" correspondence with all His Maj'^"' Governors on the Continent; and in case I should be
" informed by any of them of any hostile attempts ; that I should immediately assemble the
" General Assembly within my Govern', and lay before them the necessity of a mutual assistance,
" and engage them to grant such supplies as the exigency of affairs may require" —
In obedience to His JMaj'^'" pleasure I have used my utmost diligence to learn how far the
information of the March of the Indians and Troops mentioned in your LordP's letter may be
well grounded, together with their designs and destination : and the result of my inquiry is
contained in the inclosed paper N° 1. to which I beg leave to referr Your Lord?.
I have taken the necessary measures for putting the Militia of the province into a readiness
forHisMaj"'' service, in case of any sudden exigency; and have recommended to the Assembly
to make provision for putting several Forts and Garrisons into a proper posture of defence, and
communicated to them His Maj'^'' Royal pleasure concerning his Colonies upon this Continent,
giving mutual assistance to each other, in case of any hostile attempts against any of them.
In answer to this they have sent me a Message; a copy of which marked N" 2. I have taken
the liberty of inclosing to Your Lordship in order to be layd before His Maj'^ according to the
Assembly's request, provided your Lord? shall judge that proper to be done.
I likewise take upon this occasion, the liberty to observe to your LordP that tho' I am fully
persuaded, that this Province (as the Assembly undertakes for it in their Messague) will at all
times with great cheerfulness furnish their just and reasonable quota of Men or money towards
the assistance of any other of His Maj'^'' Colonies upon this continent, in case of an invasion
or hostile attempt; and can't but hope, from the necessity of an union among all the Colonies
for their mutual defence against the common Enemy, that the others may be likewise disposed
to do the same; yet, unless it shall be determined by His Maj'>', what is each Colony's just
quota of Men or Money which it shall raise or contribute in the common cause, when any one
or more of them shall be invaded, or harras'd by the French or Indians, whether in a time of
open declared Warr or not, and they shall be obliged in some effectual manner (as his Maj'^
shall think most proper) to conform to that determination upon every emergency; yet, I say,
My Lord, there seems just reason to apprehend from past experience, that the want of such a
setlemeut, and a method to enforce its taking effect, will be an obstacle to the carrying into
execution any general plan for cementing an Union among His Maj''"' subjects upon this
continent, for the defence of His Maj'" territories committed to their trust.
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXXI. 823
What greatly incourages me to take the liberty of submitting this observation toyourLordP's
consideration, is, that it was tliought necessary by the Government in King William's Reign to
settle the Quota of Men and Money, which every one of the Colonies should be alloted to raise
for the defence of New York; and that I find the like setlement continued in Sir Danvers
Osborne's, late Gov"' of New York's OS"" and 96"' instructions ; a copy of which N° 3. to save
your Lord? trouble, I likewise inclose.
The carrying of this settlement into execution. Your LordP will be pleased to observe, stands
solely upon the King's recommendation of it, and I can't learn upon the best inquiry, I have
been able to make hitherto, that it ever took effect, yet, I must likewise remark this fact to
Your LordP; that since the time of making that settlement, the abilities and circumstances of
several Colonies are much altered, so that, that would be a very unequal rule for settling the
just proportion of their Quota's in Men or money at this day. For instance: Your Lord? will
find the Quota of Men allotted to this Province to raise for the assistance of New York is 350,
and that allotted to Pennsylvania is SO. Now, such a proportion between the two Govern" at
this time would be extreamly unequal; the Number of Inhabitants in Pensylvania having since
King William the 3'"'''' Reign been so much increased by the great number of Foreigners, who
have annually transplanted themselves and their families thither, from the Palatinate, Swiss
Cantons and Northern Parts of Germany, and by the natural increase of the people, that some
have computed them at 500,000 persons ; whereas the increase of the numbers of Inhabitants
in the Massachusets Bay within that time ( not to mention their having had but a very
inconsiderable number of Foreigners transplanted among them) hath been greatly hindered
by having many of their valuable Townships lately lopped off by the new Settlement of the
boundaries between them and the Province of New Hampshire in 1737 as also by the settlement
of the boundaries between them and Colony of Rhode Island in 1741; and the province hath
been further reduced by the great loss, it sustained of its inhabitants by sea and Land in the
expedition against Cape Breton, and the preservation of Nova Scotia, both, before and during
the whole course of the late W^arr ; so that there is no reason to doubt but that at tliis day the
Inhabitants of Pensylvania tho' they should be computed only 400000, are about double
the number of those of this Prov".
