execution with all convenient Speed and Prudence I can
I am with the greatest Respect
Your Ldps mo humble
Fort George New York and most obedient Serv'
7"' June 1750 (sg-*) G Clinton.
P. S I have just received several Affidavits from Albany to contradict that part of Monsieur
Jonqueres letter in relation to the French Interpreter & the French Indian
Marqxds de la Janquiere to Lieutenant Governor Pkips.
[ New-York Papers, Ilh., No. 92. ]
[TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH.]
Quebec, 7 March, 1760.
Since I have entered into possession of the general government which the King, my master,
has conferred on me, I have felt a real desire to procure full freedom for all your prisoners who
are confined here. My sentiments have reached your Excellency, to whom I have had the
honor of writing several letters, as well as to M' Clinton, Governor of New York. I had every
reason to hope that this anxiety on my part would greatly contribute to excite you to do all in
your power to procure the same advantage for the subjects belonging to my government, for the
French who are detained among the Mohawks, and the 26 Abenakis who are on an Island in
the vicinity of Boston. Nevertheless, I am grieved to see an affair of this importance drag
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXIX. 503
along witliout being able to penetrate the motive ; I perceive no difficulty the moment your
Excellency will be pleased to act with the same zeal'tliat animates me, and of which I have
not ceased to give you evidence; I am even persuaded, Sir, that if my letter of the 25"" Sepf
last, by M. Launiere, had reached you, you would have been so good as to facilitate the search
for those 26 Abenakis, of whom I sent you the list, and had M. Clinton united with me, as I
had requested of him to do, lam certain that, what with his efforts and yours, the respective
prisoners of the two governments without distinction would be in the enjoyment, at this
moment, of the sweets of peace which formed the main object of both crowns in their treaty.
I could not, Sir, dissemble from you the very sincere sympathy I feel for the lot these poor
people have the misfortune to undergo, and for which I should have to blame myself, had I
contributed thereto. M. Clinton, I am forced to avow, is tlie sole cause of it, for had he
permitted M. Launiere, the interpreter to those Abenakis, to execute my orders, that nation
would be as quiet as it is now infuriated, and which they will continue to be until
positively informed of the fate of their brethren. This reason, conjoined to the desire Ifeel for
the preservation of peace and good understanding, induces me to have the honor to send to
you as a deputation, M. de Beau bassin, an officer of the troops of this colony, with an Abenaki
Indian, to whom I have given orders to make, with your permission, all the search and
inquiries imaginable to effect the discovery of those Indians ; and as I should be very glad
that it would be the last of all my proceedings, and would prove more successful than the
previous ones, I beg to communicate to you. Sir, the answer which M. Clinton returned to me
on the 28"' S''" last ; this is the more necessary, that you may perceive what good grounds I iiave
to complain, and to make use of every means to recover those Abenakis.
Mr. Clinton, who never spoke to me of those Abenakis, observes to me :
1. That their chiefs have imposed on me, and to prove it, annexes to his letter that which
Colonel Wendell, of Boston, wrote him.
2. That the interpreter, M. Lauuier, with the Indian who was accompanying him, satisfied with
the reading of that letter, had considered that he could dispense with going to Boston to deliver
you my letter agreeably to the order I had given him to that effect. I would have greatly
desired that Mr. Clinton's answer had had the desired effect, but I observe, on the contrary,
that the Abenakis are firmly resolved to do all in their power to recover their brethren, who
they persist in maintaining with much firmness, are detained on an island in the vicinity of
Boston. Here is the proof: First, Mr. de Wendall admits in the letter that, at the beginning
of the war, those 2G Abenakis were in a fort of New England and solicited to live among the
English, and that when war was declared, the Indians were taken to Boston ; that the Indians
were to have been sent to Casco bay, to assist at the treaty of peace which was to have been
concluded there last spring between the Eastern Indians and the English, and that they would
be at liberty to depart whenever they pleased, or to return to New England. But Mr. Wendall
does not say positively that these Indians had really gone to Casco, still less that they went
home, nor even what had become of them.
In the second place, the Abenakis to whom I have communicated this letter, have made
several observations to me.
