" would make earnest application to His Majesty, that he would be graciously pleased so far
" to interpose as that; whilst the French remain in possession of Canada, those other Governra"
" who are not so immediately exposed may be obliged to a just proportion of the charge of
" Defending the Inland Territories of the three Governments of the Massachusetts Bay, New
" York & New Hampshire.
We agree in sentiments with the Memorialists & would further Represent to Your Lordships
that the French have gained great advantages in the present war by their Fortress which was
built at Crown Point in time of Peace, &is truely an Incroachment on His Majesties territories
as from thence they were enabled to send out parties of Indians & French to harrass the
Frontiers of New York & New England and it served their parties as a secure retreat in case
of their being pursued by a superior force ; it being only three days travelling from the English
Frontiers & about half way between Albany & Montreal in Canada ; Whereas the parties sent
from New York into Canada were under great difficulties by their being obliged either to pass
near that Fortress or to go a great way round thro' a vast Mountainous Dessert, & had no
place of retreat for their security, or for recruiting either with Provision or Ammunition.
For these reasons. My Lords, it was to be wished that the French could be induced to
-demolish that Fort, as an Incrorchment on His Majesties Territories But whether this can be
obtained or not it seems necessary to build one or more Forts near some of the most considerable
Passes towards Canada, and as near to Crown Point as conveniently may be, otherwise the
Planters will be discouraged in resettling the Frontiers, which have been laid Waste in this
War, and our Frontyers will not advance into the country while the French will be continuallye
incroaching upon the King's territories by New Settlements.
We agree likewise with the Memorialists that it is not reasonable that the building of these
Forts & the other Defences of the Frontiers should be at the Expence of the Northern Colonies
only, since the Southern Colonies are covered by the Northern ones, & reap the greatest
advantages from their Defence, and we are of opinion that as the Inhabitants in the Southern
Colonies, by the Defence which the Northern Colonies give them, have the Benefit of following
their several occupations in safety, & are freed from all the Calamities of a barbarous war, to
which the Inhabitants of the Northern Colonies are Exposed, the Southern Colonies, as they
are thereby Enabled so they ought to pay a larger proportion to the charge of Defence, than
otherwise might be thought equitable.
Upon this head we would further observe to Your Lordships that we are convinced from past
Experiments that the Colonies will never agree on Quotas for that purpose; and therefore
their respective Quotas must be settled by Royal Instructions. This was done in King William's
Reign, but their present state is so much altered, particularly Pensilvania so much more
increas'd than the others, that the Quotas then setled would now bear no proportion to the
Abilities of the respective Colonies and it is necessary for us likewise to observe to Your
Lordships that on many occasions tiiere has been so little Regard paid in several Colonies to
; the Royal Instructions that it is requisite to think of some method to inforce them. We are
with the greatest Regard,
Your Lordships most obedient
Fort George in the City & most humble Servants
of New York, 18"" Aug' 1748. G. Clinton. W. Shirley.
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVIII. 441
Covference between Governor Clinton and the Six Nations.
[New-Tork Papers, Hh., No. 10.]
Propositions made by His Excellency The Honourable George Clinton Captain
General and Governour in Chief of the Province of New York, Vice Admiral
of the same, and Admiral of the White Squadron of His Majesties Fleet to
the six Nations of Indians (viz') the Mohawks, Oneydas, Tuskaroras,
Onondages, Cayougas and Senekes as also to their Allies (viz') Oghquuges,
Toalaghreghsoonees^ and Scanehaderadeyghrooues at Fort Frederick in
Albony the 23 day of July 174S.
Pbesent — His Excellency the Honourable George Clinton
His Excellency William Shirley Esq"' Governour of Massachusetts Bay.
The Hou''''^ Cad - Colden \
Philip Livingston /Esq" of his Majesties Council for the
James Delancey ( Province of New York.
Arch"* Kennedy /
Commissioners from the Government of the Massachusetts Bay.
The Officers of the Independent Companys, and Several Gentlemen from
New York and Massachusetts Bay as also the Gent" of the Town.
It gives me great pleasure to see so many of the six nations mett here together, with Your
Allies, and I give yoo all most hearty welcome to this place, where our fire burns.