The like remark may be made upon the proportion of the Quota of men and INIoney settled
between the Colony of Connecticut and this Prov", which is about 1 to 3., that Colony being
alloted to raise 120 Men, and the Province 350, whereas the Colony, by means of the
beforementioned reduction of the ancient, reputed limits of this Province, and its being
exhausted of its Inhabitants in the late expeditions, and Warr, hath since making the aforesaid
settlement so far got the start of the Province in the increase of its Inhabitants, that the just
proportion at this day between them is (according to the computation of good Judges) no
more than as 2 to 3. There are other circumstances besides to be considered in adjusting the
proportion of the Quota between the Colony and the Prov" ; viz : the Colony is entirely
covered by this Province, so that it hath no frontier of its own, to defend in time of war, and
consequently is at no expence in tlie maintenance of marching Companies, Forls and garrisons
for that purpose ; whereas the Province hath a very extensive frontier, which is constantly
harras'd by the Indians and French, upon every rupture, and at a very considerable charge in
maintaining marching Companies, Forts and (iarrisons; and in time of peace the Colony's
Taxes for the support of His Maj'>'' Govern' among them, is very trifling in comparison of that
of the Province's.
824 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
I submit these observations to Your LordP's consideration as specimens of the alteration of
the circumstances of the Colonies with regard to the proportion, which they bore to each other
in respect of their number of Inhabitants and ability in King William's Reign, and their
present state, and to shew, how unequal a rule the settlement made at that time for adjusting
their respective Quota's of Men and Money, would be for adjusting them at this day.
I must further add upon this head, that nothing would contribute more effectually to secure
His Maj'''^ subjects and territories upon this continent, against the rapid progress, which the
French seem to be making in perfecting a strong line of Forts upon our backs from Bay Verte
Easterly, to the utmost extent of His Maj''''' Dominions Westward, and to bring the Indians to
a dependance upon the English, that a well concerted scheme, for uniting all His Maj'J''* Colonies
upon it, in a mutual defence of each otiier, duely carried into execution.
I have the utmost reason. My Lord, to think that the People of this Province are most readily
disposed to do their part in promoting so necessary an Union, and to exert the same spirit,
which they have hitherto in His Maj'^'" service, to the utmost of their abilities, in concurrence
with his other Colonies for their mutual defence; but I think it my duty to mention to your
LordP that the thoughts of bearing the burthen of defending the wide frontier, upon which
Fort Dummer stands, and was in the year 1737 adjudged to belong to the Province of New
Hampshire, as they did the last War, seem so grievous to them, that I much question whether
in case of another rupture with France, they could be induced to do it ; and whether, unless
some especial provision is made for the protection of it by his Maj'^, it would not then be
greatly exposed to be ravaged by the Enemy.
The daily intelligence that is received here from the Indians which frequent our Truck
houses, our Traders to the Bay of Fundy, and even the Officers of Fort Lawrence in
Schiegnecto, of the great Diligence of the French in strengthening their Forts and Block Houses
in that District, and that on the Isthmus near Bay Vert, together with their having posessed
themselves of S' John's River, and the commerce they carry on in the Bay of Fundy, hath
greatly alarmed the Assembly ; and they extreamly dread bad consequences to the Province
from such a neighbourhood ; in case it shall continue until another rupture: as they do also
from the French encroachments at Crown Point, unless something is done to curb them ;
towards the expence of doing which, and maintaining a Fort and garrison, if it should be His
Maj'>'' pleasure to have one erected for that service; I have reason to hope that the Province
would contribute their just Quota of Men and money, in proportion to the protection which
their western frontier would receive from it, in common with the Provinces of New York,
Pensylvania, New Jersey's, Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Hampshire, as His Majesty
shall be pleased to allot each Colony to do the same.
I shall carefully observe. His Mnj'''"' commands not to make use of the armed force, under
my direction, excepting within the undoubted limits of His Maj'^'* Dominions.
