desired they might be accepted as such, and that the Colonel would distinguish them with
the usual cloathing as Sachems. â€” He complied with their request.
Mount Johnson 29. June 1755.
The Sachems having sent Coll: Johnson notice that they were ready to make their reply to
the speaches he had delivered to the Confederate Nations the 24 and 25 inst: â€” He sent them
word he was ready to hear them.
The Assembly met about 2 o'clock P. M.
Present â€” The Hon"' William Johnson Esq"
The Rev"* M'' Ogilvie
Peter Wraxall Secretary
The Interpreters as before and sundry other persons attending.
The Sachems and Warriors of the several Nations.
Kaghswughtioni the Onondaga Sachem spoke as follows: â€”
Brother Wariaghtejage, sole superintendant of our affairs.
You called upon us to give our serious attention to what you had to say to us ; we assure
you by this string of Wampum we did so, and we desire you will now do the same to what
we are going to reply to your speech to us. (gave a string of Wampum)
Vol. VI. 123
978 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
Brother. We are much obliged to you for the relation you gave us of wliat hath passed,
both, with regard to our Bretheren the English as well as the French. We know it in general
to be true, and we are very thankful to you for refreshing our memories with the particulars.
In those days the Governors contributed to the strength and Union of the Five Nations, we
hope that you, who have now the sole Management of their affairs will do the same.
(Gave a Belt).
Brother. You desired to know, who we had most reason to believe were tlie friends and
Bretheren of the Six Nations, the English or the French, and you said we ought not to be long
in determining upon it. By this Belt we acknowledge the Great King of England our Father
is the Master of our confederate Nations and we put our trust in him. Dont think Brother
that we are come tiiither with a double heart, we are honestly and fairly in Earnest, when we
acknowledge our Brotherly affection and attachement to the English, and we hope you will
keep it on your side inviolable as we will do on ours. (Gave a Belt of Wampum)
Brother, No evil Reports or artful endeavours of the French shall draw us away from our
affection and Unity with our Bretheren the English.
We doubt not your declaration to us on renewing the Covenant Chain comes from the
bottom of your heart, we on our side do with this Belt in the sight of Him who dwells on
high, renew and strengthen the Ancient Love and friendship which hath ever subsisted
between your Forefathers and ours, and we hope you will mind duly to renew and brighten
this Covenant Chain ( Gave a Belt of Wampum with several strings of Wampum to it ).
Brother. You told us to act like the Worthy Children of our brave and honest Forefathers
and to declare ourselves like Men. We thank you for putting us in mind of our Ancestors ;
'tis very true they were such as you describe; we are but weak children in comparison with
them, and we hope you will be a kind and tender Father to us. You have desired us not to
listen to or be affraid of the French. We will not regard their insinuations, but remain dutiful
to the Great King of England our Father, and tho' our neck is but small, we do not dread the
French or any of our Enemies, and tho' we are not inclined to enter into quarrells without
reason, we will stand by our Bretheren the English & adhere to our Covenant Chain with them.
(Gave a Belt)
Brother, You have represented to us how much the French are our Enemies, and you have
laid before us the present State of affairs as matters of the last importance to our welfare.
We think them such and we are very much obliged to you for that Esteem and Affection you
have expressed for us all on this occasion, and that you are ready to go out with us, and expose
your own life in conjunction with us, and that you will take care of our families in our absence.
We the confederate Nations here present agree to your request and will join and assist you in
your undertakings. We have not yet determined what particular numbers will go from each
Castle, but we are taking the necessary steps to be ready with our people.
Brother, we know, the affairs you have proposed ought not to be delayed, but as we left our
families unprepared for this event, we are desirious that some of our young Men may first
return home and settle matters properly. We imagine you are not yet quite ready, and you
may depend you shall not wait for us.
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXXll. 979
Kaghswuglitioni then made tiie following reply to General Braddock's speech :
Brother. You desired us to be attentive to Gen' Braddock's speech to us ; by this string
of Wampum we beg you will do the same to the answer we are going to make to that
great Warrior. (gave a string of Wampum )
We return Gen' Braddock our grateful thanks for the information he gives us of his designe
to chastize those who have invaded our hunting grounds and for the good opinion he has of us.