You have at this time a strong proof of the friendship which His Excellency M"- Shirley
Governour of the Massachusetts Bay has for you, by his coming in person to this Interview of
which you will be fully assured from His Excellency's own mouth, having travelled by Land in
such time of Danger, under many Difficulties in the way, least you should wait too long here
for him, if he had taken y" easiest way by water. A String of Wampum.
I informed the King Your Father with what zeal you join'd his subjects here in the War
against the French, and their allies in Canada, Whereupon His Majesty has sent me a
considerable present to give you as a token of his being well pleas'd with Your conduct on
that occasion, and of the Confidence lie still places in Your Fidelity and Zeal for his service.
A Small Belt.
I am very glad of this Opportunity to brighten and strengthen that Covenant Chain, by which
our forefathers Linck'd us strongly together and which has ever since continued firm and lasting
to this day, notwithstanding the many unwearied attempts of our malicious and cunning enemies
to break it, and I hope that neither the rust of time, nor their policy, can prevent its remaining
strong and firm as long as the Sun and Moon shall endure, Our Mutual Strength and security
'Toataghreitliroones. New-Yurk Colonial ManwcripU, L.\X\^I. ; New-York Council Minutea, XXI., 311. Sometimea
called Saponies, Bometimes CatawUas. Supra, V., 660, 67!?. — Ed.
Vol. VI. 56
442 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
highly depends thereon, agreable to the repeated Declarations of our Forefathers, and while
you remain strongly united with Your Brethren the English (who have always been Your
steadfast friends ) you can have no reason to fear any thing the French dare to attempt, unless
they can prevail upon you to trust to any of their deceitful promises, which I expect and insist
upon You will not listen to. A Belt.
I must inform you of one thing which I suspect our enemies the French may endeavour to
accomplish, as soon as you return home, because they have [often] of late attempted it, that is to
draw some considerable Men from among You to Canada, on some pretence or other, in hopes
thereby that the French Governour may have it in his power to weaken or break the Covenant
Chain, which subsists between us, and to overset what I do now with sincerity declare to you,
whereas he never speaks with truth, but at all times deludes you with his smooth Tongue and
artfull promises which if you give ear to, will surely prove Your ruin, as your Forefathers by
sorrowful! Experience have often felt. Therefore 1 earnestly Desire and conjure you, by this
Belt of Wampum, not to go that way, nor listen to any Invitations from him, nor any of his
Emisaries, nor give credit to any wicked and false stories, which he or they may raise among you.
I have often told you not to suffer any French to reside among you, and being informed that
many of them are from time to time admitted into Your Castles, and now remain there, contrary
to Your promises to me ; and as such People are sent among you, to raise Jealousies & Differencies
between you, and Your Brethren, without any foundation for it, I expect for the future that you
will not suffer any French to enter Your castles, or dwell with you, but that if any do come for
that purpose I desire you will make them Prisoners, and send them to me, or else 1 will send
for them, and I hope that none of you will oppose my Messages for that end.
A Large Belt.
As you have had my Ax in your hands for some time past I must desire you will keep it,
and that you will hold Yourselves in readiness to use it, jointly with us, whenever you are
called upon, as the enemy are committing murders daily upon you, and Your Brethren, on their
own lands, and as our forefathers always said and agreed that whatever happen'd to one should
be sensibly felt by the other, being as one Body and one mind, I expect that You will
remember, and keep up that agreement acccordingly, and upon this occasion I must advise you
to keep Your Young men at home and not let them go to War against the Flatlieads, who are
in strict friendship with Your Brethren the English. A Large Belt.
I have sent a number of French Prisoners to Canada, in order to redeem such of our
Brethren as have had the Misfortune to fall into their hands, according to my promise to you
by Col. Johnson at Onondaga, and in this as well as on other occasions I have taken the same
care for their Redemption, which I have done for His Majesties other Subjects. His Excellency
the Governour of the Massachusetts Bay (to shew his regard likewise for you) has brought
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVIII. 443
fourteen French Prisoners to this Place, tliat in case tlie Prisoners which I have sent to Canada,
be not sufficient to redeem all Your people from Captivity, these may be Exchanged for them.
You have since you came to this Place given a new and strong proof of your love to Your
Brethren and fidelity to the King your Father by so cheerfully and speedily sending out a
Number of Your Warriours with our Troops in quest of the enemy who a few days since
surpriz'd and killed many of our Brethren at Schanectady, and altho those who earnestly
pursued the Enemy had not the good fortune to meet with them, You may assure Your selves
that this Instance of Your Affection and readiness to Join in our cause shall always be
remembered by mie and made known to the King Your Father A Belt.