As I have the honour to be acquainted with the sentiments of the Right Hon'''' the Lords
Commiss" for Trade and Plantations concerning the Isthmus of the Peninsula of Nova Scotia,
where the French have erected their Forts, and the River of S' John's in the Bay of Funda,
founded upon the vouchers and evidences produced by the Commissary's of both Crowns in
the negociation at Paris; viz': that they are clearly within the limits of His Maj'^'' Province
of Nova Scotia, I suppose we may deem them to be so, notwithstanding the claim of the French
in their memorials, which extend as far as the River Kennebeck to the Westward, and to the
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXXI. 825
City of Annapolis Royal, as also part of the lands lying between that and the Sea coast of
Nova Scotia, from Cape Sable to Cape Canseau to the Eastward.
1 have the honor to be with the highest respect
Your Lordships most humble
and most obedient servant
[ Goveraors and Commanders in North America, ( S. P. 0. ) No. 67.]
(N" 1) Extract of Lieu' Holland's letter, Commanding Officer at Oswego to the Gov'' of
New York dated Nov' 8. 1753, communicated to Gov'' Shirley by Lieut :
Gov"^ De Lancey.
Oswego Nov S"" 1753.
Since I last did myself the honor of writing to Your Excellency, has repast this the greatest
part of the French army that went up this summer to Ohio, from whom deserted two Men, and
put themselves under my protection (and whom I now send down) the one an Englisii Man
taken at Minas when cut off, the other a French Man, from whom we learn that the French
have been incapable of accomplishing their designs on Ohio, by means of the Indians but
threaten a second tryal next year they also inform us that tiie army had been very sickly and
great numbers dy'd with the scurvy through the badness of tiieir provisions, and that the Indians
to the Southward had not only bid defiance to them, but forced from tiiem both. Provisions and
Brandy sundry times; they also inform us that the French had taken from thence, two English
Prisoners, whom they sent in Irons to Canada.
(N" 2.) Extract from M'' Smith's letter to Gov' Shirley dated Dec"' 2-i"' 1753. from Cape
Cod in the Massachusetts Bay.
September the 29"" 1752 the Castor or Beaver Comp^ of Quebec petition'd the Gov and
Council of Canada to have a Fort erected on or near a Iliver call'd by tiie French, la Riviere
Blanche for the better support and strength of their Indian commerce, which they alleged was
[encroach'd upon by the English Traders: This was]' forthwith granted by the Gov' and
Council, and an army of six thousand Men to be forthwith raised and ready to March by the
1" of January 1753; which body was to consist of 5000 militia, 600. Indians and 400
regulars, and when raised were thus to be disposed of: They were to be .divided into tiiree
parlies, and to March as follows, viz': the first party consisting of 2000 Militia and 300
Indians on the 1" of January 1753 under the Command of Capt" Murray ; the second
party consisting of the same number to be ready on the first of March under the Comniand
of Mons' Payconage ; and the third party consisting of tlie Regular and the rest of the
Militia to be ready to embark at Quebec on board of Boats, which were to be provided for
' The words within brackets are added from the copy of this letter in New-York Colonial Manuscripts, lS.X\lll., in
Secretary's Department, Albany. — Ed.
Vol. VI. 104
826 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
them, by the I" of May under the Command of Capt" Lothbinere Engineer: Upon the
declaration of this grant, measures were so expeditiously taken, that Arms, Amunition
and provisions with necessary apparrell, were forthwith provided and dispos'd of in proper
Magazines throughout the Country for that purpose by the beginning of December; and
according to the time limited by the Grant, the first party began their march on New
Year's day 1753. the second party in March, and the remainder I saw embarked at Quebec on
the 1=' of May on Board 100 flat bottomed boats built for the expedition — We had every day
News, before I left Canada of a great sickness raging among them, so that the Hospitals at
Montreal and Fort Frontenac, were entirely crowded with their sick, and several have
deserted from them, and privately returned home, being terrified with the thoughts of so long
a March, all which greatly impairs their force. This party is to remain on [the] Command
for three years.