We sincerely wish him success in his undertakings. (gave a Belt of Wampum).
We are thankful to him that he has appointed a person so agreable to us to take care of our
affairs, and we hope that you our Brother Wariaghtiejaghe, who are now raised up by so high
an Authority will continue to be our steadfast friend. (gave a Belt).
The Speaker then took General Braddock's War Belt and Coll : Johnson's and put them
together and said :
We are already declared ourselves on the one, and we now make the same declaration on
the other. And we are truely thankful to Gen' Braddock for the assurances of his care and
protection for us.
The Speaker then took the Bundle of Sticks in his hands given by Coll : .Johnson in his first
speech and said.
Brother. You exhorted us by this bundle of Sticks to Union, friendship and Brotherly love.
We shall stricktly observe your admouition and adhere together like true Bretheren. It seems
as if your advice has already taken effect, for the Senecas are gathering together, and the
Onondagas are retrieving their people from Sweegachie ; but Brother we must tell you, Your
People are very faulty, they are too thirsty of money and carry on a Trade with the French
which is not only a real prejudice to us but to yourselves also.
Conochquiesie an Onejda Sachem then rose up and said.
Brother. We are very thankful for and concur in every thing you have said to us since the
present meeting. The Things you proposed required no very long consideration. V^ou have
invited us to join with you as Bretheren, we can not refuse so reasonable a proposal, and the
Confederate Nations here present have complied therewith. You may perhaps think, we have
not been so particular in our answer as your speech deserved but Bretheren must not stand
too much on form and ceremony, the main point is settled and we hope that will give
Coll : Johnson then said :
Bretheren. I am well pleased with all you have said in answer to Gen' Braddock and my
speeches, and as I consider it must be disagreable to you to sit so long in the sun, I will not
detain you at present but say something more to you to-morrow when I deliver you
Bretheren, I am very sorry that notwithstanding all the care I have taken to prevent Rum
being sold to your people at this meeting or from being brought amongst you, yet it has
nevertheless found its way here.
You are sensible of the many ill consequences which attend the i;.se of this liquor. It has, I
am apprehensive hindred you in your Councils and prevented many of your young Men from
980 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
attending at our conference, and I must desire every one will do all in their power to hinder
anymore Rum from being brought and drank here.
In the evening the War Kettle was put on and at night the War dance was danced. Coll :
Johnson began it. The two Sachems who were Speakers this day danced and many of the
Mount Johnson 1. July 1755. A. M.
Several Sachems of the Cajouga Nation having desired a private conference with Coll:
Johnson he met them this morning.
One of them spoke in the name of the rest & said :
Brother, our Nation was truly rejoiced when we heard you were again raised up according
to the united request of all the Nations and it was with great readiness and pleasure that we
came down to this meeting.
But we must confess that your pressing us to take up the hatchet is somewhat sudden and
for which we were not prepared. Dont think Brother that we are any ways inclined to prefer
the French to our Bretheren the English, we assure you we are not; the English are our
Ancient Bretheren, and we are determined to stand by them ; the only concern we are under,
on this occasion is on acccount of our Bretheren the Coghnawagaes, they are our own flesh
and blood and many of us have Brothers, sons ettc who live amongst them, their safety you
must think naturally affect us, and we can not but be uneasy about them and wish there was
time given us to secure our kindred there from danger. This Brother is the only uneasiness
we are at present under. ( Gave a Belt of Wampum )
Coll: Johnson answered :
Bretheren. I know and am sensible of your relation, and your interest in the safety of
the Coghnawagaes. â€”
I have already mentioned my sentiments in regard to them in a general manner in my
publick speech which I now confirm to you.
