Lordships to him both as an indifferent witness & a good Judge.
I have likewise ordered my Secretary M' Gatherwood to take M"' Parris's assistance in
giving Your Lordships what further Informations you may want.
I am with the utmost respect.
My Lords, Your Lordships most obedient
To the Right Honourable
The Lords Gommissioners
for Trade & Plantations.
Governor Hamilton to Governor Glinton.
\ New-York Fapara, Hh,, No. 78. ]
Philad" October 2"' 1749
While the Deputys of the Six Nations were lately in the City I made it my business to
enquire their sentim" upon the march of such a Body of Frenchmen to Ohio, but found they
had no other knowledge of it than what they gained after their coming into this Province,
neither upon my own acquainting them with it did it seem to give them any uneasiness.
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXIX. 531
A few Days ago the Messenger I sent into that Country returned and gave me the following
account of Ilis transactions. That upon his Arrival at an Indian town, called Logg's Town,'
on a branch of Ohio, he learnt that about 200 French and thirty Indians were just departed
from thence after having sunimon'd a Council of the Indians & made them a speech the
purport whereof, as nearly as he could collect, together with their answer is inclosed.
Whereupon the Messenger gathered the Chiefs of the Indians together & acquainted them that
he was sent by me to apprize them of a piece of intelligence I had received from Your Excell''
& to put them on their guard in case the French might make any attempt upon them, & so
repeated the substance of Your letter to me on that Subject. That when he had delivered his
message the Indians expressed great thankfulness to their Brothers of New York & Pensylvania
for their care in sending them an account of the French coming among them at a time when they
did not expect them. That the Indians in Gen' were much displeased at the proceedings of the
French, & while he was among them held a Council in which it was resolved to fall upon
them and cut them off, but that he advised them not to proceed in that manner, until they
were more fully convinced than by words, that the French intended by force to gain the
Subjection of the Twitchwees & Wayandotts (two nations that live further down the River &
who for two or three years past have dealt largely with our Traders) That with a good deal
of difficulty he got them disswaded from falling on the French at that time, but that they were
still determined to differ with them, if the Twitchwees and Wayandotts who had fortifyed
themselves in their towns would begin to quarell, to which purpose he sent Deputys to
Council with them, who were not returned when he came away. That in gen' he found the
Indians in Ohio heartily in the interest of the English, & fully bent to quarell with the French
if ever they came again in the same hostile manner.
The French Officer who commanded the party understanding it was chiefly with this
Province that those Nations of Indians trafficked put into the hands of some of our traders
three Copys of the inclosed Papers to be delivered me, by which you will perceive they have
it much at heart to regain that branch of Trade, which was in a manner lost to them during
the war, by their Disappointm' of regular Supplys of Goods from France ; And at present from
the Affection those Nations have entertained of the English on acco' of their more friendly and
reasonable manner of dealing with them. Upon the receipt of these papers I was apprehensive
our traders might for the future be molested in their trade to that Country by Monsieur's
carrying his threats into execution, & thought it incumbent on me to apprize them of this piece
of Intelligence, that they might take their Measures accordingly, but I found them so satisfyed
of the Friendship of the Indians, & so secure of their protection against the French that
they are determined to prosecute their Trade among them, which has of late been a very
I have sent by a sloop belonging to this City the Guns Your Excell^ was so kind to assist
this Province with at a time when they stood much in need of them, and am again requested
to return you the grateful acknowledgm" of the Gentlemen Associates of so great a favour.
I have the honour to be, S'
Your most obed' hble Serv'
His ExcellJ' Gov"^ Clinton. James Hamilton.
'Loggstown was situate on the East bank of the Ohio, about twenty miles Northwcat of Pittsbuigh, Pa PoionalTs
Topographical Deicription of North America, App., p. 6. — Ed.
532 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
Captain Bienville de Geloron to Governor Hamilton.
[TRANSLATED FEOM THE FRENCH.]
From our Camp on the Beautiful River,
At an Old Shawnee Village, 6"^ August, 1749.