Answer from the Sachems of the Six Nations to His Excellency the Hon"" George
Clinton Cap' General and Governour in Chief of the Province of New York
Vice Admiral of the same and Admiral of the White Squadron of His
Majesties Fleet at Fort Frederick in Albany the 26 July 174S.
Present — His Excell'^ the Hon*"'' George Clinton
His ExceRy Will" Shirley Esq"" Gov'' of Massachusetts Bay.
The HonWo Cadwallader Colden \
Philip Livingston [Esq" of His Ma''" Councill for the
Archibald Kenedy I Province of New York.
James DeLancey I
Coll" William Johnson.
The Commissioners from the Governm' of the Massachusetts Bay.
The Officers of the Independent Companies, and several other Gentlemen
from New York and the Massachusetts Bay.
They said by their Speaker Onnasadego an Onondage Sachim.
Brother Corlaer, Waraghjago and Yahowanne.
As Your Excellency has been Pleased to take Pitty on us for the Loss of our people and the
Sickness which has been among us since our last Interview, and has wiped oft' our tears that
we may cheerfully Speak together we do in like manner condole the losses you have had and
are Especially grieved for those People who have been slain by the enemy; we condole them
wipe up their Blood and dry up Your tears, that we may speak with a free Mind to Each other,
and that the old friendship which has subsisted between us may not be forgotten.
Gave a String of Wampum.
You told us that you was rejoyced to see so many of the Six Nations here, we may be very
thankfuU for that Blessing, and so are we, that we see you Brother Corlaer Yehowanne &
Warachjago together in good health at this Place where our fire of Amity ani Friendships
Burns, which we hope shall Endure till time be no more.
Gave a String of Wampum.
444 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
Brother Corlaer, Wtvrachjago & Jehowanne
We heartily thank you for your great Esteem and Regard for us, that you have acquainted
our father his Majesty King George (who we acknowledge to be our common father and
Protector) that we have assisted our brethren the Englisli in this War against the French, We
return thanks to His Majesty for his bounty and goodness in sending us a Present to be
delivered unto us by you, we promise that we shall not be wanting in our Duty. We thank
you for acquainting and reminding us of the ancient Covenant chain, which has so long
subsisted inviolable between us, and our ancestors, the terms and Conditions you know better
than we because you have them in writing and we only by Oral Tradition, as you have
renewed the same we do solemnly in like manner confirm and renew the same with you, that
we may hold fast together hand in hand till Death parts us, [you tell us] that the French
continually use Artifices with us, Endeavouring thereby to break that Covenant which subsists
between us: This we cannot Deny, but do freely acknowledge it, but we faithfully promise
not to hearken nor give credit to the French for the future, but adhere firm to you our Brethren,
and hope the Brethren will do in like manner, on their parts to us, as long as the world endures.
Gave a Belt.
Brother Corlaer, Waraghjago & Yehowhanne
You told us that you suspected that after we are returned home the French will invite and
send for some of our men to go to Canada, in order to delude and draw some of them off from
their Duty to our Common father or endeavour to oversett or Prevent what we have now
Promis'd and Engag'd to perform.
We know it to be true, as you observe that the French are Deceitfull and Endeavour to
draw some of us over to them. We believe You Speak sincerely from the bottom of Your
heart, but the French speak artfully and Deceitfully, We do expect they will come among us
to try to Delude us craftily, but we all the Si.x Nations are Determined not to give credit, nor
hearken to what they may tell us, and not one of us shall go to Canada on any Pretence,
according as you Desire from us: We do not Speak this only from our Lips, but Sincerely
from the Bottom of our hearts. Gave a Belt.
Brother Corlaer, Warachjago & Yehowanne
We the Six Nations kuovr by Experience that the French of Canada are Deceitfull and not
to be trusted that they will Endeavour to draw some of us off from our Duty & fidelity to
his Majesty but they shall not be able to accomplish it. We Promise not to suffer Jean Couer
the French Interpreter, nor any French, for the future to reside or Dwell among us. We
promise that if he or any other from Canada shall come among us, we shall Either send them
to Your Excell'' or Deliver them up to any Messenger Your E.xcell. may send for them, or
Drive them out of our Country. Jean Couer has been given up already by the Sinekes. You
may be assured that what we now promise to Your Excell^ we shall faithfully Perform, as Your
Excell" has Desired from us. Gave a Belt.