The Coghnawagaes are at present looked on and treated by the English as Bretheren, they
come now freely and unmolested to Albany, tho' it would be in our power, if we were so
inclined to distroy or confine them, but I sent down orders to the soldiers there that they
should be treated civilly and as friends. We have no desire or intention to spill one drop of
their blood. I do propose to send a Message to them and try if they will return to their
Friends and live amongst the Five Nations, and if they wont do this, to stand out of the way
and not join the French against us, and in this I desire not only your concurrance but your
advice. But if they will be obstinate and not only refuse our friendly admonitions, but act as
Enemies against us, surely you do not expect, you can not blame us, if we treat them as their
head strong rashness will deserve; as I would do by my own son or my Brother, so will do
by them. Do you ask or expect any thing more and can I speak more reasonably or fairly. I
give you this Belt to assure you, I mean what I have said. (gave a Belt).
They said :
Brother. We are extremely obliged to you, for what you have now said, we will seriously
consider of it and then say somewhat in answer to it.
They then gave another Belt and desired they might have a Smith sent up to reside amongst
them to mend their arms and their Tools and that they could not do without so necessary a
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXXII. 981
person and requested also, that a Man whom they named might come up with the Smith and
bring a little dry goods and some Gunpowder and lead to sell but no Rum.
The Coll: promised he would look out for a Smith, and enquire if the person they named
was proper and willing to go.
They then withdrew with great appearance of satisfaction.
Mount Johnson 1. July. 1755. P. M.
Present â€” The Hon"* William Johnson Esq'''
Peter VVraxall Secretary
The Interpreters as before, and several other persons attending.
N B. The following speech was translated into Indian by M' Clause and spoke by Hendrick
the Mohawk Sachem. The presents were set out in the middle of the yard, the Sachems and
Warriors of the several Nations sitting round.
Coll: Johnson's speech:
Bretheren of the Confederate Nations here present.
[This speech was designed to be delivered with the presents as yesterday but it raining
violently all day long prevented].
The day before yesterday you engaged yourselves to assist your Bretheren the English in
their undertakings now on foot against their and your enemies, the French. You have in this
acted like dutiful children of the great King of England your Father, like Bretheren to the
English and like true children of your brave and honest Forefathers. I hope you will fulfill
your engagements like honest Men and be guilty of no deceit or breach of your words; if you
should, you will be detestable to all Men. (gave a Belt).
Bretheren. I expect and desire you will acquaint all your allies and dependents with the
engagements you have entered into and press upon them to act conformably thereto.
( Gave a large string of Wampum ).
Bretheren. You desire, some of your young Men may return home to settle matters relating
to your families as you left them unprepared for this event.
As I would be far from insisting upon any thing that might be prejudicial to your safety &
welfare, so I am willing, some of your young Men should return home as you request. But I
desire that some may immediately go and join the rest of their Bretheren with General
Braddock, and I shall send a White person well known to them to go with them [Here Capt"
Stoddert stood up and was presented as one whom the Coll: designed to send with them to
General Braddock] and you may be assured they will be well received and kindly treated by
the General. (Gave a Belt.).
Bretheren. Your Brother and friend Gov' Shirley who is well known to you is now or will
in a day or two be at Albany. He is going to Oswego with a great number of Soldiers who
are now at Albany and Schenectady. He designs to go to Niagara to prevent the French from
sending any more reinforcements to the Ohio, and to open the Road whicii is now stopped for
your and our Bretheren to the Westward to come to Oswego. He expects and I desire you
will meet him there and give him that assistance in his undertakings which as bretheren
you are bound to do (Gave a Belt).
982 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
I shall in a little time be ready to march with the forces under my command for Crown
Point, and I desire you will have some Warriors of each Nation here to attend my directions,
and when I send for more that they may be ready to join us. (a Belt).
Bretheren. I propose to send a Message with a Belt of Wampum to our Bretheren the
Coghnawagaes and before your departure I desire your advice and assistance therein agreable
to what I mentioned in ray speech (Gave a large string of Wampum).
Bretheren. Here is a present which the King your Father hath sent you by Gen' Braddock.
I desire that you will make a just and equal division of it. There is a large quantity of gun
powder to be likewise given you, as it would be dangerous to give it now, you shall have it
when you are going away.
Mount Johnson 3. July 1755. A. M.
