attempts, for the future, to Trade with these Indians; and if care be not taken to prevent the
like injuries, otherwise than by complaints to the Gov"' of Canada, or Court of France, they
will at last effectually put an end to that Trade.
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXX. 743
The French have Priests among the several Nations in amity with them, as v^ell as Smiths
and Traders, who, by presents, witli wliich they are furnished out of tlie King's Stores and by
other artifices endeavour to gain the affections of the Indians, and infuse prejudices to the
English. The French Emissaries are often among the Six Nations, and some of them Trade
among them, the' they have not been able to settle any Priests anywhere in the Villages of
the Six Nations ; many of these Priests are for the most part engaged at a cheap easy rate, '
by a spirit of Enthusiasm, and others by hope of preferment. One lately tryed to have
admission at Onondaga, but he could not obtain it. This Man is now settled at Kadarachqui
River near where it comes from the lake of the same name; his residence being near the Five
Nations, and not far from Oswego, he tries all means to draw the Indians to him, and to gain
their affections, by distributing large presents among them, and other artifices, for which
purpose he is not only liberally supplied from the King's stores, but, it is said, that he is a
person of a considerable Estate, which he converts to the same use, on the promise he has
had of a Bisiioprick, after some certain time of service among the Indians.
The great advantage the English have over the French, is their being able to furnish tlie
Indians with goods at a cheaper Rate, than the French can, to remove this disadvantage as
much as possible, the French Officer at Oniagara has orders to sell goods, as cheap or cheaper,
than is done at Oswego, tho' it should be done with the loss of 30000 Livres a year which he
is promised shall be recompensed out of the King's stores, or from the Treasury.
The Indians, who trade at Oswego, generally pass by Oniagara; the French hope that if
they can once perswade the Indians that they sell as cheap or cheaper than the English, the
grand objection which the Indians make to their erecting fortifyed Trading houses will be
removed. And if they can be once well secured by fortifications, at all the passes between the
Lakes, they can then speak in a different tone to the Indians, and by force prevent their going
to Trade anywhere but with them. The I>ench have already a Fort and a settlement of
French Farmers suthcient to supply themselves with provisions at a place called Detroit, between
lake Erie and the lake of the Hurons ; but the Five Nations would never suffer any Fortifications,
at the Straits between Lake Erie and Kadarachqui Lake, till since Queen Annes War, the
French have obtained leave to build a Store house, to save their goods in transportation over
the pass, between the Lakes, which they have insesibly fortifyed ; but now they are attempting
a Fortification of a different kind, which if they can accomplish and finish, as it is projected,
will be of great consequence, not only as it will keep the Six Nations, at all times in awe, but
intercept all the Indians to the westward of it, and where the great Beaver hunting is, in their
way to trade with the English. Besides these Forts, the French keep a small armed Sloop on
Cadarachqui Lake which may be of great consequence in preventing trade with Oswego.
The Six Nations in general are very sensible, how much their liberty will be affected by these
Forts, and are much displeased with them, tho' the French by presents and other Artifices gain .
some particular Indians to favour their designs. The Indians would gladly prevent the
Building of these Forts, but they have such an opinion of the French power and good policy,
that they dare not attempt any thing of themselves by force, while they can not depend on
being effectually supported by the English, which our conduct of late has given them too good
reason to doubt of.
The English only complain and expostulate with the Gov' of Canada or the Court of France;
The French give amusing or evasive answers, but still go on with their works, and in pursuing
their grand design, till they shall have brought their work to such perfection, that they can
without fear avow their Intention.
744 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
The grand advantnge the French have is, that their affairs among the Indians are all directed
by one Council, and no expence is thought too great, which is necessary for their purposes ; at
the same time it is certainly true, that they do perform the same service, at half the expence the
I shall now huml)ly submit my opinion of what may be proper to be done in order to secure
the P'idelity of the Indian Nations already in amity with the English Colonies, to promote our
interest and trade among them and all the other Nations in North America, and defeat the
designs of the French to our prejudice. For these purposes, it seems in the first place necessary,
to take off all duties and iinposts, from the goods used in the Indian Trade, for since the
principal advantage the English have over the French is, in being able to furnish the Indians
with goods at a cheaper rate, the laying duties on Indian goods, is in a great measure giving
up that advantage. Besides by the artifices used in collecting those duties, the trade is much
hampered, and the fair trader discouraged, and the knavish part of the Traders, get advantage
of the honest.
