with a skillfull Engineer & Gunners, nothing being more wanted, for repairing and modelling,
as well as defending our fortifications, or erecting such others, as may be thought needfull : For
the Province will never come into such an expence, at so great a distance from their settlements,
tho danger stares them in the face.
Under these circumstauces, I am persuaded it will plainly appear to your Lordships, how
highly incumbent it is upon the Assembly to make immediate Provision for the services I have
recommended ; but should tliey fail therein, I have great reason to fear this Province will
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 281
become a Prey to the Enemy, unless the Legislature at home does take into their consideration
our weak condition, and provide for its safety accordingly, in the mean time notiiing has or
shall be wanting in me to animate the People here to vigour & courage ag' all events.
I have farther to add that the French at Canada, in November last were making a great number
of Snow Shoes, and that soon after, a Party of P'rench & Indians to the number of 900 were to
march to the Eastward, in order, (as it was imagined) to attack some English Settlement, of
which I immediately acquainted the respective Governments that way ; and by a letter which
I receiv'd this day from the Commanding Officer at Oswego dated the 7"" inst, he informs me,
that by one of our Scouts just then returned from Cadaraqui, that 1500 French & 100 Indians
went from Canada in December last in order to surprize some English settlements near the
Mouth of the River St. Lawrence, the Scout says further that early in the Spring much warlike
stores are to be brought to Quadraqui, which he says may be intended against Oswego, and
that the openess of the weather have hindred them from paying that place a visit this winter.
I find the present number & force in Canada consist of Militia, Indians and regular Troops,
The Fortifications I can have no good account of, no body knowing any thing of that kind, that
have been there from hence or Albany. The numbers of Militia upon the River St. Lawrence
some reckon ten, others thirteen thousand able to bear Arms. The Regular Troops are thirty
two Companies of thirty men each, but not half full, so that they do not reckon the number of
effective men can exceed 500, but the great number of Officers in them, are of great service
towards disciplining their Militia. Their Indians fit to carry Arms are the Cacknawages about
230, ConessetagoesGO, Altenkins 30, Nepesinks 40, Missequeks 30 Abenaquis at St. Francoi 90,
Olinacks at Becuncourt 50, Hurons at Lorette 40, In all about 570, besides Allies at great
distances; but those here mentioned are upon or near the River.
I have just receiv'd a letter of the 12"^ February from the Commanding Officer of General
Oglethorp's Reg' at Georgia, in answer to the Information I gave him of the intended Motions
of the French a Copy of which I have inclosed, together with the Councils Address to
I am with very great regards
Your LordsP' most humble
New York and obedient servant
25 July 1745 G. Clinton
The R' Hou"'^ the Lords Com" of Trade & Plantations.
Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade.
[ New-York Bundle, Gg., p. 147. ]
I take the Liberty to inclose Duplicates of my last letter of 19"' Jan"^ & IS"' March, since
which I have been obliged (by advice of His Majesty's Council) to dissolve the Assembly,
Vol. VI. 30
282 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
from whom I have borne many provocations, with great calmness, considering how critical it
was at this time to be without one, during the intermediate space for calling another. But I
found it was absolutely needful! to try all ways to bring them to a just sense of their Duty to
His Majesty, to whose service they in general show'd the greatest disregard, by not putting
the Province into a proper posture of defence, and securing the Frontiers by Sea &Land ag' tiie
Enemy, notwithstanding I laid before them His Majesty's repeated orders on that iiead.
The New Assembly seems to be of a better Disposition to do Business, and immediately
voted ^5000 towards the Expedition ag' Cape Breton, to which the former only voted ^3000.
