done to them.
Then the Indians withdrew.
' wliat. Kew-York Council Minutes, XXL, 52. ' particular instances wherein, Ac. Ibid. â€” Ed.
296 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
And his Excellency heard nothing further from them concerning their complaints about
their Lands. â€”
Propositions made by his Excel^^ the Honb''= George Clinton Esq"''^ Capt" General
and Gov"' in Chief of the province of New Yorlc ettc. to Five of the Six
united nations of Indians viz*: The Maquas, Oneydes, Onondages, Cayouges
and Tuscarores. At Albany the 10"" day of October 1745.
Phesent â€” His Excellency.
Phillip Livingston \
Daniel Ilorsmanden ( ,^ , r .i n -i
T , T.r / Esq" ot the Oouncu
Joseph Murray 1 ^
John Rutherford /
The Commiss" from the Govern'* of the Massachusets Bay and Connecticut,
The Commissioners for Lidian affairs.
The Mayor and Corporation of Albany, and several Gentlemen attending
his Excell""^" and the several Commiss" upon this occasion.
His Excel^'' addressed himself to the Indians as followeth :
Here are present upon the occasion of this interview Commiss" from the Govern'^ of the
Massachusets Bay and Connecticut convened with me on the same righteous intention of
renewing, brightning and strengthning the Covenant chain, which has tied you and His Britanick
Majesty's several Colonies on this continent in the firmest engagements to each other, for
supporting and maintaining our common cause. Wee are glad to see so many of our Brethren,
and we bid you welcome here, at the same time that we heartily condole the absence of our
Brethren the Sinnekes and their calamity's which have occasioned it, may the Almighty comfort
them under their griveous afflictions and soon wipe off all tears from their eyes. We do with
you our Brethren and with you as their representatives, ratifye confirm and establish all former
engagements entered into by us, and our Brethren of the Six United nations, and assure you,
that we shall ever hold them inviolable, and we doubt not of the same from you â€” A belt.
The rumour which tiie last winter gave an alarm to our Brethren the Maquas, and was from
thence spread to the other Nations, now appears to have been without foundation ; and I can
not help observing on this occasion, that you ought not for the future to suffer any such idle
tales to be raised and propagated among you, as they not only tend to separate you[r] and our
affections each from the other, but also to make us jealous of our own people without sufficient
grouud for it. A string of Wampum.
It must be further observed to you, that we hear several of the Chiefs and others of our
Brethren of the Six Nations have contrary to our inclinations, and against our express advice,
had an interview with the Gov'' of Canada this summer at Montreal; and that your pretence
for holding this correspondence with our declared Enemys was for the public good, and the
preservation of the house at Oswego. To tell the Gov' of Canada, that they must not make
tONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 297
any attack or attempt upon that place, for that our Brethren are resolved to defend it and that it
should remain a place of peace and Trade. You declared that your intent was good, and [that]
the Gov'" of Canada should never prevail upon you in any thing hurtful to your Brethren the
English, who, you said, you knew did not like your going thither; that yet upon your return
from thence, your Brother the Gov"" of JVew York should know all that passed between you
and the Gov'^ of Canada. We will tell our Brethren what we hear was done, whilst they were
with the Gov"" of Canada, and we expect the whole truth from them according to their promise,
and whether what we hear is true or not. We hear that whilst our Brethren were with the
Gov"' of Canada, The FVench Indians took up the Hatchet against the English, which we
believe to be true for reasons you shall hear by and by, and thereby the Treaty of neutrality
concluded between you and them is become vain. We hear likewise that our Brethren of the
Six United Nations there present, were so far prevailed upon by our Enemies the French, as
to accept of the Hatchet upon condition to carry it home to their Castles to deliberate upon
and then to return the GoV of Canada their answer, which we cannot believe to be true till
we have it from our Brethrens own mouth. We expect a full and plain answer from our
Brethren concerning these matters that the way may be cleared for wiping of all stains from
the Covenant Chain, and that we may preserve it bright, firm and inviolable as long as the
sun shall shine. A Belt.