Next, some law ought to be passed, whereby the Indians, on their complaints, may get
Justice done them speedily, by summary proces, and that in all dealings, between Indians &
Christians, Indian evidence be allowed; they, who are acquainted with the Indians and the
Indian Traders, I am confident will allow, tiiat the Indians have the telling a lye, in evidence,
as much in abhorrence as the Traders have swearing a falsehood.
After long observation on the conduct of Indian affairs, I am of opinion, that they can only
be managed by one single person of sufficient ability, as Superintendant of Indian affairs, who
shall not be allowed to trade in any shape directly or indirectly. For, all the abuses and
negligences in the management of these affairs have arisen from the private views, the
Commissioners of Indian Affairs have had to promote their own trade, and to lay the other
traders under difficulties and disadvantages. This [matter] of the trade raises perpetual jealousies
among the people employed in it, and likewise with our neighbouring Colonies, and bring the
Commissioners into contempt among the Indians, many instances of which can be given, and
are well known to all, who have any k'nowledge of Indian affairs. If the frauds and abuses
in Trade be not effectually prevented, it will be impossible otherwise to preserve the affections
of the Indians. Those abuses can no way be prevented, but by appointing some single
person of sufficient ability, and with authority to redress the Injuries which the Indians receive,
and to prevent their receiving the like for the future, and that he have an allowance sufficient
to encourage a Gentleman filly qualified for these purposes; that he be enabled to send
Smiths, to reside among the Indians, men of the best probity and sence that can be found for
that purpose and to send other Messengers, both, Indians and Christians to the distant Nations,
upon any emergency and as occasion shall require.
No doubt it will be of great use to have Missionary preachers settled, in as many places, as
there can be requisite funds found for their subsistence. It is to be hoped the Societys in
England for propagating the Gospel and Christian knowledge in Foreign parts, will contribute
to their utmost abilities ; in this case, much will depend on the choice of the persons, they
must be subject to the direction of the Superintendant of Indian Affairs and correspond
constantly with him.
The Superintendant ought constantly to correspond with the Board of Trade, and with all
the Governours on the Continent of North America, to give and receive intelligence and
advice. So far I think it is necessary, and perhaps may be sufficient to promote our interest
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXX. 745
aud Trade among the Indians, if the designs and enterprises of the French were not at the
same time to be guarded against. For this purpose I am of opinion, the building a Sloop of
Force at Oswego, in order to cruise the whole summer on Cadarachqui Lake, would be of great
use because all the Indians or Traders who go or come from the Indian Nations to the
Westward, and all the Fur Trade passes through this Lake. This vessel may carry goods to
several parts round this Lake, at stated times, at which time the Indians living round the Lake
and at a distance from it may come by appointment or advice to purchase those goods at the
cheapest rates. She ought to be of such force as to be under no apprehensions from the small
Sloop, which the French have on the same lake. This I hinted to M'' Clark several years
since, and I was told he proposed it to the Board of Trade ; I have since often heard your
Excell''^' mention it as a thing you thought would be of great use. Next, to make a
settlement and some kind of fortification at Irondequat, which is on Cadarachqui Lake, about
half way between Oswego and Oniagara, where the French are now building their Fort ;
this has likewise been long thought of, as the Land there is very good and fit for a settlement,
and has been purchased of the Indians for that purpose. The uses of this Fort and settlement
are: first, that it is the pass from Canada to the Senecas Country; secondly, that in case the
French obstructed the passage at Oniagara, the Indians by making a circuit within land, could
come to this jyiace to Trade ; thirdly, it may be very convenient on many occasions as a
harbour for the sloop proposed to be built on the Lake Cadarachqui ; 4"^ if we do not take
possession of it, the French will, which they have again and again attempted ; and lastly, in
case of War, it will be of great use in securing the fidelity of the Cayugas and Senecas and
neighbouring Nations, and a necessary step, if any design should be formed against the French
Fort at Oniagara. The Sloops being first built, would much facilitate the Settlement at
Irondequat ; these things are all, that I think necessary and practicable at this time. It remains
only to show, how a Fund may be found, for the necessary Expence attending these services,
proposed to be done.
