■who married in 1773, Francis Godolphin, Marquis of Carmarthen, afterwards Duke of Leeds, from whom she eloped with
captain John Byron, father of Lord Byron the celebrated poet. The Earl of Holdernesse was a very courtly peer, proud
of his rank, formal, but of no superior talent.
He died in the year 177S, when the title became extinct — Eu.
758 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
Ills Colonies and Plantations in America and elsevvliere, with respect as well to their trade and
commerce as to their civil policy and government, and whereas it doth appear to his Majesty
that the said Colonies and Plantations have of late years been greatly improved, the wealth of
his Subjects much increased, and the Navigation of these Kingdoms extended, by the mutual
Intercourse between them and the said Colonies & Plantations, and by the Trade and
Commerce arising therefrom ; and his Majesty being sensible of how great Importance it is to
His Crown, and Government, and how much it will contribute to the Satisfaction, Convenience
and Advantage of his Subjects, that all due care be taken and proper and necessary Regulations
made for the further Improvement and Extension of the Manufactures and Commerce of these
Kingdoms, and for the encouragement, protection and Security of the Said Colonies and
Plantations, His Majesty i§ therefore graciously pleased with the advice of his Privy Council,
to order, and it is hereby ordered, that the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations do,
with all diligence, care and concern, apply themselves to a faithfull and vigourous execution and
discharge of all the Trusts and powers vested in them by their Commission under the great
Seal, and whereas nothing can more effectually tend to the peace, welfare and good government
of the said Colonies and Plantations than the appointment of able discreet and prudent persons
to be Governors, Lieutenant Governors & other Officers & Magistrates: It is therefore hereby
further ordered that the said Lords Commissioners for Trade & Plantations do from time to
time as Vacancies shall happen by deaths or removals, present unto his Majesty in Council, for
his Approbation, the name or names of such person or persons as the said Commissioners from
the best of their judgement and Information shall think duly qualified to be Governors or
Deputy Governors, or to be of His Majesty's Council, or his Council at Law, or Secretaries in
the respective plantations; and likewise to present to his Majesty for his approbation, the
names of all other Officers which have been, or may be, found necessary for the Administration
of Justice, and the Execution of Government there, excepting only such as are, or may be,
appointed for the Direction and Regulation of his Majesty's Customs and Revenues and such
as are, or may be, under the Directions and Authority of the Lords Comm" of the Admiralty ;
and when any person or persons shall have been approved by His Majesty in Council for any
of the above mentioned Offices the said Lords Commissioners shall (unless his Maj'y shall
otherwise direct) prepare and make out proper Draughts of such Commissions, Warrants or
Instructions as may be thought necessary to be given to such Officers, in order to be laid before his
Majesty in Council for his Royal Approbation, and when any person or persons shall be presented
to his Majesty for any of the other offices of an inferior nature not judged necessary to be l.iid
before His Majesty in Council, and yet shall have otherwise received his Majts approbation
the said Lords Commissioners shall in those cases (unless His Mnjesty shall otherwise Direct)
prepare and make out proper Draughts of Commissions and Warrants necessary to be given to
such Officers, in order to be laid before his Mnjesty for his Royal approbation accordingly, and it
is hereby further ordered that the said Lords Comm" for Trade & Plantations, do execute and
perform all other things necessary or proper for answering the Intention of their said
Commission, and whereas the Governors of all his Majesty's Colonies & Plantations in
America more immediately under His Ma'^"^ Government, are, in particular cases, as well as in
general, directed by his Majesty's Instructions to transmit unto his Majesty, by one of His
principal Secretaries of State, and to the Commissioners for Trade & Plantations, accounts,
from time to time, of all their proceedings, and of the condition of affiiirs within their
respective Governments, and whereas it will tend to the benefit of the said Colonies, the ease
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXX. 759
and convenience of His MaJ'' Subjects, and the greater regularity and dispatch of Business, if
the correspondence be confined to, and pass tiirough, but one ciiannel; It is tiierefore further
Ordered that the said Lords Commiss" do prepare the Drauglit of an Additional Instruction
to be sent to the Governors of all his Majesty's said Colonies and Plantations respectively
signifying His Majesty's pleasure that in all cases wherein by His Majesty's Instructions they
are directed to transmit any particular, or general accounts of their Proceedings, or of matters
relative to their Governments, they do, for the future, transmit the same to the Lords Comm"
for Trade & Plantations only, in order that they may be laid before His Majesty, provided
nevertheless that whenever any occurrences shall happen within their respective Governments,
of such a nature and Importance as may require his Majesty's more immediate Directions by
one of His principal Secretaries of State, and also upon all occasions, and in all affairs,
whereon they may receive his Majesty's orders, by one of his principal Secretaries of State,
the said Governors shall in all such cases, transmit to the Secretary of State only, an account
of such occurrencys, and of their proceedings relative to such orders, and it is hereby further
ordered that a Copy of this order be transmitted to the said Lords Commissioners for Trade
& Plantations, to be entered upon the Books of the Plantation Office, and that the said
Commissioners do likewise transmit copies thereof to the Governors of His Majesty's
Colonies and Plantations respectively to the End that all persons concerned may govern
Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade.