We must now acquaint you of something relating to the War, the success of His Maj'''' arms
against the P'rench in this part of the world, and the rise and occasion of our attacks upon the
Enemy in this Quarter. When you were here last summer you were told that war was declared
between the Crowns of Great Brittain and France; the events that have since happened are to
numerous to relate particularly. His Majesty's Subjects in this Country, lay still the last
summer, without attempting any thing against the French settlements, but the French first
attacked and destroyed a small place belonging to us called Canso about 26 leagues from Cape
Breton. Afterwards they laid Siege to Annapolis Royal, but therein they proved unsuccessful.
They then agreed to make another Tryal for that place the next spring and in the mean time
they sent to France hopeing to obtain some of the King's Ships to facilitate the reduction of
it. They haveing proceeded thus far M"" Shirley Gov"" of Massachusets Bay thought it high
time to do something to curb the insolence of that haughty people and did therefore raise a
small Army, which was joined by a number of Men from the Govern" of Connecticut and
New Hampshire, and sent them early last Spring against Louisbourg. They were likewise
joined by a number of his MajV* ships of war, and after about seven weeks siege that important
and strong fortifyed place was, thro' the goodness of divine providence delivered up to our
forces. Whereupon the rest of the inhabitants of the Island of Cape Breton, together with
those that were settled in parts adjacent, surrendered themselves prisoners to the English.
And during the Siege, and since many French Ships were taken and divers of them of great
value ; and the design of the French against Annapolis Royal was frustrated. We have in
this part of the Country lain still both the last summer and this, hoping that our neighbours
in Canada would either be quiet or carry on the War in a manly and Christian like manner.
And to induce them thereto, a message was sent from this place to the Gov"' of Canada the last
Summer, by which he was assured, that if he should revive their former vile practices of
treating his Maj'^' subjects inhumanly, the several Governours together with the Six Nations
Vol. VI. 3S
298 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
would join and make reprisals on them. And at the same time you publickly declared, that
if any of his Maj''''' subjects in any of his Govern" should be killed by any Indians you would
immediately join in the war against them and the French. You likewise sent your Delegates
last summer to the Eastern Indians to warn them not to engage in the War against the English,
threatning them in case they should do so. Notwithstanding these things, divers hostilities
have been committed. Some montiis ago the Eastern Indians who had formerly acknowledged
their subjection to the Crown of Ureat Brittain, entered into solemn engagements with the
Kings subjects, and had been since treated by them with great kindness; but at the instigation
of the French they have lately killed one Englishman, and also great number of Horses and
Cattle, burnt a Saw Mill & many dwelling houses and attacked an English Garrison.
Notwithstanding such outrageous insults the Gov' of Massachusets Bay was so tender to them
that he resented it no further then to send a Message to them demanding the delivery of the
Murderers as they would avoid the consequences of their neglect. This proposal was rejected
by them, and since that time they have killed two or three others, whereupon the GoV of the
Massachusets declared war against them; and we are informed the English have lately killed
two of them and taken another prisoner. About three months since some of the Canada
Indians killed two Englishmen near Connecticut River, the body of one of them was treated
in a most barbarous manner, by which they left a hatchet of war, thereby daring us to take it
up, and return it. There has likewise been several other partys that have attempted to distroy
His Maj'J'* sui)jects of New England, but have been hitherto prevented. These facts plainly
shew, that the French are still acted by the same spirit, that they were formerly governed
by, and they seem never pleased but when they are at War, either with the English or some
of the Tribes of Indians, and if they had it in their power, they would doubtless distroy all
about tliem. It is likewise evident, that the most solemn and sacred engagements are broken
thro' by those Indians that have committed the late Murders. That Bells of Wampum will
not bind them to the performance of their promises. That we are slighted and you condemned,*
as though they thought you not worthy to be regarded. The Six Nations were formerly
esteemed powerful and your neighbouring Tribes stood in fear of you; but now the French
and their Indians by the little regard they have to your threatnings, or to the covenants they
have made with you, do declare that they think you do not intend to perform what you have
threatened, or that they do not fear your displeasure, both which do reflect equal dishonour
upon you. It is high time for us and you to exert ourselves and vindicate our honour, and
although it is well known, that we delight not in the distruction of our fellow Creatures, but
have chosen rather to suffer ourselves to be abused, yet we can not think ourselves obliged any
longer to bear their insult and evil treatment. Therefore since neither our peaceable disposition
nor examples, nor any methods we have been able to use, have been sufficient to prevail upon
them to forbear their Barbarous treatment of us, but they will force our resentments. In the
name of God we are resolved not only to defend ourselves, but by all proper ways and methods
to endeavour to put it out of their power to misuse and evil entreat us, as they have heretofore
done, and we doubt not of your ready and chearful concurrence with us (agreable to your
solemn promise made in this place last Summer) in joining with us against our Enemies the
French and such Indians, as are or shall be instigated by them, for we esteem them Enemies
to God as well as to all their fellow Creatures, who dwell round about them. â€”
A large Belt with the figure of a Hatchet hung to it.