Yet they have neglected a very material Point at their late meeting, in not making Provision
for my having an annual interview with the Six Nations of Indians during the War, in order
to make them Presents to keep them in their fidelity; and the consequence of that neglect is
such, that most of the Indians are gone to Canada, notwithstanding all my efforts to stop them,
and are now become so divided in their opinion with respect to their attachment to the British
Interest, that I am apprehensive an Indian War will soon be commenced at the instigation of
the French, and am sorry to tell your Lordships, that I have certain Intelligence of the 17"Â»
instant from the Commissioners of Indian affairs at Albany, as well as from the Governour of
Connecticut, that the French Indians have began to scalp our white people upon the Borders
of New England, and have murthered two men in a most barbarous manner, by plucking out
their Eyes, taking out their Hearts, & the Crowns off their Heads ; and I expect by the next
News to hear these Savages have committed the like cruelty in this Province, which might
have been prevented had the Assembly made provision for my having an Interview with the
Indians this summer, and which I so earnestly recommended to them, as your Lordships may
observe by the Speeches I have inclosed, (with the proceedings of the Assembly) well knowing
the Danger We must be exposed to, if they desert us, and indeed I have but poor hopes of
retaining them, since they are disappointed of meeting me according to their expectations,
which I could not do without Presents.
It has been repeated to me again by the Council & General Assembly to apply to your
Lordships, that you would be pleased to move His Majesty to order an Engineer to be sent &
reside in this Province, where nothing is more wanting, than a skillfull man, to repair & put
our Fortifications in a proper state of defence, especially in the Frontiers, as well as to build
such others regular, that may be thought necessary, for great sums have been exhausted to
little purpose on those services, for want of a person thqroughly versed in that Art,
I am with very great respect
Your Lordships most humble
New York and obedient Servant
25 July 1745 G. Clinton.
The R' Hon'''Â» the Lords of Trade & Plantations.
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 283
Governor Clinton to the Duke of Newcastle.
[New-Tork Papers. (S. P. 0.) No. 9, p. 227.]
I take the liberty to inclose duplicates of my last letters of tiie 19"' June and IS"" March
since wiiicli I iiave been obliged (by advice of His Maj'>' Council) to dissolve the Assembly,
from whom I had borne many provocations with great calmness, considering how critical it
was at tliis time to be without one, during the intermediate space for calling another; but I
found it was absolutely needfuil to try all ways to bring them to a just sence of their duty to
His Maj'y, to whose service, they, in general showed the greatest disregard, by not putting the
province into a proper posture of defence, and securing the frontiers by sea and land against
the Enemy, notwithstanding I laid before them His Maj'-^' repeated orders on that liead.
The new Assembly seem to be of a better disposition to do business, and immediately voted
^5000. towards the e.xpedition against Cape Breton, to wiiich the former only voted ^3000; yet
tiiey have neglected a very material point at their last meeting, in not making provision for my
having an annual interview witii tlie Si.\ nations of Indians, during the war, in order to make
them presents, to keep them in their fidelity, and the consequence of that neglect, is such, that
most of the Indians are gone to Canada notwithstanding all my efforts to stop them, and are
now become so divided in their opinion with respect to their attachments to tiie British interest,
that I am apprehensive an Indian war will soon be commenced, at the instigation of the
French, and am sorry to tell Your Grace, that I have certain intelligence of the 17"" inst: from
the Commissioners of Indian affairs at Albany, as well as from the Governour of Connecticut,
that the French Indians have began to scalp our white people on the boarders of New England,
and have murthered two men in a most barbarous manner, by plucking out their eyes, taking
out their hearts and the crowns off their heads, and I expect by the next news to hear those
savages have committed the like cruelty in this province, which might have been prevented,
had the Assembly made provision for my having an interview with the Indians this summer;
and which I so earnestly recommended to them, as Your Grace may observe by the speeciies I
have inclosed, well knowing the danger we must be exposed to, if they desert us, and indeed
I have but poor hopes of retaining them, since they are disappointed of meeting me according
to the expectations, which I could not do without presents.
Since I had the honour of writing to Your Grace, I have received His Maj''' orders and
instrustions, signified by Your Grace, touching the marine Treaty with the Dutch ; as also with
respect to the service Commodore Warren is upon, to all which I have, and shall constantly pay
the greatest regard in my power.
It has been repeated to me again by the Council and General Assembly, to apply to Your
Grace, that you would be pleased to move His Maj'^ to order an Engeneer to be sent and reside
in this province, where nothing is more wanting, than a skillfull man to repair, and put our
fortifications, in a proper state of defence, especially on the Frontiers, as well as build such
284 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
others regular, that may be thought necessary, for great sums have been exhausted to little
purpose on those services, for want of a person thorouglily versed in that art.
