Five Nations had broke off the negotiation by a treacherous attack on the Catabaw Indians &
did afterwards murther eleven English Inhabitants dwelling on the back of the mountains,
adding at the same time that he had sent to demand satisfaction for the said murther but had
not been able to obtain any, We thought it our Duty to write you on this Subject.
We cannot help observing upon this occasion that it seems very extraordinary to us, that
these five Nations who are protected by the British Government should employ their force to
destroy other Nations of Indians under the same protection which is effectually doing the work
of our common Enemy.
' The names within brackets, in the above Document, are ad Jed from the Journals of the New-York Assembly, I., 1 fi3.
' Sir William Gooch was Governor of Virginia from 1727 to 1749. â€” Ed.
Vol. VL 18
138 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
We must tlierefore recommend it to you in tlie strongest terms to employ all your credit and
Authority first to obtain satisfaction for the murthers committed upon his Majesty's Subjects
and in the next place to facilitate a lasting friendship not only between the five Nations and
the Cherokee and Catabavv Indians but also to recommend to the said five Nations to live in
good Intelligence and Correspondence with all the rest of the Indian Clans in America
dependant upon the British Government.
And as we apprehend nothing can more effectually contribute to this end, than the restraining
the several Indians within their proper bounds, agreable to former Treaties, We send you
inclosed a Copy of that made between Col" Spotswood' and the five Nations in the year 17:^2
to which we apprehend they have paid but very little regard upon this occasion.
We take this opportunity to acquaint you that we have received yours of the 16"" September
last, and immediately communicated to His Grace the Duke of Newcastle an Extract of it
together with a Copy of the letter to you from the Commiss"'^ of Indian Affairs that the same
might be laid before His Majesty.
But we must desire you would in Your next give us a more particular description of the
situation of the Crown Point and of Tierondequat in regard to New York there being no
notice taken upon our Maps of either of these places.
We wish you Success in Your undertaking and hope the Assembly will concur with you in
Settling a proper Revenue for the support of the Government agreeable to Your Instructions,
and so we bid you heartily farewell and are,
Your very loving Friends
and humble Serv"
Whitehall Ar. Croft
Dec''^ 6"" 173S. R. Plumer.
' Sir Alexander Spotswood, Kt, became Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia in IT 10. In 1714, he successfully accomplished
an exploration across the Blue ridge, which obtained for him tlie honor of Knightliood. On his return he proposed the
estat>lishment of a chain of posts for tlie protection of the frontier so as to cut olf the communication of the French witlx the
Western tribes; he attended a Conference witli the Indians at Albany in 1722, and in 1723 was superseded by Hugh Dr3-sdale,
Esq., owing, it is said, to tlie intrigues of France at the British Court, joined to the importunities of several leading familes
in Virginia, to whom his intimate knowledge of the country and of its true commercial and political interests had rendered
him obno.xious. Burk, He still continued to reside in Virginia and was afterwards appointed Deputy Postmaster-General of
the Colonies. Horrid Papers, 70. In 1739, he was appointed to command the Colonial troops in tlie expedition against
Carthagena, but his career was cut short by his death, on the 7th June, 1740. Colonel Spotswood was an officer of rare
talent and a scholar of high attainments ; urbane and conciliating in his manners, innocent in private life, unimpeached in
his administration, a friend to the liberties of the Colony without losing sight of the interests of the parent country ; a skilful
ftLd enterprising soldier, he appears a star of no ordinary magnitude amidst the darkness by which he was surrounded. His
jiolicy towards the Indians was humane and wise ; many of them were educated and instructed in trades by his orders, and on
the whole he has descended to us with scarcely sufficient alloy to constitute a human character. Burk.
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 139
Lords of Trade to 'Lieutenant-Governor Clarl-e.