[ New- York Papers, Bundle li., No. 25. ]
New York, S. April 1752.
I have by several letters informed the Duke of Bedford of the absolute necessity, and my
intention to suspend Mr Delancey from being Lieut' Govern'', before I left this Govern', with
my reasons, for so doing; his arbitrary conduct confirms my intention more and more every
day, and I must beg leave to acquaint your LordPP', that I am fully determined to suspend him
from that Office before I leave the ProV""
I am persuaded, that it would be greatly for His Maj'^'' service, that a letter may be wroft,
to M'" Colden, president of the Council approving of his taking the Administration upon him
(pursuant to the powers in his Maj'^' Commission to me) until his Royal pleasure, shall be
further known, which I am certain will remove any difficulties or obstructions, that may arise
from the Faction in direct opposition to the King's Authority, could such a letter be sent by
the very first opportunity.
I have called the Assembly of this Province, that it may be in my power, or my successor
in the Administration to meet them in case of emergency, requiring the Assistance of the
Assembly; but as nothing of this kind has appeared, I have no thoughts of meeting them
before my departure.
The support for the Gov"' as Commander in Chief (as granted by the last sessions) ceases
the moment 1 leave the Province, as does the salary of llie other Olliceis the first of September
760 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
next. This will make it necessary to meet the Assembly at, or before that time, and if it was
possible such a letter as I request come to the President's hands before that time, it will
facilitate His Maj''''' service, and effectually prevent any artifices, which I am certain the Faction
will stir up to distress the Administration.
Mr Golden is willing to undergo the difficulty and hardships that the want of a support may
lay him under, that I may be enabled to pursue those measures which I have repeatedly
represented to the Ministry so absolutely necessary to maintain His Majestys prerogative and
Authority so notoriously struck at, by the Faction in this Govern', and which I can not
otherwise pursue but act in contradiction to my own judgement in this case ; he therefore hopes
your LordPP' will ease him of those difficulties as soon as possible, and I must entreat your
doing it, as it may be of importance to his Majesty's service.
I have the honour to be with great respect
Your LordPP' most obedient and
very humble servant
Lords of Trade to the Governors of Colonies.
[ Plantation General, ( B. T. ) XLIII., 318. ]
To Henry Grenville Esq. His Majesty's Governor of Barbados.
Having taken into our consideration the General Instructions given by His Majesty to his
Governors of the several Colonies and Plantations in America, we observed with concern that
the experience of late years furnishes too frequent instances in which many of those Instructions
have been dispensed with and neglected, upon slight & unwarrantable pretences. As the
Instructions are calculated in general for the support of His Majesty's Prerogative and
the protection of iiis subjects in their just rights, for the establishing and preserving good
government in his Colonies, and promoting the welfare quiet and prosperity of them ; a due
and uniform observance of those Instructions must greatly contribute to so desirable ends. We
therefore think it our duty to recommend it to you and to all the Governors of His Majestys
Colonies and Plantations strictly to adhere to your instructions and not to deviate from them
in any point, but upon evident necessity, justified by the particular circumstances of the case;
and whenever that happens you are forthwith to transmit to us, in the fullest and most explicit
manner, your reasons for such deviation. But at the same time we must acquaint you, it is
expected tiiat you do apply for previous directions from hence in all cases where the occasion
will admit of such a delay.