I am vpith the greatest respect
Your Grace's most humble and
New York SS"" July most obedient servant
1745. (signed). G. Clinton.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle.
Governor Clinton to the Dulce of Newcastle.
[New-York Papers, (S. P. O.) No. 8, p. 254.]
Upon the first information I received of the late intended expedition against Cape Bretone
(which was hinted to me by Govern'' Shirley) I presently shewed a cheerful spiritt to promote
that service and urged, the concurrance of tiiis province to the General Assembly with all the
zeal and prevailing arguments in my power, conceiving it to be an enterprize (if carried) of the
utmost consequence to tiie Northern Colonys, and in particular to this: When I found I could
not obtain any assistance in men, and but a trifle in money from the Assembly in aid thereof,
I was obliged for that and many other reasons set forth in my speech to dissolve them, in
hopes 1 should avail thereby, with another set of men, more ready to promote His Maj'^
service. During that interval, I sent ten pieces of Ordinance of 18 pounders with carriages ettc
to Boston without which they could not have undertaken the affair, and I have the pleasure to
tell Your Grace, those very cannon greatly contributed to the reduction of Louisbourg for
which I received the thanks of the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay in a publick
manner (tho' I could hardly get my own to pay for the transportation of them) as well as M''
Shirley's acknowledgements in his speech to them, for this instance of my care in taking such
an intimate part in tliat enterprize.
Upon M"' Shirley's representation afterwards that the Troops were greatly in want of
provisions and not having it in my power to procure any at the publick charge, I set on foot a
subscription and raised .Â£2000. for that end (to which I largely contributed myself:) and
immediately embarked all sorts of provisions to that value for Louisbourg, for which I also
had a vote of thanks from the Govern' of the Massachusetts.
Afterwards ISr Shirley applied to me for a supply of gunpowder for the service of the garrison
when reduced, which I accordingly purchased at my own charge to the value of .Â£900, and
transported it thither and since have bought upon my own credit Â£:2,000 worth of cloathing to
paliate the discontents of the Troops retained there till relieved from home, and now by M'
Shirley's desire I am buying up all sorts of bedding in which they are in the greatest want of,
at my own charge again, without any manner of advantage to myself, but rather otherwise by
non payment of my bills drawn upon the treasurer here, which I cannot receive.
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVII. 285
I must own, these are but poor instances of my affections to His Majesty when I consider
how incumbent it is upon me, as well as upon his subjects in this province to promote his
service for the many favours conferred upon them, but all that I could possibly obtain from
another Assembly when convened was ^5000. â€” this currency towards the expence of the
Boston expedition, without any other aid whatever, notwithstanding I have laid before them
his Maj'^'^ instructions from time to time signifying, that I should give all necessary assistance
to M"' Warren, in the service he was upon, and the maintenance of the common cause.
This backwardness of the people's loyalty proceeds chiefly from the restraint they lay a
Governour under, by giving him a salary; and although I can not subsist without one, I have
never paid that regard therto, as to neglect my duty to His Maj"' should I go without it; but
it can not be thought, I can with that spirit oblige them to promote his service, as if independent
of that favour, of which they are become too sensible. They are jealous of the power of the
Crown, and constantly encroaching upon its prerogative by nominating Officers and appointing
Commissioners in their publick concerns, without my knowledge and tacking such clauses, as
cannot be passed by His Majesty's Council, to their support Bill, as a means of my consenting
thereto, or having no salary, which are such absurdities that I can never accede to; and
unless the Legislature at home does take cognizance of their conduct, and enjoin them to
a more submissive behaviour, or make a Governour independent, it can never be otherwise,
since neither dissolutions, nor fair means, can produce such effects, as are wanted for His
IMnjestys interest â€”
I have the ambition to say, no Governour before me has gained more upon the affections of
the people than myself, who confess I ask for nothing but for the wellfare of the Country and
its safety intirely abstracted from all gains to myself, and altho' their members are sensible
thereof, yet for the most part, they are of such narrow spirits, as not to comply with any
reasonable demand for the publick good.