[ New-York Enlries, M. p. 82. ]
To Geo. Clarke Esq -
Since our last letter to you dated the 6"" December (a Duplicate whereof is herewith
inclosed) we have received two from you, one dated October 22'' 173S the other the 21" of
In the first you acquaint us with your having dissolved the Assembly, and at the same time,
for your reasons of so doing, you refer us to the papers enclosed therein; We have considered
them very maturely, and thereupon have thought proper to give you by the first opportunity
tliis early testimony of our approbation of Your conduct in this Affair, You certainly liave acted
as became you botii in communicating Your Instructions to them and in adiiering to it yourself.
We hope when the next Assembly meets you will find a better disposition in them to concur
with you in such measures as are necessary for the support of the Government, and we would
recommend to you to cultivate a good understanding with them but should you have the same
Difficulties to struggle with, we still promise ourselves that no consideration will induce you
to come into a Bill for sinking the Paper Money unless a proper provision be made for the
support of the Government.
As to the Answer you made to part of the Message sent you by the Assembly that you could
not give Your consent to the Appropriation of the Money, we must observe that the Right of
issuing of Mony when given by the Assembly belongs to you as His Majesty's Governor, as
does also the appointing the Officers necessary for that purpose but the Appropriation of it is
in the Assembly agreeable to the Constitution of England.
In Your other Letter which takes notice of Your Interview with the Six Nations, and of the
advantages you hope to receive from it, tho not so great as you had expected, gives us
another opportunity of commending Your conduct, and we doubt not but you will continue
to use the same Vigilance as you have hitherto done in preventing the French from gaining
any footing among the Indians, as nothing can be done of that nature which will not affect
our commerce in the most sensible manner. So we bid )'ou heartily farewell and are. Your
very loving Friends
& humble Serv"
Whitehall Edw"* Ashe
Feb''' 6'" 17:3| R. Plumer.
140 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
Lieuteriant-Goveinior Clarice to the Lords of Trade.
[ New-York Paper, Gg. Xo. 29. ]
New York April IS. 1739
I had the honor last night to receive your Lordships letter of the 6 of Decemher last, which
I will do myself the honor more particularly to answer hy the first ship bound to London ; but
there being one just upon the departure and impatient to sail for Holland I beg leave only at
present to acquaint your Lordships that the small pox being in Town, and nine of the twenty
seven that compose the house of Representatives who have not had it, they desired my leave to
adjourn to a small village about two or three miles off", but that would not quiet their fears ;
wherefore having past a short bill to revive the Act past in 1737 for laying duties on Rum &%
and one to restrain hogs from running at large I was obliged on their request to give them
leave to adjourn to the fourth Tuesday in August, lioping by that time the small pox will be
entirely gone, what I shall then bring them to I cannot yet tell for the province is yet very
quiet, and people live well witii one another, yet your Lordsiiips will see by an inclosed printed
paper what their prevailing thoughts are by which those who have contrary notions are swayed
against their will; that paper came out the day before the election for this town, and was read
publickly to the candidates. I had no time to answer it and to get my answer printed before
the election but in two or three days I published the inclosed answer. Judging it highly
necessary that some notice should be taken of it to prevent its ill effiacts, if it might be I
likewise do myself the honor to send to your Lordships my speech and the Assemblys address.
I am with the highest honour and respect
most humble and
most obedient Servant
Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Diike of Newcastle.
[ New-Tork Papers, ( S. P. O. ) No. 9. p. 86. ]
New Y'ork April IS"" 1739.
I beg leave to inform Y^our Grace, that the Small Pox being in Town and one third part of
the Assembly not having had it, I gave them leave to sit at Greenwich, a small village about
two or three miles out of town, but there too their fears of that distemper continuing, I was
obliged, on their request, to give them leave to adjourn to the fourth Tuesday in August,
having first past a bill to revive an act past in 1737 for laying duties on wine ettc. and another
of a more private nature: what they will then do I cannot yet tell: Your Grace maybe
pleased to observe by an inclosed paper that, much pains is taken to keep them from going
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 141
right, and in truth those notions are too predominant in the province: that paper was
published the day before the election in the Town, and I could not possibly get my answer printed
before the election, however judging it necessary not to let it go unobserv'd, I got the inclosed
answer printed in two or three days. Hoping to expel the poison which the other paper, had
infused into the minds of the people ; If I have failed either in matter or manner, or both, I
humbly hope your Grace will impute it to my want of ability, for I wrote it in the integrity of
my heart: I do myself the honor to send your Grace my speech and the Assembly's address.