' contemned. Neto-York Council Minutes, XXL, 65. â€” Ed.
^ LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 299
The publick affairs of my Govern' have prevented my meeting you sooner. I was apprehensive
I should not have been able to meet you this fall, and it was determined upon a sudden so
that there could not be timely notice sent to the rest of His Maj'^^ Govern'^ or I doubt not
they would likewise have sent Commissioners to be present at this interview. We are all
subjects to the same prince, united in the same bonds of duty and allegiance to the Great King
our Common F'ather, and in friendship and affection to each other, and in this union consists
that strength, that makes us formidable to our Enemies, and them fearful of our resentments.
We are all united with you in the same covenant chain, which as long as we preserve it free
from rust must remain impregnable ; and you on your parts have declared that you will
preserve it so strong and brigiit that it shall not be in the power of the Devil himself with all
his Viles' or arts to break or dirty it. You are also united with all the Far Nations of Indians
in league with our great King, with whom we recommend to you to preserve strict friendship
and hold frequent correspondence ; that you yourselves (who many of you live scattered and
dispersed) should dwell in bodys closer together as you have heretofore promised to do. And
we advise you to keep your young Men at home and within call, excepting such as may be
sent from time to time a hunting, or, against our Enemies, and you may depend upon the most
ready and effectual assistance from us in all times of danger. A Belt.
Answer of the six Nations (except the Sinnekes who are absent) to His Excell'"''
George Clinton Esq'''' Gov'' in Chief of the province of New York ettc. and
the Commiss" of the Colonies of the Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut.
At Albany the 12"' day of October 1745.
Brother Corlaer and Brethren of the Massachusets Bay, Pennsylvania & Connecticut.
Two days ago our Brother Corlaer and our Brethren of the Massachusets Bay & Connecticut
speake to us and now we are come to give our answer. You must [not] expect, that we can
answer exactly to the several heads you mentioned to us but only to the principal Articles.
You have renewed the old Covenant Chain and we do now renew the same on our parts; it is
impossible that it can ever Rust for we daily wipe off" the dirt and keep it clean which we will
ever continue to do. A Belt of Wampum.
You thought fit to mention to us that there had been an uproar among us last Winter, and
told us that we ought not to entertain any such notions of you our Brethren, especially as we
had no grounds for any such belief. It is true Brethren such a Rumor was among us, but it
was immediately hurried and forgot, and we did not expect that our Bretliren would have
mentioned any thing concerning that affliir to us at this Interview, and we desire you to think
no more of it; we are also mindful of the Covenants between us and our Brethren and here
ia a certificate (a) to prove that we are in covenant with our Brethren of Boston. â€”
A String of Wampum.
' Wiles. New - York Council Minutex, XXI., 57. â€” Ed.
(o) (A Certificate dated Ist August 1744. delivered by Hendrick with the string of Wampum upon this Article
under the hand of Govr. Shirley and the seal of the Province of the Massachusets Bay, signifying that Hejidrick
Sachim of the Maquas and Kayenwarygoa Saohim of the Onnoudages delegates from the Eight Nations accompanied by the
300 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
Brother Corlaer and Brethren of the Massachusets Bay and Connecticut.