When I left Canada which was on the 18"" of August last the Country people and
populace in general were greatly dissatisfied with this' Govern', on account of their being [soj
arbitrarily bereav'd of their children, so that seditious Libels and satirical Sonnets were the
continual cry of their streets; for the suppressing of which an Act was made that if any
person sung or spoke any disrespectful words, against the Governor, the Lord intendant or
Council, exciting to Mutiny or sedition, should upon conviction be forthwith imprisoned for a
year, unless proper security for their future good behaviour should be produc'd ; this at first,
the populace look'd upon as only a Bugbear, till two or three were taken into custody and
proper security obliged to be given ; which rigour pretty well silenced the Mob. Their common
cry was that their Governour by his sending such a body of Men so far from home, had an
intention to deliver the Country into the hands of their Neighbours the New England Men, of
whom the Canadeans in general are mighty jealous. — The Indian Traders with whom I have
conversed inform me that La Riviere Blanche is 500 Leagues from Quebec, and that it is in the
British territories; and further, that upon the English receiving intelligence of their schemes
and proceedings, they were affraid they would make head against them and drive 'em off. —
N B. The above named M'' Smith, was at Canada about four years, and I have sent for
him to come to Boston at the Province's expence to be further examined. In the mean time,
I would not loose this opportunity of transmitting this account home, together with the extract
of the Commanding Officer at Oswego's letter mark'd N" 1. communicated to me by Lieut'
Gov'' DeLancey from New York, which confirms this account in part, tho' I must observe that
the number of militia and Indians mentioned in it, to be employed in this expedition, is large,
according to our computation of the whole number of fighting French Men and Indians in
Canada, the former of which is not reckon'd to be more than from 16000 to 20000 at the
utmost, and the latter not reckon'd to exceed in the whole 900.
'their. New -York Coloiiial Manuscripts. — Ed.
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXXI. 827
Governor Dinwiddle to Lieutenant-Governor De Lancey. ■
[New-Tork Colonial Manuscripts, in Secretary's Office, Albany, LXXVIII. ]
Williamsburg Virg" Jan'' 29"' 1754
The Advances made by the French to deprive his Majesty of the Interiour part of America,
makes it necessary for me to give your Honour part in the Intelligence I have just received of
their Proceedings, by the Return of a Gentleman whom I sent to the French Commandant for
On his Arrival he found that the French had taken post on a Branch of the River Ohio, and
built a Fort, wherein they had mounted Eight pieces of Cannon, Six pounders, and that they
had in Readiness Materials for other Forts, which they declared their Intentions to erect on
the River, and particularly at Logs Town, the place destined for their cheif Residence, as soon
as the Season would permit them to embark, and for which purpose he saw Two hundred and
twenty Canoes ready finished, besides a great Number more blocked out. Having delivered
his Credentials and my Letter, he complained to the Commanderof the Violence that had been
offered to his Majesty's Subjects, in seizing their Effects, and making Prisoners of their persons ;
To which he was answered, " That the Country belonged to them ; that no Englishman had
" a Right to trade upon those Waters, and that he (the Commandant) had Orders to make
" every person prisoner that attempted it on the Ohio, or the Waters of it."
Your Honour will perceive these to be their Sentiments by the inclosed, and that they are
determined to carry their Designs into Execution ; and it were superfluous to advance many
Arguments with so discerning and sagacious a Servant of our Master, to prove the Urgency
that presses every one of his Majesty's Colonies to exert themselves on this Occasion, to
vindicate the Honour and Dignity of his Crown, and justify his undoubted Rights, against the
Invaders of the British property.
The Powerof our Enemies is far from being contemptible, and it is as certain they will exert
it's utmost Efforts, to procure all possible Advantages against us. They have already engaged
three Indian Nations, the Chippoways, Ottoways and Orundacks to take up Arms against the
English, and from the best Information Maj : Washington learned, that the French had four
Forts on the Missisippi, besides their strong Settlement at New Orleans, where they have
above Fourteen Hundred Men in Garrison; That by Means of the River Ovabaseck, they
have a Communication between Canada and the Missisippi and some Forts on the Oubask, to
cover and protect this Communication.