Hendrick and his Brother Abraham Chief Sachems of the upper Mohawk Castle waited on
Colonel Johnson and acquainted him, that they had received certain intelligence from the half
Kinf, who is with Gen' Braddock, that six young Men relations of theirs who went to the
Southward early this year were all cut off by the Creek Indians, and tho' it was a very severe
and afflicting loss to them, yet they assured Coll: Johnson it should not hinder them from
assisting iu the publick business at this juncture and that they would promote all in their
power the aftairs he had recommended at this meeting.
Mount Johnson 3. July 1755. P. M.
The Sachems of the several Nations having given Coll: Johnson notice that they were
ready to make a reply to his speech to them of the 1'' inst: he sent them word he was ready
to meet them. They accordingly asserhbled.
Present â€” The Hon'''* William Johnson
Peter Wraxall Secretary.
The Interpreters as aforementioned.
Coll: Lydius, Capt" Killock, his son and sundry other persons who had
The Sachems and Warriors of the Confederate Nations.
A^uiotta an Onejda Sachem rose up, and in the name of his Nation, the Cayougas, the
Tuscaroras, the Skaniadaradighroonas and the Tiederighroonas condoled the upper Castle of
the Mohawks on the loss they had sustained of the Six young Men of their Castle who had
been killed to the Southward and gave a string and Belt of Wampum as testymonies of
Then Kao-hswughtioni the Onondaga Sachem stood up and with a string of Wampum
addressed himself to the five aforesaid Nations and desired they would not be too much dejected
by this Misfortune, but keep their minds firm and capable of business; he then in the name of
the half King Schaaroyady condoled the upper Mohawk Castle with a string of Wampum sent
from the said half King by those Indians who went with Coll : Johnson's Messengers to
General Braddock. He next condoled the said Castle in the name of Coll: Johnson, the lower
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXXII. 983
Castle of the Mohawks, the Onondagas and the Senecas, with a string of Wampum, and Coll :
Johnson gave them some black Stroud for mourning upon the occasion.
These ceremonies being passed Caghswughtioni stood up and made the following reply in
the name of the Confederate Nations to Coll: Johnson's speech to them of the 1" inst:
Brother. In answer to your first Belt, we say we will persist in our engagements and we
hope you will fulfill all those on your side. Gave a Belt.
In answer to your string, we promise you to press the conduct we shall observe upon all our
allies and dependents, here is the Deputy of the Mississageyes now here, with him we shall
begin and fulfill our desire. (gave a string).
In answer to your second Belt we say, that as the Confederate Nations have agreed to join
their Bretheren the English against the French, your desire on this Belt is already fulfilled by
the half King having joined Gen' Braddock with several of our people as we learn by a
Message yesterday received from him (gave a Belt).
Brother. In answer to your third Belt we say, are you not our Tree of shelter, and why
will you desire us to take shelter under any other Tree, where you go we are ready to follow.
However there will be many of our people round about Oswego and near to Niagara, who will
join and be ready to assist Gov'' Shirley (gave a Belt).
Brother. In answer to your fourth Belt we say, that we desired first to go home to take
care of our families and put our affairs in order, besides, we must consult upon, and send
proper Messages to all our scattered friends and Relations who will lay exposed to the Enemy;
they are still ignorant as we were when we came down of the present State of Affairs ; none
of us were prepared for this sudden call which you have made upon us. You are a large
body and will move slowly, when you are ready and will send us word, we will run down, and
tho' you should even be upon your march we will soon overtake you. (gave a Belt).
In answer to your string about the Coghnawagaes, we will cooperate with you and use our
best endeavours to prevail on them to get out of danger and not assist the French against our
Bretheren the English (gave a string).
Brother. We have now finished our answer to your Speech, and we repeat to you, that our
young Men are desirious they may first return home, for we can not upon so short a warning
be fully prepared for Action ; besides, if our people were to stay here, we see no arms or
accoutrements provided for them, therefore we must go home to equip ourselves.
Brother. We have taken into our Confederacy our Children the Skaniadaradighroonas and
they are desirious you will look upon them as your Bretheren ; there are many of them who
at present live in Maryland and want to come to live near to us, that both, our strength and
theirs may be increased. We have sent for them by Belts of Wampum, but they are
not effectual, for there are three Colonels in Maryland [They named the three Colonels:
viz' Coll: Scarbrough Coll: Henry and Coll : Hooper; the three Ciiiefs they also named viz'
Jomikakonick in Locust, Neck Dame Jam in d" and Gecho in I'ekoinoke'] near whose houses
' Sic. Qu? Pocomoke: a river iu the Southeast part of Maryland. â€” Ed.