Having been sent with a detachment into these parts by the Marquis de la Galisonniere,
Governor in chief of New France, to reconcile together some Indian Nations who had got
embroiled on occasion of the war just concluded, I have been much surprised to find traders
belonging to your government in a country to which England never had any pretension. I
have treated them with all possible courtesy, though I had a right to regard them as interlopers
and vagabonds, their undertaking being contrary to the preliminaries of the peace signed at
Aix la Chapelle, over fifteen months ago. I hope. Sir, that you will be so good as to prohibit
that trade in future, as it is contrary to the treaties ; and notify your traders that they will
expose themselves considerably, should they return to this country, and that they must impute
to nobody but themselves whatever misfortunes will overtake them. I know that our Governor
in chief would be very sorry to have recourse to any violence, but his orders are very strict not
to suffer any foreign traders within his government.
I am most respectfully, Sir,
Your most humble and most obedient servant,
Note. — The date of the above letter and place where it was written, are taken from the copy in Pennsylvania Colonial
Recordt, v., 425.
Captain de CelororHs Certificate that lie had expelled English Traders from the Ohio.
ITKANSIiATED FEOM THE FRENCH.]
We, Celoron, Captain, Knight of the Military Order of St. Louis, commanding a detachment
sent by the Marquis de la Galissoniere,^ Governor in chief of New France, have on the banks
of the Beautiful River, summoned the Englishmen, whom we have found in an Indian town,
situated on the bank of the Beautiful River, tp retire with all their effects and baggage to New
England, on pain of being treated as interlopers and rebels, in case of refusal ; to which
summons they have answered, that they were going to start for Philadelphia, their country,
with all their effects. Done in our camp, on the Beautiful River, this lO"" August, 1749.
Mons' Hamilton, Governeur de Philadelphia,
' Roland Michel Baertn, Marquis de la Galissonierc, and a Lieutenant-General in the Frencli serTiee, was one of tlie
ablest nieD of his time. Ab a scholar, a soldier, a statesman, bis merit was deaeivifdly e teemed. Born at Rochefort, November
11, 1693, he entered the nayy in 1710, in which he served with distinction until he was appointed to Canada. In that Colony
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXIX. 533
Speech of a French Officer to the Ohio Indians.
[New-York Paperg, Hh., No. T4. ]
The Speech of a French Officer who had the Command of 200 French and
30 Indians going down Ohio, delivered in Council to the Ohio Indians at
an Indian Town called Log's Town.
We are once more come to see you & further we are to let you know that we are to come
next Spring and trade with you: We are now going down the River in order to whip home
some of our children, that is the Twitchwees & Wayundotts & to let them know that they
have no business to trade or traffick with the English: further Children we desire you may
hunt this Summer & Fall, and Pay the English their Debts, for we will not suffer them to
come here to trade after this winter. So gave the Indians a Belt of Wampum.
To which Speech the Indians made little or no answer only gave the French to understand
that the land was theirs & that while there was any Indians in those Parts they would trade
with their Brothers the English; As for their pretending to whip home the Twitchwees &
Wayundatts this Fall & sending their brothers the English home from trading with them next
Spring, they looked on that Speech as a jest & desired them to consider the consequence that
must attend a proceeding of that kind ; for that to separate them from their Brothers the
English would be like cutting a Man in two halfs & then expect him to live. They added no
more but used them with a great deal of contempt while they staid in their Town.
Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford.
[ New- York Papers ( 8. P. 0. ) XL, 123. ]
My Lord Duke.