Brother Corlaer, Waraghyago & Yehowanne
You told us we had Your hatchet a long while and Desired us to keep it in readiness, for the
French are deceitfull and not to be trusted, we may expect daily that they will attack us or
you as we have lost some people by their Parties we Promise to keep our Warriours at home,
that we may be always ready and not surpriz'd by them. You desir'd us to keep our loung
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVIII. 445
men at home, and not send tliem' out against the Flntheads who we hear are friends to our
Brethren the English. This we promise lii^ewise to do as you desire. You desired us two
Year agoe that we should keep our Young Men at home, that the war-kettle was hung over the
fire by you. Since we received and have had the hatchett in our hands some of us have made use
of the same and others stayed at home, Expecting to be called upon for this reason our Young
men have not been able to go on their hunting at any distance from home as usual, which has
Impoverished us very much and tho we are considerable sufferers by this war, we shall
nevertheless keep our warriours at home, as you desire to be Ready at Your first call.
Gave a Belt.
Brother Corlaer, Waraghjago & Yehowanne
When Coll" William Johnson was at Onondage the last Spring he promised to use his
Endeavour to get our people who are prisoners in gaol at Canada, which Promise we see you
have Endeavoured to accomplish by sending a number of French Prisoners to Canada to
Redeem them, for which we are heartily thankful! to you, and that you Promise to take the
same care of our Prisoners as you will do of Your own people who may have the misfortune to
fall into the enemies hands, and we are much obliged to Governour Shirley, that he has been
pleased to bring a number of French Prisoners to redeem ours for which We are very thankfull
to you both Gave a Belt.
Brother Corlaer, Waraghjaga & Yehowanne.
The Cruell Murthers lately committed by the Enemy on the Inhabitants at Schoneghtedy,
Just before Your arrival at this Place affects us very much, we are much oblidged to you for
Your kind Approbation for our Readiness to Pursue the Enemy, we have done our Endeavour
but they were gone a different Road home from what they used to go so that we Could not
overtake them, we Promise to be always Ready on the like occasion. Gave a Belt.
Speech made by His Excellency the Hono"" George Clinton Cap' Generall and
Governour in Chief of the Province of New York, vice Admirall of the
Same and Vice Admirall of the White Squadron of His M.njesties Fleet, to
the River Indians at Fort Frederick in Albany the 27 July 1748.
Present — His Excellency the Hon''''^ George Clinton
His Excellency William Shirley Esq'' Governour of the Massachusetts Bay
The Hon"'"^ Cadwallader Golden ) t- r. r 1 ■ at ■ .• r^ -i r
p.... -. . ( Esq" of his Majesties Council for the
, , rt T^ J r Province of New York.
Arch" Kenedy J
Andrew Oliver ) tt „ o r, •,, , t,
John Choat j Massachusetts Bay.
Coll" William Johnson
The Officers of the Independent Companys and severall Gentlemen from
New York and Massachusetts Bay.
I am glad to see you here, and do give you thanks for the fidelity you have always shewn to
this Government, and I do assure you You shall never want my Protection as long as you behave
446 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
Your selves with Duty and Obedience to His Majesty; and as a token of the King Your
Father's Affection, He has directed me to make you a Present which I have ordered to be given
you, and as a token in Renewing the Covenant Chain I give you this Belt of Wampum
Gave a string of Wampum.
Answer of the River Indians to His Excellency the Hon'"''' George Clinton.
We wipe off [y]our Tears for the Loss you had of Your people who have been murder'd since
the commencement of this War. Gave a String of Wampum.
We are very much rejoyc'd for the Regard Our Father the King of Great Brittain has for
us, by ordering a Present which you assure shall be given us.
Gave a String of Wampum.
Our forefathers told us that before any white people came among them they saw a Vessel
in the River, for Some time they were afraid to go to it, but at last they ventured on board
and found them to be White men, who treated them Civilly and Exchanged mutually presents
to each other, with promises that they would return the next Year ; which accordingly happen'd,
when they came again the White people and they Enter'd into a Covenant together that they
should live on these Lands, which they did, and they also promis'd totake us under their arms
and protect us, which they have done to this Day. Gave a Belt.