I am now almost two years in arrear of my salary and perquisites, and am daily running in
debt to support a numerous family, but let my necessities be what they will, I beg leave to assure
your Grace that nothing shall divert me from my duty to His Maj''', and that I will leave
nothing unattempted to bring the Assembly to theirs, and I hope patience and moderation may
at length have an happy effect. I beseech Your Grace to be assured that I will not do (as I
have not hitherto done) any thing to occasion disturbances here, or complaints at home. The
people are very quiet, and easy in all things except that of giving a revenue for a term of
years, that being the point in dispute between us. I liumbly recommend myself to Your
Graces protection and am with the most profound respect and honor â€” My Lord â€” Your
Graces â€” most humble, most obedient and most dutiful servant (signed). G Clarke
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle â€”
Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Lords of Trade.
[New-York Papers, Gg., No. 31.]
New York April 24. 1739.
The ship by which I did myself the honor to write to your Lordships the IS of this month
being detained by the owners longer than they intended I have since that day the honor to
receive your Lordships letter of the 6 of February for which I give you my most humble thanks,
finding myself by your Lordships approbation of my conduct fortifyed against the difficulties
I have yet to encounter, for I shall have a hard strugle about the Revenue and strugle I will.
The Assembly by the word appropriation mean more then your Lordships conceive they do
they mean by it to assume to themselves the power in the Revenue bill to ascertain every
Officers salary, and to apply and issue the money, they give to those very Officers and uses and
no other thereby making the Governour and every officer in this Government dependant on them
alone, and wresting from the Governour the right of issuing the money (which they give for
support of Government) as hath hitherto been done with advice of the Council, pursuant to
the Kings instructions they have far above twenty years upon their giving a Revenue
ascertained every Officers Salary in their votes and the Governours have very seldom in issuing
the money varyed it, but now they would go a step further and in effect assume to themselves
all power and this I presume your Lordships will think I ought not to give into let them
appropriate the money the give for support of Government to that use only and the money
they give for other services to those uses only, this I never did oppose and it has been the
142 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
constant practice of Assemblys and I suppose is what your Lordships mean by appropriation I
do assure your Lordships that will not fail to cultivate a good understanding with the Assembly
it being what I have much at heart.
I will write to the Commissioners of the Indian affairs to inquire into the murders said to
be committed in Virginia by some of the Six Nations, to exhort them to stay at home and
to dispose them to a solid peace, wherein I will spare no pains (and by the first London ship
I will describe to your Lordships the situation of the Crown point and Tierondequat I humbly
beg the continuance of your Lordships protection and am with the highest honor and regard
most humble and
most obedient Servant
P. S. I have received his Majesty's dis-approbation of the trienuel Bill.
Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle.
[New-York Papers. (S. P. O.) No. 9, p. 42]
New York May 24'" 1739.
I do myself the honor herewith to send your Grace a copy of my letter to the Lords
I formerly wrote to their Lordships about Tierondequat and the Fort built by the French at
the Crown point, an extract of which letter they acquaint me they have laid before Your
Grace but could not find those places in their Maps, I now point them out in a small map which
I send to them: I likewise presume to send Your Grace a copy of the papers mentioned in my
letter to the board of trade relating to the boundaries of this province and that of the
Massachusetts: I humbly hope Your Grace will be pleased to give us your protection therein,
that they may be kept within their proper bounds and within the rules of justice to the Indians.