934 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
they live, who in conjunction with three Chief Men amongst those Indians will not let them
come away, we desire you will interpose and write to those persons to let them come away.
(gave a string).
The Speaker then took in his hands a large Belt of Wampum with a smaller one tied to it
Brother. As every thing is gone on in a friendly way between us at this meeting and
we are now united together in the most intimate manner, let us not have the Devil to join
with us, that is the Rum. We desire you will stop up the Bung and let none come to Oswego
to be sold to our people ; let us be content with the drink which God gives us from the
Heavens. Rum is not necessary for our lives, but on the contrary is the occasion of our
loosing them. We have never any difference but thro' this cursed Liquor; but as you told us
of some Corn you had for us, that is a necessary article, and we beg you will send it up in
five different parcels. (Gave the two Belts ).
Brother. We must correct you a little. You desire us to unite and live together and draw
all our Allies near us, but we shall have no land left either for ourselves or them; for your
people, when they buy a small piece of land of us, by stealing they make it large. We desire
such things may not be done, and that your people may not be suffered to buy any more of
our land. Sometimes its bought of two Men, who are not the proper owners of it. The
land which reaches down from Oweigey to Schahandowana, we beg may not be settled by
Christians [lands belonging to the United nations near the Susquehana River] but if any
come there they may be called away that so we may have land left for ourselves and
our Allies. (gave a large and small Belt).
Conochquiesie, The Onejda Sachem, rose up and said.
Brother. You promised us that you would keep this fire place clean from all filth and that
no snake should come into this Council Room. That Man sitting there (pointing to Coll:
Lyddius) is a Devil and has stole our Lands, he takes Indians slyly by the Blanket one at a
time, and when they are drunk, puts some money in their Bosoms, and perswades them to
sign deeds for our lands upon the Susquehana which we will not ratify nor suffer to be settled
by any means; The Gov' of Pennsylvania bought a whole Tract and only paid for the halt,
and we desire you will let him know, that we will not part with the other half but keep it.
These things make us constantly uneasy in our minds and we desire that you will take care
that we may keep our lands for ourselves. (gave a very large Belt of Wampum).
Brother. We have now finished all we have to say and to morrow we propose to
Coll: Johnson then told them.
That he had attentively heard what they had said, but as it was too late now to give them
an answer he would make a reply to morrow morning.
Kaghswughtioni the Chief Onondaga Sachem came to Coll: Johnson and told him, that as
very troublesome times were approaching, and they had now declared themselves in favour of
their Bretheren the English against the French; he desired a Fort might be built at their
castle, for that they lay exposed to the French who might perhaps come and fall upon them,
and therefore some place of security would be very necessary for them.
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXXII. 985
Coll: Johnson told them that he could not promise them to build a Fort immediately, and
he thought the army at Oswego, which was in their neighbourhood would send the French
work enough that way, and deter them from giving his people any disturbance, and that
the French would be beset on all sides and find it too difficult even to defend themselves.
However, that he was pleased with his request, and it should be granted as soon as possible.
Mount Johnson 3. July 1755.
This evening the Cajuga Sachems waited on Coll Johnson in consequence of the conference
he had with them about the Coghnawagne Indians the 1" inst:
They gave it as their opiniom that an express should be sent by Coll: Johnson to each of
the Cogh[n]awaga Castles and another from the Six Nations.
The Colonel asked them when they proposed to send theirs; they said as soon as they came
home they would call a Council and send one off immediately.
The Colonel asked them whither if he should meet with any chief Men of the Cogh[n]awagaes
at Albany, it would not be as well to deliver the Belt, and what he had to say to them, as to
send a special Messenger ; they answered either way would do.
The Colonel asked them if they thought the methods proposed would be effectual to prevail
with the Coghnawagaes to comply with our propositions; They answered they would not be
positive, but as soon as ever they knew what effect their message had, they would acquaint