This 1 think may be done by a duty on all Wines and Spirits, imported into, or made in
any of the Colonies of North America, and I am persuaded jt will be sufficient for all the
purpose before proposed, if the same be duly Collected. It can be no prejudice to Trade, as it
is general on all the Colonies, whereas now, a duty is li>id on Spirits in some of the Colonies,
while others are free, which lays the one under disadvantage in their Trade, from which the
others are free ; but in this case, all being equal, it must fall on the Consumers, on whom it
can not be a hardship, or if they think it hard, may forbear the use of those liquors. So far
as I can apprehend, it can be of no disadvantage to Trade, except in one instance, viz' in the
exportation of Spirits from North America to the Coast of Africa, for purchasing of Slaves, in
which case, if thought necessary, the duty may be drawn back ; 40 shillings on every pipe of
Wine, and three pence sterling on every gallon of Spirits may be sufficient (see the Custom
house books). It is true that Spirits make a considerable part of the Trade with the Indians,
but if it be considered that there is now a duty of one shilling a Gallon on all Rum sold at
Oswego or to our Indians to the Westward of Albany, for the support of that Garrison, and
notwithstanding of this we can undersell the French in this article, it may be presumed that
the duty of three pence p' gallon can not hurt the Trade with the Indians, more especially,
when this Trade is to be freed from all other imposts, and the Traders from many difficulties
they now labour under. As this duty is proposed to be general over all the Colonies, it must
Vol. VI. 04
746 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
be impose! by Act of Parliament, because it would be a most vain imagination to expect, tiiat
all the Colonies would severally agree to impose it.
Now, Sir, I have, as far as I am capable given your Excell'^^ the present State of Affairs
between the English and French Colonies, and the Indians, and of what, at this time I think
necessary to secure their Fidelity, promote the British Interest, and defeat the enterprises of
the French to our prejudice. One thing remains further to be considered; to secure our
frontiers from the incursions of the French Indians in case of a future War. If what I have
already proposed to be immediately put in execution, it will in a great measure secure the
Colonies from such like attempts, because in such case, the French will have too much to fear
wantonly to provoke us, by the incursions of a few Indians, that in such case will be under
their direction. But notwithstanding of this, it would be imprudent not to take what care we
can against the dangers, and the time of peace, is the only proper time to do it; in time of
War we shall have too many things on our hands, and a great expence otherwise unavoidable.
We may learn from our natural Enemies, the French of Canada what is proper to be done ;
as soon as a peace is concluded, they begin to take all the necessary precautions for their
'security against a succeeding War.
The French Fort at Crown Point is of little consequence, as to Trade, only so far, that it
puts it in the power of the French to encourage or stop the Trade between Albany and Canada,
at their pleasure, as they shall, under a change of circumstances, think it most for their benefit.
But, as I think, it would be most for their^ British Interest to have that Trade entirely stopt;
I am under no concern, for what difficulties it may be laid under; perhaps this Trade alone
secures the Cacnewagas in the French Interest, by the particular benefit they reap, by being
the common carryers between the Dutch at Albany and the French. If they were deprived of
this Benefit, they would find it for their interest to return to the Five Nations, from whom they
are originally deserters, and speak the same language. However, this may be, it is certainly
necessary to build one or more Forts, near the carrying place, between Hudsons River and the
Wood Creek, in the way from Albany to Canada, as by this pass, the French Indians make
their incursions, in time of War, on New York and New England. The principal use of the
French Fort, S' Frederick, on Crown Point, at the south end of Lake Champlain, is to defend
Canada ag'' incursions from New York and New England, and to make incursions from thence
on those Provinces, and therefore it becomes necessary to have one or more Forts at this pass,
to prevent those incursions, and which may likewise prevent any common trade with Canada,
which hereafter may be thought prejudicial to the safety or interest of the British Colonies.