I beg leave likewise to inform Your Grace that the Commission formerly granted by his late
Maj" for trying of Pyrates is nowhere to be found upon all the enquiry I have made both of
Gov'' Cosby's private secretary and the officers of admiralty: I have hitherto had no occasion
to make use of it and hope I shall not, but least it so happen, that I may have occasion to
hold such a Court. I presume to give Your Grace this information tho' if the commission were
to be found, I am not sure that I could hold a court it being a commission from King George
the first. I humbly implore Your Grace to keep me in Your protection and that you will
permit me to subscribe myself as I am with the most profound submission
most humble, most dutiful and
most obedient servant
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. (signed). G Clarke.
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 143
Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Lords of Trade.
[ New-Tork Papers, Gg., No. 82. ]
New York May 24. 1739
I do myself the honor to send to your Lordships a small Map of the country taken I suppose
from M'" De Lisles, tho it be not correct it will serve to shew your Lordships where the fort
built by the french at the Crown point at the entrance of the Lake R' Sacrament and where
Tierondequat on Cadaracqui or Ontario Lake are situated from whence you may find those
places in your own JNLnps
Tierondequat in the inclosed Map was placed nearer to Niagara than to Oswego whereas it
is at most but fifty Miles from the latter, and the Brook which goes by that name I have now
laid down in Red ink at that distance from Oswego, the Fort at the Crown point is also drawn
in Red ink : the French pretend to claim all the lands so farr as the Spring heads of any rivers
or waters that empty themselves into any of the Lakes that disembogue into the river of S'
Lawrence if these pretentions had any foundation the greatest part of the Six Nations would
be theirs, they would come close to Virginia and other Colonies and confine the English
Dominions to the limitts of our present settlements, but I presume to think those their
pretensions vain and that if water is to be the boundary between them and us that the Lakes
and the rivers into which those Lakes disembogue themselves are the most natural and proper
boundary and much or more in favour of the french then in reason and equity they can expect
for the Sinnekas claim a large country on the opposite shore of the Lake Cadracqui which
they conquered long agoe from the Nations of Indians their inhabiting it
I lately received a letter from M'' Belcher the Governor of the Masathusets with a resolve of
their Assembly concerning the ascertaining the boundaries between the two Provinces with my
answer thereto all which I inclose that being as much as the Council thought I could say at
present and I expected M"' Belcher would wait till I had laid it before the Assembly and that
they had provided for the expence on our part and hoped to have heard from him in answer to
my letter, but I have as yet received none, on the contrary without staying for the sitting of
our Assembly several people of their Colony have gone within 16 miles of Hudsons river
near Albany with a Surveyor to lay out some lands (for one or more Townships) as I am
informed some of which were granted by the Governor of this Province in the year 16SS and
some of them purchased of the Indians by lycence from Gov' Montgomery and now too granted,
the owners of those lands hearing what the New England people were doing went on the spot
and forbad them The Indians who had sold the lands to our people drove the Surveyor and
those who were with him away being exasperated at the New England men who without any
purchase pretended to survey those lands If the New England people have formerly taken
such steps I am not surprized that they have drawn upon themselves bloody and Indian Warrs,
our method is very different from that we never grant lands until they have been bought of the
Indians and until deeds are executed by them and those deeds laid before the Gov'' and Council
I wish with all my heart that our boundaries were settled, but in order to do that I conceive
I must not only be assisted with money by the Assembly but I must have an instruction from
his Majesty for that purpose and untill the boundaries are settled I presume to hope your
Lordships will think it proper to obtain bis Maj'*' order forbidding any future surveys or
144 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
settlements to be made by the New England people on their frontiers towards this Province
for if they go on to settle it will be more difficult on a treaty to throw them back to their proper
bounds, and the more they encroach the more quite rents will the King lose in this Province
and in truth my Lords 1 doubt whether the New England people really desire to have their
limitts ascertained since they serve themselves in this manner without it, for this is not the
first time they have made the same request as the Gov" of this Province and then without
waiting have made out lands and settled them I mean some lands which had many years
before been granted here, besides they well know too that the Assemblys of this Province
are averse to the giving of money for such purposes as the lands are the Kings and not
theirs, and therefore think they may safely go on without fearing to be disturbed by our
and their fixing the boundaries however they ought to beware of provoking the Indians by
taking their lands either by fraud or force lest they begett a new warr with them which in its
consequences may effect us.