First. That it is false that their brethren went into the English fort with the intention of
taking refuge there; that they were invited to go there to trade, and that in violation of their
confidence, they were carried by force to Boston. They take this violence much to heart.
564 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
Secondly. That they are informed by all their chiefs who assisted at the treaty of Casco,
that their brethren were not present at it, and even that their names were not mentioned.
Tiiis fact has just again been certified to me by a Malacite chief.
Thirdly. That they have little doubt of those Abenakis being in your government,
inasmuch as two Indians, who have lately left your prisons and the master gunner of the ship
le Vigilant, iiave affirmed to ihem that they know for certain that said Abenakis continue to be
detained in the neighborhood of Boston. Several Frenchmen, worthy of credit, have told me
the same thing.
In the third place, what irritates the Abenakis most, is the report which their brother
(who accompanied M. Launiere to New York) made to them of the bad treatment they had
experienced, and Mr. Clinton's obstinacy in not permitting them to proceed to Boston.
I did not expect such a refusal, and would be gratified had Mr. Clinton, so far from preventing
the execution of my orders, added his authority thereto ; particularly as they tended to the
common good of the subjects of New France, and as I evinced all the regard, attention and
politeness possible for the officers and other persons who have come into my government
provided with one of his passports. But according to the account which M. Launiere has
rendered me, whatever exertions he made, and notwithstanding he was willing to defray the
expenses of his voyage to Boston, Mr. Clinton constantly opposed it. What is still worse, M.
de Launiere having by orders of Mr. Clinton embarked with his Indian on board a sloop for
Orange, the sailors ill-treated that Indian, without the master of the vessel deigning in the
least to prevent it, which obliged the Indian to fly across the forest. His journey was
accompanied by great suffering, and he was not found without a great deal of trouble.
Such a proceeding is not to be tolerated. I doubt not but as soon as I have informed Mr.
Clinton of it, he will have punishment inflicted on those sailors, or rather on the master of the
sloop, for not having controlled his crew. This punishment is of very great consequence,
inasmuch as the Abenaki nation may avenge the insult offered to their brother, and it is my
duty to tell you, that when the Indian was near his village, he chanted the war song, and
having informed the Chief of his adventure, they held a council and deliberated on detaching
a party of their young men to go and stab a Commissary and several Englishmen who are at
the Great Carrying place. This I fortunately prevented, by making use of the whole of
Captain Benjamin Stoddart, whom Mr. Clinton has sent to me for the exchange of prisoners,
arrived in town days ago. I had a long conference with him yesterday, from which he
must perceive how charmed 1 would have been to conclude that exchange. He will report to
you the reasons that prevented my doing so ; they are the same which I have the iionor
to submit to you. He has been a witness of the representations which the Malacite made me,
and of what M. Launier told me respecting Mr. Clinton's refusal. I have given orders that
the deputy be furnished with all the comforts he can wish for in my government, and on my
part I will show him all the politeness I owe to officers who represent Your Excellency. He
has permission to see your prisoners, both English and Indians ; my deputies could not obtain
the same facility. I flatter myself that Mr. Clinton will afford it to M. de Beaubassin whom
I have expressly ordered to visit them as often as he will be able. I write on this subject to
Mr. Clinton and my letter will not be delivered to him by M. de Beaubassin until he will
have had the honor of accomplishing his mission to Your Excellency.
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXIX. 565
All the facts I have just had the honor to detail to you, must convince you of the
impossibility I labor under of doing anything to affect the opposition of the Abenakis. You
will not fail to deem it just, and I am certain that you will put everything in operation to
enable me to afford them the satisfaction which is their due.