In obedience to your Grace's commands, by letter dated the 19"" July last, the next day
after I received it, I gave that letter to the deputy Secretary, and sent a copy of it to
the province Treasurer. As these two are by their Offices the properest persons to give the
informations required by your Grace, and the Treasurer the only person that can give a
compleat and perfect answer, I gave each of them an order to make a distinct and compleat
answer, to every thing required in your Graces letter. I now enclose the answers I received
his conduct was eminently conducive to the best interests of both the King and his people. The Swedish traveler, Du Kalm,
bears abundant testimony to his scientific acquirements; while even his meagre appearance and deformed person added to
his influence over the savages. "He must have a mighty soul," they said, "since, with such a base body, our Great Father
has sent liim such a distance to command us." De la Galissoniere returned to France in 1749, where he was placed at the
head of the department of nautical charts. He is best known in English history by his affair with the unfortunate Byng, in
1766, which resulted in the judicial murder of that excellent officer, in order thereby to screen tlie criminal derelictions of
his superiors. He died at Nemours, October 2G, 1750, full of glory and honor, and loudly regretted by Louis XV., who was
BO sensible of his worth that he bad reserved for him the baton of a Marshal of Franco. Biographie UniversMe. — Ed.
534 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
from them ; Your Grace will perceive tiiat the Treasurer's answer, is a mere evasion from
answering at all, and is in effect a refusal to answer, because he could have given an account,
as matters then stood, and could have reported what number of Bills are in his custody, ready
to be cancell'd. But the case is truely tiiis: that after considerable sums are brought into the
Treasury to be cancell'd, and the Treasurer has it in his power to send these Bills abroad
again, for his own benefit, or the benefit of his friends. That he actually does this, is put out
of question, by numbers of bills now passing current, which by the acts by which they are
emitted, ought to have been cancelled several years since and it is likewise confirm'd by the
Treasurer's disobedience to an order which I sent him on the 27"' June last in pursuance of
His Maj'J'* instructions to me, with his frivolous excuses for his disobedience to that orders, copies
of which I likewise transmit to your Grace. Large sums thus remaining in the Treasury, I
am confident are of the greatest use to the Faction in the Assembly, as they by their influence
over the Treasurer, can comand whatever sum they please, and for every purpose that can
enlarge their influence and power, or distress my administration, while the Treasurer thinks
himself secure under the protection of an Assembly (or of a ruling faction in it) and whose
Officer he looks upon himself to be, and not the King's. While the faction in opposition to the
Administration, has such large sums in their power, neither the Governour, nor any Officer in
the Govern' has a single farthing either for salaries, or for the defraying of any expence of Govern'
however necessary ; The King has been at a great expence, in sending over a considerable
number of Canons, with their carriages, and other warlike stores for the defence of this Colony ;
he maintains likewise four independent companyes for its defence; the carriages of the Guns
and many of the stores will perish for want of care; the soldiers suffer in their Barracks by
their being out of repair, the fortifications are dayly decaying, and falling down for want of
sufficient repairs, while it is not in my power to prevent it. I am now obliged to provide the
Garrisons in firewood and Candies, and many other necessarys out of my private pocket, which I
can not continue, while I have no salary to myself. The creditors of the Govern' have remained
long without their just dues for large sums, Coll. Johnson has upwards of ^5000 due to him,
which they allow to be a just debt, but as he will not be a tool to them, they always take care
to put him off in some scandalous manner. Your Grace then can not avoid seeing, in what
distress the Administration of Govern' must be, while the faction in opposition has such large
sums in their power, to make use of to distress it, and to enlarge their influence; while the
Judges are thought to head the Faction, or to be favourers of it. Your Grace I believe will
perceive that it is not in my power to compell obedience to my commands, however just or
necessary they be, in opposition to that faction. From what I now write, and from what 1
have formerly on several occasions represented to your Grace I am confident, you will think it
necessary, that some effectual measures be speedily taken, for the recovery and support of His
Maj"'' authority, in this province. 1 have been under a necessity to give your Grace so much
trouble, from time to time, that I think it proper to write what I have further to say, to the
Lords of trade and Plantations, rather than to intrude to much upon your Grace's patience.
I am with the Greatest of respect
My Lord Duke
Your Grace's most obedient, and
most humble servant
New York Sa""* November 1749. (signed). G.Clinton
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXIX. 535
Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade.