As these Forts will be a security to all the Northern Colonies, the expence of building and
supporting them ought to be a general charge on all. The Frontier provinces must
unavoidably suffer many inconveniencies in time of war especially, from which the others are
freed, and from which they are freed, by their being frontiers to them ; and therefore it is
highly reasonable, that the others should contribute to the charge of the defence of them.
And the others being at a distance from the frontiers makes them more able to bear the
charge. But from what has been perpetually observed on this head, in all times past, it is not
to be hoped, that the other Colonies will contribute to this charge in such proportion as
they ought, if they do it in any proportion, otherwise, than by being compelled to it by some
This Memorial has run out into a much greater length than I intended or expected it would ;
but as I believe that your Exceli"^ may design it ibr the use of those who probably are not so
' S:C. the. — El>.
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXX. 747
conversant in the Indian affairs, I thought it necessary to give a circunistancial account of
tiiem, wiiich is, however, humbly submitted to your Exceil'^J^ correction. Judgement and
experience in those affairs by — Sir,
Your Excell''" most obedient
and most humble servant
New York August S, 1751. Cadwallader Golden
Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade.
[New-York Papers, Bundle li., No. 11.]
New York. 5 Novemb'' 1751.
As it is expected, that the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania may make application for an order,
to put a stop to any grants of lands in this Province to the Northward boundary of
Pennsylvania, I have thought it proper to inclose a copy of the Lieut' Gover'' of Pennsylvania's
letter to me on that subject, together with the opinion of the Council of this Province thereon.
I shall only add, that there is a large Tract of vacant Land in this Province to tiie Northward
of Pennsylvania, and that any order to stop tiie grant thereof (till that Northern boundary be
fixed) may be a prejudice to the peopling and cultivating of this Province, and likewise a
prejudice to His Maj'^'* Revenue, by his Quit rents, unless care be taken at the same time that
the necessary expence be provided for ascertaining of that line without delay.
I take this opportunity to acknowledge the receipt of your Lord^P' Secretary's letter dated
July the 9"" 1751. (with the Three Acts of Parliam' relating to the British Plantations
enclosed) and shall govern myself accordingly in the several matters therein contained.
In eight or ten days I expect another Vessel will sail for England, and as the Assembly of
this Province is now sitting, I purpose to do myself the honour to transmit to your LordPP* an
account of their proceedings.
I am with very great respect
Your LordPP' most obedient and
very humble servant,
Governor Hamilton to Governor Cliiiton.
[ Now-York Papers, Buudle II., No. 12, ]
Philadelphia. 13. Sept' 1751.
I was prevented by indisposition from acknowledging the Receipt of your Excell'=>' letter, of
the 13"" of August, with the intelligence that accompanied it, relating to the French designs
748 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
upon Oliio. As our Assembly was then sitting,  immediately laid it before them for their
consideration, tho' at the same time I had no reason to expect, they would advise the taking
any vigorous Measures, to oppose the execution of the French schemes, so that I was not at all
disappointed, when they let me know, that at present they did not incline to do any thing in
The Gov'' of Canada's letter of which you are pleased to inclose me a copy in yours of the
second instant, is indeed a singular piece of argumentation ; but though his reasonings are
every where false, as might be easily proved, yet I think it will be to no purpose to confute
them, since little regard will probably be had to any thing that can be said on this side the
Water. I am therefore very glad you have been able to furnish his INIaj'^' Ministers with so
explicit a declaration of the French, upon that head, that they may, if they think it adviseable,
to take proper measures to prevent the consequences likely to ensue from Councils founded on
such manifest contradictions to Treaties.