The passing of laws in a method inconsistent with His Majesty's Instructions (which has
been too often practised) is manifestly of great detriment to the publick service and the occasion
of many difficulties ; in as much as those laws, though they contain the most salutary provisions,
cannot receive the Royall approbation, but by His Majesty's dispensing with his instructions.
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXX. 761
We must therefore in a particular manner insist, that in the passing of all laws, you have a
proper regard to the regulations contained in your Instructions.
And whereas some particular parts of the Instructions given by His Majesty to his Governors,
may from the alteration of circumstances, have become obsolete useless or improper; we
desire that you will without delay consider and revise with the strictest attention the
Instructions given you, as well the General ones, as those which relate to the Acts of Trade
and Navigation, and transmit to us your opinion of such parts of them as shall appear to you
useless, improper, or liable to objection, together with your reasons for such opinion, that we
may take those reasons into consideration, and propose to His Majesty such alterations as sliall,
upon mature deliberation, appear to be proper & expedient.
So we bid you heartily farewell, and are
Your very loving friends
and humble Servants
June S-i 1752 Fran. Fane.
A like letter was wrote to
Cha' Knowles Esq' Jamaica.
W"" Matthew Esq"' Leew"* Islands.
W" Popple Esq Bermuda.
John Tinker Esq Bahamas.
Spencer Phips Esq Massachusets.
Benj. Wentworth Esq New Hampshire
Geo Clinton Esq New York
Joh" Belcher Esq New Jersey
Rob : Dinwiddle Esq Virginia
Gab. Johnston Esq N" Carolina
Ja' Glen Esq S° Carolina
Pereg: Tho' Hopson Esq Nova Scotia.
Lords of Trade to Governor Clinton.
[New-Tork Entries, O., p. 16. ]
To the Hon'''' George Clinton Esq : Governor of New York.
We have received your letter to Us dated the 8 of April last, and We cannot but be
apprehensive that your leaving Your Government may in the present situation of its affairs be
attended with very ill consequences, and be of great prejudice to His Majesty's Service, We
Vol. VI. 96
762 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
take tlie earliest opportunity of acquainting you with Our Sentiments and that We think it
would be highly improper for you to take such a measure, until you have received His
Majesty's further directions what Method of Administration of Government shall take place
upon your leaving the Province
So We bid you heartily farewell and are
Your very loving Friends
and humble Servants
Fran : Fane
Whitehall Cha' Townshenu
June 16. 1752. James Oswald
Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade.
[ Xow-Tork Bundle, li., No. 34. ]
In obedience to His Maj'J'' pleasure, signified to me by a letter from Lord Holdernesse of
SO"" April last, I now remain in my Govern', tho' in pursuance of His Mnj'^'' leave of absence, 1
had (at the time I received his Lord^P' letter) all my baggage and necessaries for my voyage
on board the Ship; I had sold my household furniture, and was ready to go on Board.
The inconveniences which must thereby arise to me and my family are but inconsiderable in
comparison of the danger I e.xpect from the next winter season to my life, and my bad state of
health, having been for these four years past, every winter confined close to my Room, at least
five Months under the great uneasiness, and am now in the greatest apprehensions of the
approaching season. This, together with the State of my private affairs in England, obliged
me to apply for His Maj'>'' leave of absence, which he was graciously pleased to grant me.