1 do myself the honor to send your Lordships the Minutes of Council with the only Acts of
Assembly past in April last
One to prevent swine running at large an usefull Act for the coun'ies to which it is confined
The other for laying some small duties on wine &" which will put some money into the
Treasury ag' the Assembly think fitt to pay our long arrears 1 humbly recommend myself to
your Lordships protection and am with highest respect and honor
most humble and
most obedient Servant
P. S. The Naval officer has just brought us his accounts which I do myself the honor to
send to your Lordships
The R' Hon''" the Lords of Trade
Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to tlie Duke of Newcastle.
[ New-Tork Papers. ( 8. P. O. ) No. 9, p. 47. ]
New York June IS'" 1739.
A few days ago I received a letter from the Commissioners for Indian affairs at Albany, a
copy whereof I do myself the honor to send to Your Grace; wherein you may be pleased to
observe, if the intelligence be true, that the French are going to settle on the wood creek, which
lyes between a B'ort they lately built at the Crown point, and Albany; whereupon I wrote to
the Commissioners (a copy of which letter I likewise do myself the honor to send to Your
Grace) but as I do not conceive that any thing 1 can represent to the French will divert them
from making those settlements, if they really intend to make them I thought it my duty to
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 145
inform Your Grace of it. The lands whereon the French propose to settle were purchased
from the Indian proprietors (who have all along been subject to and under the protection of
the Crown of England) by one Godfrey Dellius and granted to him by patent under the seal
of this province in the year 1C96. which grant was afterwards resumed by act of Assembly
whereby they became vested in the Crown ; on part of these lands I proposed to settle some
Scotch Highland familys who came hither last year, and they would have be>'n now actually
settled there, if the Assembly would have assisted them, for they are poor and want help:
however as I have promised to give them lands gratis, some of them about three weeks ago
went to view that part of the Country, and if they like the lands 1 hope they will accept of my
offer (if the report of the French designs do not discourage them:) depending upon the
voluntary assistance of the people of Albany whose more immediate interest it is to encourage
their settlement in that part of the Country. â€”
About three weeks ago I sent to the Lords of Trade a map wherein the French Fort at the
Crown point was laid down, It was the only one 1 had nor can I get another, if that arrives
safe as 1 hope it will and Your Grace will be pleased to order it to be laid before you, you will
have a clearer view of its situation then I can otherwise give. I humbly recommend myself,
to Your Graces protection, and am with the most profound honor and submission
most humble, most obedient and
most dutiful servant
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle (signed). G Clakke â€”
Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Lords of Trade.
[ New-York Papon, Gg., No. 85. ]
New York June 15. 1739
I do myself the honor herewith to send to your Lordships a copy of a letter I received from
the Commissioners for Indian affairs with my answer, the lands that the french talk of settleing
were purchased from the Indians and granted by patent under the Seal of this Province in the
year 1G96 to one Godfrey Dellius which was afterwards resumed by Act of Assembly whereby
they became vested in the Crown, And I presume to hope upon a representation of the matter
at the Court of France that orders will be given to the Governourof Canada not to make any
settlements on this side of the Lake, tliese lands your LordsP' will perceive by the Map I sent
you, lye between the French Fort at the Crown point & Albany where I intend to settle some
Scotch Highland familys who came hither last year having promised to give them lands gratis
some of them went about 3 weeks ago to view the lands but are not yet returned, but I doubt
when they are informed of the designs of the french they will be discouraged It is the interest
of the Province in General and more particularly of the people of Albany to encourage those
Scotch to settle there by giving them some assistance for they are very poor, yet 1 find no
Vol. VI. 19
146 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
disposition in the Assembly to do it, what the people of Albany will do by a voluntary
contribution is yet uncertain
I do myself the honor to write to his Grace the Duke of Newcastle mentioning to him the