It is in this confidence that I dispatch M. de Beaubassin with an Abenaki Chief. I have the
honor to request you, Sir, to be pleased to afford him all the facilities necessary for his
succeeding to discover those Abenakis, according as I have prescribed to him. I doubt not but
he will be successful in finding them ; he will accompany their Chief so that he may be able to
speak to them in whatever part of your government they may be. Those Indians will take
such course as they please, being free and independent, and it will be sufficient for me to have
carried out the views of the Abenakis, who from all time have been very loyal to the French
Nation. Therefore, Sir, should these Indians request to go home, you will have the goodness
to permit them to do so, and it will be sufficient that one of them return with M. de Beaubassin
to report to the Nation that his Brethren have recovered their liberty, or preferred to remain
in your government. Mr. Clinton will be able at the same time to forward all my Frenchmen
who may be in New England and those who are actually in the hands of the Mohawks. At
the Great Carrying place M. de Beaubassin will depart with all diligence to inform me of this
and of the place agreed upon to conclude said exchange, and I will immediately dispatch
all your prisoners in general in order that they may repair with all speed to the place
For the rest. Sir, I must not conceal from Your Excellency my great surprise, that a party of
English Traders are scattering themselves all over the territory belonging to my government,
who distribute their goods at alow price in all the Indian Villages of the Upper Country within
the limits of the King of France. This so seriously injures the trade of this Colony that I
cannot avoid reporting the matter to the King my Master. It is not very difficult to devine the
views which the English entertained in anticipating all the wants of the Indians. It is, I shall
be answered, to attract them to themselves, and that is not forbidden, since the Nations are
not dependent on any Crown. But all the world knows, that the King of France is Master of
his territory as much as the King of England is over his, and that consequently I would be
wholly justified in expelling those who will take it into their heads to establish a trade there
contrary to the King's Interest, and in confiscating their goods. Eh! ought I not to do it
unhesitatingly, since, independent of motives of interest, the English are endeavoring to
debauch the Indians and inspire them with feelings of hatred towards the French.
You will be astonished to hear that I have reason to complain. I have the proof in my
possession of what I advance, and in order to support it, feel no difficulty in transmitting
annexed hereunto, copy of the message the English of Chouaguen^ have sent among all the
Nations. The English taking advantage of the abundance they cause, do not hesitate to tell
those Indians above board, and exhort them warmly to make use of the Tomahawk which I
gave them, against me and my French ; they accompany these messages with Belts of
Wampum painted red, the Calumet, English Flags, &c. The whole has been sent to me. I
showed it to Mr. Stoddart, and cannot think without shuddering that malignity has been pushed
to the length of meditating the destruction of the French.
You will easily perceive, Sir, that I cannot hide my resentment from you ; it is not so
profound as you will suppose, perhaps. Well, so far from wishing to give it vent, I, on the
' 0Â»wcgo. â€” Ed.
566 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
contrary, reiterate to you the assurances of my desire to entertain the most perfect understanding
with you, and the subjects of your government ; that so far from injuring them, I would aflbrd
them, in all cases, any assistance that would depend on me.
But as all the attempts which are unadvisedly made to induce the Indians to destroy the
French, might occasion some untoward event, and as, besides, it would be unfortunate were I
obliged to have recourse to reprisals, it is essential that Your Excellency punish severel}"^ the
authors of said messages, and forbid by law, under heavy penalties, all Englishmen belonging
to your government, going on the territories of the King of France, to trade with the English
residing there. On my side, I would issue a similar ordinance against any of the subjects of
my government going to trade on your territory, and have it published in every one of my
posts and settlements.
I see no means more sure to maintain us in the tranquillity we must wish for. You will
confer great pleasure on me by sending me copy of the law you will issue to that effect.
This, Sir, is a very long letter. I could not dwell too fully on matters of such very
The inventory of the papers of the Treasurer of this Colony not being made out, I cannot
attend to the arrangement of the accounts of the expense which has been incurred for the
I have the honor to be with as much Esteem as Respect,
Your most humble and
Most obedient Servant,
( Signed ) La jonquiere.
A true copy, compared by me
Peter De Joncourt, Interpreter.
Governor Clinton to the Marqnis de la Jonquiere.