I have constantly transmitted to your Grace all my proceedings since I had the honour to
command here, which I have the pleasure to hear has been approved ; and as I have been
assured Gov^ Shirley has represented not only to your Grace, but to the Ministry my readiness
and unwearied vigilance, upon all occasions for His Maj'>''' service and particularly for the
reduction of Louisbourg; I was in hopes I should have been honoured with His Royall
approbation therein, signifyed by Your Grace, it being an unspeakeable satisfaction to know,
that I have done my duty, tho not with the success I could have wished.
I have lately been to make a voyage to Albany to meet the Six nations of Indians, who
were likely to revolt from their engagements to His Maj''': At the publick conference there
attended Commissioners from the Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut and Pensilvania with intent
to renew and confirm with me their respective Treatys with the Six nations, and during my
stay there the Commissioners of the Massachusetts demanded of me the Assistance of those
nations to war against the French Indians in their Govern' whereby the Frontiers of this
province would have been exposed to the insults of the P^rench and probably all our settlers
destroyed, as we have no regular Forts built to repell them, whereupon 1 consulted with such
of His Maj'y' Council then with me, who were of opinion it was more advisable to retain
the Indians in their own Castles till I had acquainted the Assembly therewith, and have since
represented to them the necessity of raising siipplyes (or the preservation of the frontiers, and
beg leave to refer Your Grace to my transactions at large with the Indians at this conference
which I have sent to Your Grace by this opportunity. â€”
28G NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
I am now endeavouring to set on foot a scheme for the reduction of a garrison at Crown
point posessed by the French in the ludian Country, which is a very great annoyance to our
frontiers; but as the Assembly is so extremely backward in promoting any publick good, T am
aflraid they will not contribute to the charge of carrying it on, and indeed while so many dutch
prevail in this province, I can have but little hopes of succeeding in any enterprise, tho' ever
so well concerted, unless they are obliged to do their duty more chearfully by a superior
power â€” Crown point is a fort about 160 miles from Albany, about 160 miles from another
strong Fort the French has called Monreal which is half way to Quebeck from Crown point, I
have sent six pieces of Cannon of IS pounders, with carriages and every thing else necessary
to Albany excepting powder, which I have desired the Assembly to supply me with as if those
guns and Powder was only for the security of Albany if it should be attacked, and despairing
of success, I sent to the speaker this morning, and told him I was very much surprised, the
house paid no greater regard to His Maj'>' instructions, I had laid before them, as not to give
an answer in any shape ; that I had great reason to believe as I had often represented to them
the French and Indians had some design on our frontiers, and if we did not something on our
part to prevent it by attacking them first, that I had reason to believe Albany would be
surprised this winter, and 1 desired a quantity of powder should be immediately sent up, which at
last they agreed to ; I don't know how to intrude any longer on your Graces patience, but have
only one thing more to add, which is, they are all Dutch at Albany as most of the province is,
and was in hopes as Dutchmen to have continued a neutrality with the French Indians, as they
did last war and even supplyed the French Indians with ammunition for their skins, who went
directly from Albany to murther in a most cruel and barbarous manner the People of New
England who was at war with them â€” The Commissioners from Massachusets Bay in our
debates actually taxed Councillor Livingston with it, but he was too deeply concerned to
acknowledge the remembrence, but only said it was a long time ago, and I had now great
reason to believe, both, he and his son was now concerned in taking the lands away from the
Indians, which they complained off. It is a vile family â€” I inclose this to Lord Lincoln
desiring he would take an opportunity of delivering this my private letter when Your Grace
shall be at leasure, and hope for forgiveness taking up so much time â€” I am with the greatest
of respect â€” My Lord
Your Graces most obedient and
New York IS. Nov' most humble servant â€”
1745. (signed). G. Clinton
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle.
Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade.