You speak to us concerning our going to Canada this summer, and told us that the
Commissioners of Indian Affairs, had last Winter enjoined us not to go there, but some of us
went ; as to what you tell us that we had taken a Belt from the Gov'' of Canada whereby
he desired us to take up the Hatchet against you our Brethren and that we promised him to
consider of it at home, it is not so. All that passed there the Mohawks and Tuscarores have
given the Commissioners of Indian Affairs an account of at their return and we are convinced
that that account is true. A Belt of Wampum.
You have thought fit to relate to us several particulars, concerning the war between you and
the French, and what reasons you had for taking up the Hatchet against the French and their
Indians. We thank you for given' us a particular account of the provocations and inducements
you had for declaring war against them, you also mentioned to us that we are one Body and
one Flesh, and that if one of us is touched or hurt then the other is so likewise, and you have
informed us that you are molested and attacked by the Enemy and had therefore taken up the
Hatched against them and desired as we are one Flesh with you, that we would also take up
the hatchet against the French and those Indians under their influence ; in conjunction with
you we the Six Nations accept of the Hatchet and will keep it in our bosom. We are in
alliance with a great Number of Far Indians and if we should so suddenly lift up the Hatchet
without acquainting our allies with it, they would perhaps take offence at it. We will therefore
before we make use of the Hatchet against the French or their Indians, send four of our people
(who are now ready to go) to Canada to demand satisfaction for the wrongs they have done
our Brethren and if they refuse to make satisfaction, then we shall be ready to use the Hatchet
against them, whenever our Brother the Gov"' of New York orders us to do it.
A Belt of Wampum
His Excell'^J' asked them, what time they thought necessary to try whether the French
Indians would make satisfaction.
The Indians answered, two months.
His Excell'^y asked them that if in case the Enemy should commit any further hostilities in
the mean time, whether they would then upon his Excell'^^'* commands immediately make use of
They answered : yes.
Here the Indians requested his Excell'^y that as they had giveing the war shout upon
delivering the hatchet to them that these* Brethren would now signify their approbation of this
article in their usual method. Whereupon His Excell"^^ and most of the company joined in
shouts with three huzzas. â€” [excepting the Massachusets Commissioners]
Commissioners appointed by that Governt to treat with the eight Nations arrived at Boston 25th June 1744. had at several
conferences wilh Govr. Council and Assembly confirmed the Treaties made with that Government and particularly the last
Summer at Albany and had proceeded on a voyage and had an interview with the Kastern Indians and faithfully acquitted
themselves in enjoy[n]ing them to maintain peace with the English and warning them of the consequences of their violating
the same). â€”
'giving. New -York Council Minutes, XXL, 57. â– 'their. Ibid, 68. â€” Ed.
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 301
You desired us that we should gatlier together our people who are scattered and settle in a
Body, especially as it is very uncertain how soon we may have occasion for them; your request
is very reasonable and we will use our endeavours to that end.
A Belt of Wampum.
We have now finished our answer and have nothing further to say but only one request to
make to you all, which is that you our Brethren should be all united in your Councils, and let
this Belt of Wampum serve to bind you alltogether. And if any of you have any thing of
importance to communicate to us this is the place where it should be done.
A Belt of Wampum.
Here a note of approbation was given by the Interpreter by his Excell'^^ directions for
New York Connecticut and Pennsylvania.
Trade was the first occasion of our entring into alliance together, and from time to time
goods have been sold dearer to us, and we have several times desired that the price of goods
should be lower and more moderate, but could never get a satisfactory answer, and now we
take this opportunity to desire our Brother Corlaer himself and the Commiss" of the several
Provinces to take it into their consideration that goods may be sold cheaper to us, for how
shall we do now we have taken up the Hatchet, we have no powder, ball nor cloalhes, people
that go to war ought to be [well] provided with aniunition, this is the last time that we shall
speak upon this head, if we do not succeed now. A Belt.
His Excell'^y answered them, that he would do his utmost, that goods should be sold them
as cheap as they could be afforded, but tliat the price of goods depends upon the scarcity or
plenty of them, and as it is now war, goods are scarce and consequently dear and that they shall
be furnished with powder and aniunition upon occasion.