[ New-York Papers, Hh., No. 76. ]
Fort George in New York
26 Nov 1749.
On the 27"^ of June last I sent an order to the Treasurer of this Province to be informed of
the true state of the Revenue and of the money now remaining in the Treasury to which I
have not been able to procure any answer, under frivoius excuses & pretences, as will appear
by the Certificates of tiie Treasurers answer iierewith sent
His Grace the Duke of Bedford directed me, by his letter of the 19"" of July to send a
particular state of all tlie Bills of Credit in this Province pursuant to an address of the house
of Commons to His INLnjesty for that purpose I have likewise not been able to procure any answer
from the Treasurer to what was required by the Kings express command of wiiich I have
more particularly apprised his Grace. From this your Lordships will perceive what his
Majestys authority is reduced to as well as that of his Governor in this Province
On this occasion I think it incumbent on me to inform your Lordships of the State of the
Treasury, and publick money in this Province, so far as I have been able to procure knowledge
of it myself When M"' Hunter came Governor into this Province early in the year 1710 a
strong Faction was then formed in the Assembly as now on republican and levelling Principles
with a noted Republican at the head of the Faction & Speaker of the Assembly who obstinately
refused to grant any Revenue for support of Government in any manner comformable to the
Kings standing Instructions. Tho' W Hunter dissolved the Assembly several times, it was to
no purpose. The Faction still prevailed — Thus he and all the officers of the Government
remained without any support, for four years from 1710, to 1714. In the mean time, M'
Hunter drew Bills by order of Queen Anne for large sums to defray the expence of an
Expedition, then udertaken against Canada, and for supporting a considerable number of
Palatines who were sent over by the Queen to this Province and these Bills were all protested
M' Hunter and all the officers being so far distressed he was under a necessity of making
compliances to the Assembly in order to obtain a support for himself & the other officers of
Government. This he did by yielding to them the nomination of the Province Treasurer who
was to receive and pay all money grant** to the King by Act of Assembly, Before the time all
the publick money was received and paid by the Kings Receiver General of this Province. INP
Mompesson who was sent over from England Chief Justice of this Province as his Predecessors
had been, happening to die about this time, IVP Hunter appointed IVP Morris to be Cheif
Justice and had the appointment confirmed by the King — He was the first native of America
1 beleive who had been Cheif Justice — The reason of M' Morris's appointment I beleive was
the use he was of in the Assembly which gave the Revenue he being a member of it. M'
Hunter was likewise obliged to consent to a very large emission of paper Money & from tiiis
a Paper currency had its first rise in this Government
The Assembly having thus forced the Governor to yield & to act in contradiction to his
Instructions after he could obtain no assistance from the Kings Ministers. The Assembly
continued from time (as occasions oflered) in grasping more and more power to the Prejudice
of the Royal Prerogative 'till the Kings authority and Power of Asseinblys are at last brought
536 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
to the state they now are which I have formerly represented to your Lordships, I am persuaded
your Lordships more fully & particularly inform yourselves from the Papers remaining in your
office, than I can, to the first rise of the incroachments upon His Maty's Prerogative
The use that is now made of the Treasury and the influence which a ruling Faction in the
Assembly have over the Treasurer besides what I have formerly taken notice of By the several
Acts by which paper money is issued it is to be paid in by Taxes & Duties in to the Treasury,
at stated times, and then sunk, But in place of sinking these Bills, large Sums have been for
several years preserv"* by the connivance of the Assembly, and it evidently appears from the
Tenor & Date of several Bills now passing current, in this Province, that these Bills have by
some fraudulent means been remitted from the Treasury — It is by this means that the Faction
by their Influence over the Treasurer can at any time obtain large sums of money to carry on
their designs against His Majesty's Authority, & in distressing my administration, while a
Governor cannot command one farthing for support of Government
And the Treasurer thinks himself secure while he does not look on himself as the Kings
officer but the Assembly's.
