras, or by ignorant people Sassafrax. Some-
times it is called Black Sassafras. I would sugggest the name New South
Wales Sassafras for Doryphora, as it is mainly developed in this State,
Atherosperma, another Sassafras, being more abundant in Tasmania and
Victoria, and Cinnamomum Oliveri in Queensland.

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