His Excell'^s''" further Speech to the Indians.
I have some presents which shall be ready to deliver you at this place an hour hence.
Since there are none of our Brethren the Sinnekes here I doubt not but you will be so just
to them in the distribution as to set apart and reserve their share for them and take care it be
delivered to them.
It gives me much pleasure to see so many of our Brethren at this Meeting and I have taken
care hitherto for your Refreshment and hospitable entertainment, I hope you have wanted for
nothing, and I doubt not but the Commissioners of the other Govern'" will now do their parts
towards you, till your return home. I shall provide all necessaries for your journey from
hence to Schenectady.
I have been detained here several days longer than I should have been, had not
Commissioners from several other Govern" attended at this interview which of course will
make the presents fall so much shorter.
I recommend to you that you take care there is no mischief done in your way home.
302 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
I recommend it to your' Bretliren the Maquas to enquire into certain complaints of some
injuries done to Farmers living at Canajolierie and to see that Justice be done and no mischief
committed for the future. â€”
That the Commissioners for the Massachusets Bay, upon the Indians delivering the fourth
Article in their answer to the Article of His Excell'^J'"' speech, proposing to them their
engageing in the wars, rose up and publickly declared their dissatisfaction at the Indians
answer, and insinuated, as if some endeavours had been privately used by some people of this
Province to prevail on the Indians to give that answer for that ( as they said ) they knew the
Indians were well inclined to have entered into the war immediately, and cast some reflections
upon the people of Albany, as if this answer was given by their perswasion, who, the Commiss"
of the Massachusets, said, they well knew were not inclinable that the Indians should enter
into the war at all. And as to their obtaining satisfaction of the French Indians for the
hostility by them committed, what satisfaction could they expect from them, perhaps a bundle
of deer skins, or some such trifling consideration, so that at this rate they were likely to carry
on the war by themselves, which they believed was contrary to His Maj'^'" intentions, and their
Govern' would take care to represent this matter home.
His Excell''^ in answer thereto observed that the conduct of the Massachusets Commissioners
was what he was much surprised at in the face of the Indians, at a season, when he thought it
behoved us, (and 'twas the intention of this meeting as he understood) to shew that these
Colonies were all united, and were determined to join their forces, and utmost strength in the
prosecution of the War and maintenance of the common cause; and if a neutrality could be
strictly observed by the Indians, he understood hitherto that this was what would answer the
wishes of every Colony, and that of this opinion was M"' Shirly, after the hostility's committed
upon the borders of his Govern' â€” upon which occasion he wrote to his Exceli"^ requesting
him to send his orders to the Commissioners and instruct them to send a message to the Six
Nations forthwith, and to acquaint them of the infraction of the neutrality by the French
Indians, and that it should be demanded of the Six Nations, to dispatch Deputys to Canada
in order to obtain a satisfaction, that so the treaty of neutrality might inviolably be observed
for the future ; and that his Excell'''' had immediately pursuant thereto, sent his orders to the
Commiss" of Indian Affairs at Albany, though it happened at that time to be notorious, that
many of the heads of the Six Nations were then gone to Canada upon an interview with the
French Govern', and several of them were engaged (according to promise) to return thence by
way of Albany to give the Commiss" an Ace' of their negotiations with the French part of
their errand, being (as the Indians assured the Officer at Oswego) to tell the Gov' of Canada,
he must make no attempts upon that place, for that the Six Nations were resolved to defend
it, and the Commissioners at Albany at the time of such his Excel^>' orders as aforesaid, were
in daily expectation of the return of the Indians from Canada by way of Albany, and as the
Commiss" wrote to his Excell"' in answer, they thought, that considering the importance of
the Message to be delivered to the Indians, it would be the best opportunity of delivering it to
them personally, and they should at the same time be better able to judge of their present
disposition after their interview with the French Gov'; but before 'twas possible for the Six
Nations to have sent to Canada and have obtained the fruits of such an endeavour, the Govern'
'our. New -York Council Minutes, XXI., 68. â€” Ed.