While the judges either had the Faction or favor it against the Governor it is not in his
power to compell obedience to any orders however just or necessary. From what I now tell
your Ldps besides all the other particulars which I have formerly represented to your Lordships
you must be sensible how weak the Kings authority is in this Province and how it is no way
in the Power of a Governor to support the Kings authority, against the Power of a Faction
which has by so many ways & for so long a time been gathering strength in this Province and
who have carryed their views so far as to think that all Governors for the future must be
subservient to them. I hope your Lordships will be at last fully convinced that no time is to
be lost in taking the necessary steps for crushing this insolent daring & dangerous Faction. As
for my own part no consideration of Private Interest could prevail upon me to bear longer the
Insolence I suffer from them, but as I had (by too great confidence in Cheif Justice Delancey)
at my first coming into this Government given them by his advice, many advantages which
they have since made use of against me; I thougiit it my duty to do all in my Power to make
amends in restoring the Kings Authority, and in doing some kind of Justice to my own Character
But I hope that your Ldps will consider that too long a continuance of the Hardships and
difficulties I labor under and suffer may at last be too much for a moderate mans patience
Your Lordships may be a little further let into the views of the Faction as to money matters
by the reasons given by M"' Golden, for his dissenting to the passing the two Bills in the year
1747 — The one intituled An Act for appointing Commissioners to take examine and state the
publick account &c The other an Act for the more effectual cancelling the Bills of credit of
this Colony & entered in the minutes of Council for Assembly affiiirs 3"^ Nov"^ 1747 transmitted
to your Lordships, to which I beg leave to referr For which and other reasons I refused my
Assent to those Bills
I humbly propose to your Lordships consideration, whether it be not necessary to suppress
the office of Treasurer set up in direct opposition to His Matys Commission under the
Great Seal of Great Britian, appointing a Receiver General of his Revenue &c in this Province,
and whether notwithstanding of the Acts of Assembly of this Province the Receiver Gen'
may not be directed and impowered to take the publick money into his Custody, and which
is granted to the King, but on conditions and Terms in many instances contradictory to the
direction of His Matys Commission to his Governor of this Province, by the Authority of
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXIX. 537
which only, the Assembly sits and acts and are empowered to make Laws or levy money on his
subjects, and especially as none of these Acts have received His Matys approbation (so far
as I itnow) In case this should be thought proper to repeal these Acts. I must pray Your
Lordships to consider how far the King can by His Prerogative dispose of this money without
the consent of the Assembly or Legislature of this Province. However this be I think that the
putting the money into the Receiver Gen'' hands and repealing the Laws by which it is now
put into the Treasurers hands and issued would put the Assembly under a necessity of
consenting to such Laws for the issuing of it as shall be consistent with His Matys Commiss"
& Instructions : But on all events the authority of Parliament would be most effectual to
remove all difficulties
I must likewise beg your Lps to consider whether it be not nesessary for the Preservation
of His Matys authority and the due execution of justice to send over some able Lawyer to be
Cheif Justice of this Province. I am humbly of opinion that it is absolutely necessary but
more especially after a Cheif Justice a Native of this Province has presumed to head a Faction
in opposition to the Government as established by His Majestys Commission & Instruction's
Your Lordships will perceive by the Copy of my letters to the Governor of Canada, and
his answer how he delays to set his Majesties subjects at liberty I have too much reason to
suspect from what I have formerly wrote to your Lordships what the French are doing at this
time, that the delays he makes notwithstanding his promises and Profession of Sincerity is
only with a view to lessen the English Credit among the Indians and to withdraw them from
us by giving them an opinion of the French Superiority over us & that the French neglect
and despise [us]. What the Governor of Canada shall do in consequence of my last letter
will put this matter out of doubt. However in the mean time I think it proper to apprize
your Lordships so far
I am with the greatest Respect
most obedient &
most humble Serv*
se'' G : Clinton
Lieutenant Lindesay to Governor Clinton.
[ New-Tork Papers, Hh., No. 76. ]
Oswego 2^'^ Sept^ 1749
In obedience to your Excellencys orders dated 28"" May last inclosed I send you the account
of the number of Traders, Battoes & their Cargoes that have come here this summer I also
send a return of the number of foreign Indians, Canoes and Cargoes they brought
The first summer I was here I was at as great Pains as I could with the farr off Indians to
promote this Trade, and incorporate them with the five nations in which I spared no expence
and had all the assurance from them I could desire. You will see by the number that have
Vol. VL 68
NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.