If I had been sensible of any error in my conduct, I must think, my remaining in this
Country, under such great inconveniences, and danger of my life, a severe punishment; but
when I reflect on the reasons given in the Secretary of State's letter, for revoking the leave of
absence, I must deem myself unhappy, viz' " that my leaving my Govern' would certainly
" be attended with bad consequences and possibly even the means of disturbing the
" peace and Tranquility of the Colony" — This can have proceeded only from the gross
misrepresentations of my Enemies (and no Gov'' who has continued so long in America, as I
' Thom.\3 Hay, Lord Yiseoimt Dupplin, eldest son of George Henry, 7lh Earl of KinDoul, of Scotland, and 1st Baron Hay of
England, was born 4tli July, 1710. He was appointed, in 1741, one of the Commissioners of the Revenue, in Ireland; and in
November, 1746, a Commissioner of Trade and Plantations, which office he held until 1754, when he became one of the Loids
of the Treasur}'; in 1735 he was appointed Joint Paj-master, with Lord Darlington. In 1767, he was ofl'ered the office of
Chancellor of the E.\cheqiier, which he declined. Lord Dupplin represented the town of Cambridge, in several parliaments;
and in June, 1768, succeeded to his f .ther's title. His Lordship, who was brother to the Archbishop of York, died without
issue, on the 28th of December, 1787. — Ed.
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXX. 763
have done, ever avoided creating Enemies) that T placed my confidence in a person, and
designed to leave the Administration in his hands, who is of so bad a character, and so
obnoxious to the people, that they could not, with patience, have bore his being placed over
Ihera. This is of a piece with the other calumnies industriously insinuated to his Maj'-"
Ministers, in such general forms, that no direct answer can be given to them but a bare
negative. Had any particular instances been given of this Persons misconduct, the truth of
the charge against me, in placing any trust or confidence in him, could have been cleared up,
but as it at present stands, I can only aver, that this Gentleman has as fair a character as any
other person in the Province. Could my Enemies have alleged any particular facts to his
prejudice, it can not be doubted, that they gladly would have done it, and as no such Facts
(to my knowledge) are alledged, it must be thought to proceed from their inability to set forth
such facts, not to their want of inclination to do it. But as to that particular of the danger of
the peace of the Province, in case of his having the administration, I can now, I think give
a full answer. It has been publickly known in every part of the province for several months
past, that I designed to leave the Administration in the hands of the President of the Council,
and has it been the subject of discourse every where. Nothing like dissatisfaction thereon has
appeared, but the contrary, and this is so notorious, that I think none can have the assurance
to say otherwise in this Country, whatever they may dare to say at a distance. It is true that
I pressed to have the doing this previously approved of by His Maj'^ as a matter, that [
thought, would be highly for His Majesty's service in this Province, as it would effectually
defeat all the artifices of the Faction who, I suspected may still have an influence over
some leading Men in the Assembly, and who, thereby, might lay the Administration under
difficulties, which perhaps I could not foresee or guard against; I had nothing more in view in
my letters which I wrote to your Lordi'P' or the Secretary of State, and if any opinion has
been drawn from them, of any danger of the peace of the province, in my absence, I have been
My Lords, I am still of opinion, that it is of the greatest consequence to His Maj's" service in
America, at so great a distance from the immediate inspection of his Ministers, for the secflrity
and peace of the Colonies, for securing the British Trade in the Colonies, and for preventing
its being carried into Holland and other foreign Ports, to discourage as much as possible any
attempt of an ambitious or Bold person to make himself, by popular artifices, necessary to the
Administration, when he thinks himself thereby, able to obstruct any measure however useful
or necessary, unless he be taken into the Administration, on what terms he shall in an insolent
manner think proper to prescribe ; 1 have, as I thought it my duty, endeavoured to crush such
insolent attempts, and I humbly presume that I should have done it effectually, had I received
that assistance, which, with submission I conceived I had reason to expect. The preventing
of such like daring and insolent attempts appear to me, to be of such consequence to the Royal
authority, the ease of every Gov"' for the future and for preserving the peace of the Province,
that I am persuaded it will deserve your Lord"" most serious attention ; and I humbly
hope, that notwitstanding of any misrepresentations or misapprehensions, I shall at last receive
His Maj'5" approbation of my conduct on this head, and in hopes of this 1 shall bear, with
patience, the unusual hardships and difficulties which I am laid under. I have the honour to
be with the greatest respect
My Lords. Your Lord"" ettc.
764 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade.