[New-Tork Tapers, Hh., No. 93. ]
Fort George in New York
1"^ June 1750
I was exceedingly surprized with your letter to the Governor of Massachusetts Bay a copy
of which has been transmitted to me. Wherein I am charged with having stopped your
Messenger, and an Indian which you sent with him, in their way to Boston, and in sending
them back without permitting them to pursue your orders. I think some thing more was due
to the assurances I gave you, that your Messenger, and the Indian who came with him, were
fully satisfied with the account Coll Wendall gave them of the 26 Indians which you thought
were detained prisoners in Boston. They not only declared so to me as I wrote to you (the
Interpreter Launier and the Indian being seperately asked) but likewise desired to return to
Canada immediately, as the season of the year was so far "advanced, that they were afraid of
LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXIX. 567
being stopt by the Ice. Of this I now send you an authentick proof on the oath of M' Pavy,
a Lieutenant of the Kings Troops who spoke to them by my directions and in my presence
and who received their answers and reported them to me. I had a few days before this
happened, and as soon as it was in my power engaged a vessel to carry them by water to
Rhode Island from thence they had a short way by Land to Boston which was both the
speediest and easiest way tiiey could take from hence to Boston and had agreeable to your
Excellencys desire wrote the enclosed to Gov"" Phipps and they would have gone accordingly if
Coll Wendall had not in that time come to this Place, and if they had not both of them
declared that they were satisfied with the account they had from him, and that they were
desirous to return home immediatly Your Excellency will likewise perceive from the
Affidavits of the persons on board the Sloop which carried them from this place to Albany,
how injuriously and falsely the Interpreter Launiere and the Indian have represented the good
usage they have received on Board that Sloop. I have such reason to complain of Launieres
falsehood in this case by which he has abused your confidence in him that I must demand that
he be punished for the same as such like practises if not discouraged must tend to a Breach of
the Amity establised between the British and French Nations
It must likewise give me some dissatisfaction, that you have chosen M' Beaubassin to carry
your despatches across the Frontier country from Albany to Boston, A person well known to
have headed the Indian parties, which committed the most cruel barbarities, in the last War
on innocent poor people, living peaceably in their own houses. The sight of such a person
must raise violent emotions in the breasts of those persons who have lost their dearest relations
in such a barbarous manner : And tho I have hitherto suppressed the resentment of the
Christians, I dare not take upon me to answer for the event, should he go among the Mohawk
Indians and therefore as it is my duty to guard against every thing that may occasion a breach
of that Amity, between the subjects of Great Britain and France which I am desirous to
cultivate, I can not permit him to go among the Indians tho' he should be fool hard enough
to attempt it
I am sorry that I must complain of your giving me so much ground to suspect that your
intentions with Respect to a speedy delivery of the Prisoners on both sides, are not such as I
understood them to be, and not correspondant to the sincere desire I had, that the subjects of
both Nations should in every respect (as far as in my power) enjoy the sweets of Peace
However your Excellency may have been misled by the falsehood told you by Launiere I
hope you will effectually remove any jealousies which those Incidents must naturally raise by
making the Exchange of all the Prisoners of this Governm' who are in yours, both English and
Indians, with the French Prisoners in this Governm' at the South end of Lake Sacrament
according to the Agreement entered into with M"' Saunders last year. As soon as I shall
know the time at which you shall be ready to deliver the English and Indian Prisoners at
that place, the Prisoners in this Government shall be ready to be delivered up at the same
time and place.
I am with very great esteem and regard
Your Excellencys mo humble
& obedient Servant
8g<' Geo: Clinton
568 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS.
Governor Hamilton to Governor Clinton.