When you came first to this Country You were but a small people and we very numerous,
we then assisted and Protected you, and now we are few in number you become Multitudes
like a large Tree whose Roots and Branches are very Extensive, under whose Branches we
take our Shelter, as we have heretofore done Gave a Belt.
It is now almost three Years since the war first began. You have had a very numerous armey
together. We were Ready to join You, in hopes that Canada would have been in possession
of the English before now, We have been always and have still our hands on the cocks of
our Guns to go against our comon Enemy whenever we shall be comanded.
Gave a Small Bundle Skins.
We thank you for Your kind Expressions towards us, and are sorry we were not here
the other day, when the Enemy murther'd a number of our Brethren at Schinectady, which if
we had we would have readyly and chearfully Joynd in the persuit of them, even to the
Gates of Crown Point. Gave a small Bundle Skins.
A true Copy examin'd & compared
p' P. Livingston, Secretary for
the Indian Affairs.
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVIII. 447
Conference between Governor Shirley and the Indiana.
[ New-Tork Papers, Hh., No. U. ]
Propositions made by His Excellency Governour Shirley, Captain General &
Governour in Chief of the Province of the Massachusetts Bay, & Vice-
Adniiral of the same, to the Six Nations of Indians, viz' the Mohawks,
Oneydays, Tuskaroras Onondagas, Cayougas, & Senekes, as also to their
Allies, viz' Oghquuges, Toalaghreghroonees & Scanehaderadeyghronees at
Fort Frederick in Albany the SS"* day of July 1748.
Present — His Excellency The Hon'"'*' George Clinton
His Excellency William Shirley Esq"'
The Hon'''« Cadvv'" Golden \
Phillip Livingston / Esq"of His Majesties Council for the Province
Archibald Kenedy ( of Nevr York
James Delancy j
Andrew Oliver ) i- ,, • r .1
„,-.-,. f Esq" Commissioners lor the Province of the
Ihomas Hutchinson )-,, , , r.
T , ^, I Massachusetts Uay.
John Choate J ■'
Col" William Johnson.
Several Gentlemen from Boston & New York, the Officers of the Independent
Companies & the Gentlemen of the Town.
I am glad to have this Opportunity of saluting You and Your Allies here in the King Your
Father's Name, & inquiring after Your health & welfare. Gave a string of Wampum
Several Months ago I let the King Your father know how just you have been to Your
Engagements with his Excellency Governour Clinton, under whose immediate care he has
plac'd you, & faithfull to Your Brethren of the English Colonies, by taking part with them in
the Warr ag' the French & those Indians whom they have seduced into their Interest, to make
'em Instruments of their Cruelty & perfidiousness to us & you ; Thereupon the King Your
Father has sent his Royal Commands to me to join with Governour Clinton in doing whatever
may be necessary for Your Defence & Protection ag' the common enemy, & in giving You
proofs of his paternal Care & Tenderness for You, whom he looks upon & will ever treat as
part of his Children upon this Continent; And I have chosen this opportunity, when His
Majesty's presents are to be delivered to you, as the most convenient for meeting you here,
that I may in Conjunction with His Excellency the Governour of New York, give You
Assurances of this in the King Your Father's name, & Act in concert with him for securing
Your welfare. Gave a small Belt.
I am further to acquaint you that notwithstanding I now visit & speak to you in consequence
of Instructions v/"^ I have receiv'd from the King Your Father, yet the Province of the
Massachusetts Bay, w'^'' the King has putt under my Government, being willing to take every
opportunity of cultivating that friendship which lias subsisted between them & you from the
448 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
beginning has Appointed three Gentlemen to accompany me & attend on their behalf at this
Interview ; And 1 now assure you on the part of the Province, as does the Appearance of these
Gentlemen, that it is sincerely desirous that tiie Covenant Chain may be constantly kept bright
& strengthned between them and You, & that the Path between the Massachusetts Bay & Your
Country may be kept clear and open, so that there may be a constant & free Intercourse
between us, & that we may frequently inquire after & mutually promote each other's welfare.
Brethren, It was with great Concern that I heard of the severe Imprisonment of our Brethren
of the Six Nations, who are now Captives in Canada : Before I had been informed of this,