[ New- York Papers, Bundle li., No. 83. ]
New York 4. October 1752.
I have the honour of your LordP'" commands of the S'"* June last, and I shall, so far as in
my power punctually obey them. But 1 must beg leave to observe to your LordPi", that I have
yearly, for this five years past, humbly represented to your Lord^P' and to the Secretary of
State, the incroachments which the Assemblys of this province have made on the Royal
prerogative, and of their persisting in their disregard of the King's instructions; by which
means I am disabled to observe them, without having received any directions on the repeated
representations, which I have made on the following heads.
By his Maj"'"' Commission, as well as Instructions to his Governours of this province, all
publick money is to be issued by warrant from the Gov', with the advice and consent of the
Council. By every Act granting money to the King, for several years past, great part of
the money is issued without such warrant, and sometimes by warrant of the Speaker of the
By this means the Assembly or rather a Faction in that house, have it in their power to
reward those who support these incroachments on the King's prerogative; His Maj'^' servants
are discouraged by their having their Salaries curtailed, and the payment of the money, which
they have advanced for His Maj''"'^ service refused, without assigning any reason for such
refusal, (see Coil : Johnson's case). At the same time the tools of the Faction, have large
sums allowed them, and these allowances made without suffering either the Gov' or the Council
to examine into the accounts of these pretended services, on which the money is to be issued,
(for proof of this see the minutes of Assemb^ of the IS. day of November, and the address of
the Assembly near the close of last sessions, and the Councills address in answer to it).
The Assembly allows nothing of late for the contingent services of the Govern', by which
the service frequently suffers, while at the same time the Treasurer has been known to advance
large sums to the speaker, and a few of the Members, without the concurrence of either Gov'
or Council ; and this he will always do, while he looks on himself not as the King's Officer but
the Assembly's. This has been the case ever since the year 1715. when they had the
appointment for a Treasurer allowed them, notwithstanding that the King had a receiver
General of his Revenues in this province by appointment under the great Seal of Great Brittain,
with a Salary for that purpose; since this concession, they have continually incroached, more
and more, on the Kings prerogative, and continually assumed more and more power
The Assembly take upon themselves the sole power of rewarding all services, and of
appointing salaries, and they will not allow the Council to alter or amend such allowances or
salaries, under pretence of their being part of money Bills, (see the Acts for support of Govern'
and for payment of the salaries and contingent charges of Govern'), by reason whereof they gain
an undue influence over all the officers, and weaken the authority of the Gov' and Council over
them. And as the Salaries are only appointed for one year, and to cease at the death or
removal of every officer, they, thereby likewise, gain an undue influence in the Nomination to
all offices, so that no man is willing to accept of an office, who is unwilling to court and depend
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXX. 705
on the favour of a Faction in the Assembly, however he be otherwise qualified and zealous in
the King's service.
Tho' the Assembly dare not deny the King's authority over the Militia, yet an opinion is
inculcated among the people, that the powers of the militia can only be put in execution by
authority of the assembly, so far, that no penalty can be incurred by disobedience without an
act of Assembly for that purpose. Acts in former times were annually passed to lay penalties
in certain cases, till within this four years; since which time no Militia Bill has been
brought in, tho often pressed by me; a general disobedience has since that time ensued, and
all appearances of a Militia ceased. Your LordPP' no doubt will consider, how far it is proper
to suffer the Kings power over the Militia, to depend on the pleasure of an Assembly.
The Assembly put the publick gunpowder into an officers hands, of their own nomination,
without the Gov' having it in his power to command the least part of it on any emergency
whatsoever, except in case of an actual invasion. Since the peace, all the publick gunpowder
has been sold, so that now this Govern' has not one pound of publick gunpowder on any
emergency, and tho' I laid his Maj'^' instruction for a continual supply of the publick Magazines
with Gunpowder, they would pay no regard to that instruction.
They keep up, a perpetual distinction, between the Kings money and the Colonies money,
between the King's warlike stores, and the Colonies, and between the Kings Officers and the
Colonies officers; your Lord^P' will consider how far such distinction is to be allowed.