[ New-York Papers, Hh., No. 95. ]
Philadelphia 31" May 1750
I forbore answering your Excellencys letter, relating to Indian Affairs by the last post in
expectation of being able to give some fresher Intelligence than possibly you might have
received, touching the State of affairs among the Indians at Ohio I am now to acquaint you
that since that time, I have two accounts from thence, by persons who left it on the S"' & lo""
of this month both agreeing in substance. That there were among them reports of hostile
preparations carrying on in Canada against them and the six Nations, but that the matter was
much doubted by the Indians, some giving credit to it, and others not beleiving a word of the
story ; That however all the Indians are in a fighting posture, fearing the worst and will keep
themselves so : And upon the first intelligence of the French coming into their parts, they will
go out from their towns in a body, and by parties harrass or fight them in their march. And
that as all the Indians there are hearty very numerous and agreeing well together, it is
thought that this summer will not produce any disturbance
I am very sensible tis of great importance to the British Interest in general, to cherrish and
protect the Indians in our Alliance but particularly to these two Provinces, which reap such
considerable benefits from their Trade, and for that reason I shall ever be ready to afford them
all the Assistance in my power, when regularly demanded, but considering that they are as
strictly united with this Government as with any other on the Continent, and that we have on
all occasions acted as friendly a part by them, it is natural to think that had they apprehended
such imminent danger as is set forth in Coll Johnsons lettre they would as freely have applyed to
this Government for Assistance, as to that of New York and by Messengers who were known
to be of consequence with them, nothing of which kind having been done, I can not venture to
put the Province to a considerable expence, without receiving some stronger evidence of the
necessity of it, than Coll Johnsons letter to the Governor of an other Province, Neither indeed
do I think the people under my care, would have reason to be pleased with such a conduct.
I shall therefore wait some time in expectation of hearing from them on this subject, and when
ever they require it in a proper manner shall most willingly assist them to the extent of
One of the Traders who left Ohio on the lo"" Instant, tells me, that before he came away he
heard a message from you delivered to them by one of the six Nations with which they were
I expect shortly a further account of these matters from my Secretary, who has been now
three weeks in the Woods in company with some Indians of the Six Nations, and if I find it
worthy of your notice shall not fail to acquaint you with it as soon as possible â€”
I am with all imaginable Regard Sir
Your Excellencys most humble
and obedient Servant
His Excellency Gov' Clinton sg"* James Haaiilton
LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXIX. 569
Affidavits of John H. and Genevuoe Lydius.
[ Plantations General Papers, XIV., ( O. ) No. 46. ]
City of Albany, ss. John Henry Lydius of tlie said City Esq"" being duely sworn upon the
Holy Evangelists of Almighty God maketh oath that he hath frequently heard both from
the Mohawk & Caknawage Indians & that for about these twenty five years past that the Land
Northward of Saraghtoga as far as the Rock Rogeo did & does belong to the Mohawks which
Rock is scituated on the Lake Champlain about ten leagues North from Crown Point, neither
hath he ever heard of any other Rock called by the Indians Rogeo, Rogeo being a Mohawk
word & the name of a Mohawk Indian who veas drown'd as the Indians say in the Lake
Champlain near that Rock long before the Christians came amongst them from whence the
Mohawks call both the Rock and the Lake Rogeo. And this Deponent saith that he knows
that the Lake Champlain is called by the French Mer des Iroquois as well as Lac Champlain,
and this Deponent further saith that he himself hath long had a Conveyance from the Mohawks
for Land five Leagues North from Crown Point which the said Mohawks did covenant with
him to be their sole, lawfull & proper right. And he this Deponent hath always heard that
the purchase made by Godfrey Dellius in the year 1696 was commonly esteemed to extend
to the Rock Rogeo; And he this Deponent haveing frequently enquired of the five Nations
of Indians how far their right of hunting extended hath allwayse heard them claim &
assert that they the Indians of the five Nations had a right not only to the land on the South
side of Cadarokoui River but also to the Land between Cadarokoui & the branch of St.
Lawrence River called Le Grand Rivier. And whilst this Deponent lived in Canada he hath
heard some of the French people themselves own that the lands on the South side of St.
Lawrence River belonged to the English ; And this Deponent further saith that he well knows
that the Northern branch of Hudson's River extends at least twenty leagues further North than
Crown Point running thro' the Peninsula that divides Cadarokoui & Lake Champlain, he this
Deponent having been that far up the said branch of the said River.
And this Deponent further saith that at the time that M'' De Lachassagne Governor of the
three Rivers was sent from Canada to treat with His Excellency William Burnet then Governor
of New York against the English building a Fort at Oswego, he, this Deponent, being in
Canada did at their Return hear Mons'' Demuseaux (one of the Gentlemen that had accompanied
Mons'' De Lachassagne) say that Governor Burnet had convinced them that the Land of the