What I am now about to represent to your ExcelK-', will I hope be considered as my
indispensible duty to the Proprietaries of this Province, whose interests, if my information be
true, may be very much affected, by the proceedings of Coll : Johnson and some other
Gentlemen in your Govern', who I am told have obtained a warrant for laying out a very large
tract of Land, more than one hundred thousand acres, on the East branch of Susquehannah
River, to adjoin the line of this Province. Now, as the Northern boundary of Pennsilvania is
not yet fixed, those Gentlemen for want of due information, may probably by virtue of this
Warrant, survey lands within our Province, v^-hich may hereafter occasion disputes, between
us, especially if settlements should be made upon them. With a view therefore of avoiding
everything of that kind, I should be much obliged to your Excel)'''', to signify to the Gentlemen
concerned in that Grant, that I will advise the Proprietaries of it, by the next conveyance, that
if they please they may take immediate measures for settling their Northern boundary with
the Crown. Such a step which it is the Proprietaries interest to take, will put the boundary
out of dispute, and then these Gentlemen or any others concerned in grants of land, will be
under no difficulty where to locate their Warrants, but till that be done, it appears to me, they
will run a great risk in their locations.
As a testimony of my regard for those Gent", and for their further information, I beg leave
to acquaint your Excell'^^, that the Province of Pennsylvania, by the Royal Patent, is to contain
all the lands within five degrees of West Longitude, from the River Delaware, which is the
Eastern boundary thereof; and three degrees of Latitude, beginning at a circle drawn at
twelve miles distance. Northward and Westward, from the Town of Newcastle, and to be
bounded by that circle, till it intersects a line running due West from the Town of Newcastle,
and by that line continued due West to the limits of Longitude above mentioned, which part
of the said circle, and due west line, is to be the south boundary of the said province, so that
it is of little import in what degree of latitude that part of the said circle and West line fall,
nor what it is supposed to be in the patent, since Newcastle is a certain determined point or
station given and fixed in the patent, from whence and not from any imaginary point or line in
the heavens, the three degrees of latitude are to be measured. If these Gentlemen therefore
will consider how far three degrees of latitude to be measured from Newcastle will extend,
(perhaps not short of the latitude of Albany) they will be the better able to judge how to
keep their survey clear of this province.
I have not gone into this account of the Bounds of Pennsylvania with any design to begin
a dispute, but merely with a view to apprise your Excell'^ and the Warrantees, of the light in
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXX. 749
which the boundaries of tliis Province are considered here. And that in my opinion it would
be for the interest of the partfts, that our proprietaries should first be made acquainted with
their Grant, before they put themselves to any considerable expence about it, in order that
they may take measures with the Crown, to ascertain their Northern boundary. But if the
lands should be actually located, and there should be reason to think any part of the survey
comes within the line of this Province, I hope Your Excell""^ for prevention of any future
disputes, will permit the Agents of the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania residing here, to lodge
a Caveat in your Land Office, against the acceptance of such survey.
1 am much obliged to your Excell'^^ for the care you have always taken to communicate to me
whatever has appeared to you, to merit the attention of this Govern', which Indian Affairs
most particularly do. And shall request of you the continuance of the same good disposition.
And hoping your health is perfectly reestablished by means of the country air, I have the
honour to subscribe myself with very great regard.
Your Excell""^"' most obedient
Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade.
[ New-York Papers, Bundle li., No. 15. ]
By his Grace the Duke of Bedford's letter of the 10"" June last, which I received IS"" of
September, I am acquainted that as soon as the lords of the Privy Council shall have made
their report on the state of this Maj"^'' Province, I should be informed of the steps which must
be taken towards remedying the evils complained of, and reducing the Province into a proper
state of order and obedience, and in the mean time, I am directed to use my endeavours, that
no inconvenience may arise to His Majesty's service by this delay. I put off the meeting of
the Assembly, as long as the season of the year would permit in hopes of receiving those
orders, but as yet I have received none.
When the Assembly met, there was not one farthing remaining that could by the GoV or