[ New-Tork Papers, Bundle Gg., No. 153. ]
I had the honour of writing to Your Lordw the 25. July last, with a duplicate of one of the
27. of March inclosed by the Antelope from hence, which I hear is arrived, and to which I
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 287
refer, and ou the 26"' of September following (1745) I transmitted the minutes of Council to
the 10"' July, by the opportunity of some Man-of War from Cape Breton, which 1 hope will
also arrive safe. â€”
Since which, I have been honoured with Your Lordi'i" of the 25"' April last, after mv return
from Albany, where I was obliged to make a voyage to attend an interview with the Six
Nations of Indians (tho' late in the season) in order to establish them more warmly in the
British Interest, from which, they were likely to revolt, through the influence and artifice of
At the publick conference there attended Comiss'"^ from the Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut
and Pennsylvania, with intent to renew and confirm with me (in behalf of his Majesty) their
respective Treatys with the Six Nations, and during my stay there, the Commiss" from the
Massachusets Bay demanded of me the assistance of those Nations to War against the French
Indians in their Govern', whereby the Frontiers of this Province would have been left naked
and exposed to the insults of the Enemy, and all the out settlers stript of succour as we have
not a regular strength to repel an Enemy, nor a sufficient number of Garrisons to protect the
Inhabitants should they be attacked. Whereupon I advised with such of His Maj'-^'* Council
then with me who were of opinion, that it was of very dangerous consequence to suffer
the Indians to depart this Province, till I had informed the Assembly with the nature of the
Demand, however willing I might be to assist his Majesties Subjects in New England, and
shall refer Your Lord?''^ to my transactions at large with the Indians at this conference, and what
passed between the Commissioners from the Massachusets Bay and me upon the occasion,
which I have inclosed, and hope for your Lordships approbation therein. â€”
Since my return from Albany I have again recommended to the Assembly (now sitting) the
necessity of their raising supplys for building of Forts to cover the Frontiers of this Province,
and more particularly now, as the Indians by this Treaty have engaged themselves to make
War upon the French Indians in two months after, unless they can obtain satisfaction in that
time for a Breach of a Treaty of Neutrality entred into between them, and now become void,
by their committing hostilities upon HisMaj'>'' subjects in New England, to which the Assembly
have not paid the least attention.
I am extreamly concerned to see the dispatch of publick business so greatly neglected by the
Assembly of this Province, notwithstanding my frequent importunityes and recommendations
on that head, and I am persuaded while they are at the charge of maintaining a Governour, it
never will be otherwise, tho' I have it to say none ever gained more esteem than myself, thro'
a candid behaviour to them. They are selfish, and jealous of the power of the Crown, and
of such levelling principles, that they are constantly attacking its prerogative, so that nothing
but Gov''* independence can bring them to a just sence of their duty to His M.ajesty and his
service. I have taken unwearied pains with them to that end, tho hitherto to little purpose,
and I find that neither dissolutions or fair means can produce from them such Effects as will
tend to a publick good or their own preservation. They will neither act for themselves or
assist their neighbours, allthough I have constantly laid before them His Maj'^'^ Royal orders
and Instructions, transmitted to me from time to time since the Commencement of the War, as
also the frequent applications made to me by Gov' Shirley and M"" Warren for assistance of
men, provisions and money in maintenance of the late expedition ag" Cape Breton, and for the
protection of Louisbourg since reduced to the obedience of His Majesty. To all which, they
have shewn no greater regard, than voting 6000 pounds to that service (which is not likely to
288 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
be paid) without any otlier assistance, and even tiiat was more, than I well could expect, as
few but hirelings iiave a seat in the Assembly who protract time for the sake of their wages,
at a great expence to the Province, without contributing any tiling material for its welfare,
credit or safety.
It is now become clear to me, that unless the Legislature at home does take cognizance of their
disobedience and indolence, and enjoin ihem to a more ready complyance to His Maj'^'' Royal
orders and Instructions, I have but poor hopes of succeeding in any affair, tho' ever so well
concerted for His Majesty's service and the security of the Province.
I am obliged to Your Lordw' for the Regard you have paid to my recommendations of the
Councillors, and as ftp Renselaer is dead since I recommended him, I hope M"' Bayard will be
appointed to succeed according to my application to Your LordPP the 13 May last.