Before they sent their Troops into Winter Quarters last Fall, they called the several Tribes
of Indians near their Fort together, and told them, that altho' the approaching Season, and the
State, at that Time, of the Waters, made it necessary to send the cheif of their Forces into
Winter Quarters, yet they might be assured to see them early in the Spring with a much
more considerable Armament, and that then they would take Possession of the Ohio, and
threatened them if they were not entirely passive.
These Circumstances induced me to order out for the present a Detachment of the Militia,
and call together the Assembly, which I have ordered to meet the 14"" of next Month, and
hope they will enable me to take more vigorous Measures in the Common Cause, the Success
828 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
of which, as I apprehend greatly depends on the Dispatch with which our Forces are drawn
together, and the promptitude of every Colony to exert itself on this pressing Occasion.
I have chosen Will's Creek on the Head of patowmack. as the most convenient place of
Rendezvous, early in March, and thither I should be extremely pleased, if your Honour would
be so good as to order the Men that you think proper to send, agreeably to his Majestys
Comands, for mutual Assistance, which I sent you by the last Express, and as early in March
as possible. As it may be very hurtful to the service to divide the Command, I wish to find
your Honour in my Sentiments, and that you are willing to entrust my General Officer the
Command of the Men from your Government. If I am so happy as to have your Concurrence
in this, I shall hope the Consequence will be to shew our Enemies how far they were mistaken
in the Sarcasm they threw out, that tho' they owned, We could bring two Men to their one,
yet, that we were too slow, and disconcerted, to hinder the progress of their Undertakings.
May God, Sir, felicitate your Government with every happy Event, and enable us to ascert
our Sovereign's just Right with Success
Since writing the above, I received your Letter of the 11"" of December, covering that from
the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations. I observe your Intention of an Interview
with the Indians at Albany in June next, which I am very sorry interferes with the Meeting I
have proposed with the Six Nations and the Southern Indians on the 20"" of May next ; add
thereto the Broils we are like to have with the French, which will enhance all my Time ;
and I am convinced the Assembly of this Province will be very backward in sending
Commissioners to Albany, as the Charge of the intended Meeting at Winchester, and the
raising of Men to defeat the Designs of the French will be very considerable, and I flatter
myself with the Hope of your Assistance. The Favour of an Answer by the Return of this
Express will oblige
Your obed' humble Servt.
New York Rob' Dinwiddie
Indorsed GoV Dinwiddee 29 Jan-T 1754 R 17 Feb"^
Read in Council the IS Febry &
answered the same day.
Lw^ds of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor De Lancey.
[New-York Entries, O., p. 819.]
To James Delancey Esq: Lieutenant Governor of New York.
We have received your Letters to Us dated the 15 of Ocf and 2 of November last,
containing an account of the melancholy death of Sir Danvers Osborn and of Your having taken
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXXI. 829
upon You the administration of the Government in virtue of a Commission of Lieut' Gov'
delivered you by M'' Clinton before his departure. We have iii\ewise received Your letter of
the 29 of November acquainting us with your proceedings in consequence of Lord Holdernesse's
letter to you dated the 2S of August last.
The conciliating the unhappy differences which have so long subsisted among the different
Branches of the Legislature, restoring the authority of the Crown which has been greatly
affected by them, reforming the abuses which have been introduced into the management of
Indian Affairs and the establishing a firm Peace and Friendship with them are points of very
serious consideration and we hope proper attention will be given to them; The previous
measure of sending up Col : Johnson to the Six Nations to obviate the mischiefs which might
have attended the disgust given to the Mohawks and to prepare them for a general meeting
was right and proper and we think it Our duly to recommend to you in the most earnest
manner to hold the intended interview as early as possible and strictly to follow the directions
contain'd in our letter to Sir Danvers Osborn upon that Subject.
Inclosed we send you a Copy of the invoice of the presents directed by his Majesty to be
given to the Indians which we are glad to find from the Agent employed by Sir Danvers
Osborn in this service are arrived except some Guns which could not lie got ready in time but
which are now !nade and which we have assurance from the Board of Ordnance will be sent
by the first Ships
We very much approve the regard you have shewn to His Majesty's Commands signified to
you by Lord Holdernesse and it is with the greatest Satisfaction that we read the account you
sent us of the reception they met with from the Assembly, and the resolutions they came to
upon them, We entirely agree with you in opinion as to the consequence which must