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for the founding of an institution of learning,
intended particularly "to qualify young men for
the gospel ministry. " The citizens of Carlinville
donated funds wherewith to purchase eighty
acres of land, near that city, as a site, which was
included in the deed of trust. The enterprise
lay dormant for many years, and it was not until
1857 that the institution was formally incorpo-
rated, and ten years later it was little more than
a high school, giving one course of instruction
considered particularly adapted to prospective
students of theology. At present (1898) there
are about 110 students in attendance, a faculty
of twelve instructors, and a theological, as well as
preparatory and collegiate departments. The
institution owns property valued at §110,000, of
which $50,000 is represented by real estate and
§40,000 by endowment funds.

BLACK HAWK, a Chief of the Sac tribe of
Indians, reputed to have been born at Kaskaskia
in 1767. (It is also claimed that he was born on
Rock River, as well as within the present limits
of Hancock County. ) Conceiving that his people
had been wrongfully despoiled of lands belonging
to them, in 1832 he inaugurated what is com-
monly known as the Black Hawk War. His
Indian name was Makabaimishekiakiak, signify-
ing Black Sparrow Hawk. He was ambitious, but
susceptible to flattery, and while having many of
the qualities of leadership, was lacking in moral
force. He was always attached to British inter-
ests, and unquestionably received British aid of a



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



49



substantial sort. After his defeat lie was made
the ward of Keokuk, another Chief, which
Immiliation of Iiis pride broke his heart. He died
on a reservation set apart for him in Iowa, in
1838, aged 71. His body is said to have been
exhumed nine months after death, and his articu-
lated skeleton is alleged to liave been preserved
in the rooms of the Burlington (la.) Historical
Society until 18.J.5. wlien it was destroyed by fire.
(See also Black Hairk War.)

BLACKSTO'E, Timothy B., Railway Presi-
dent, was born at Branford, Conn., March 28,
1829. After receiving a common school educa-
tion, supplemented by a course in a neighboring
academy, at 18 he began the practical study of
engineering in a corps employed by the New
York & New Hampshire Railway Company, and
the same year became assistant engineer on the
Stockbridge & Pittsfleld Railway. While thus
employed he applied himself diligently to the
study of the theoretical science of engineering,
and, on coming to Illinois in 18.51, was qualified
to accept and fill the position of division engineer
(from Bloomington to Dixon) on the Illinois Cen-
tral Railway. On the completion of the main
line of that road in 185.5, he was appointed Chief
Engineer of the Joliet & Chicago Railroad, later
becoming financially interested therein, and
being chosen President of the corporation on tlie
completion of the line. In January. 1864, the
Chicago & Joliet was leased in perpetuity to the
Chicago & Alton Railroad Company. Mr. Black-
stone then became a Director in the latter organi-
zation and, in April following, was chosen its
President. This office he filled uninterruptedly
until April 1,1899, when the road passed into the
hands of a syndicate of other lines. He was also
one of the original incorporators of the Union
Stock Yards Company, and was its President from
1864 to 1868. His career as a railroad man was con-
spicuous for its long service, the iminterrupted
success of his management of the enterprises
entrusted to his liands and his studious regard for
the interests of stockholders. This was illustrated
by the fact that, for some thirty years, the Chicago
& Alton Railroail paid dividends on its preferred
and common stock, ranging from 6 to 85^ percent
per annum, and. on disposing of his stock conse-
quent on the transfer of the line to a new corpora-
tion in 1899, Mr. Blackstone rejected offers for his
stock — aggregating nearly one-third of the whole
— which would have netted him one million dol-
lars in excess of the amount he actually received,
because he was unwilling to use his position to
reap an advantage over smaller stockholders.



BLACKWELL, Robert S., lawyer, was bom.
at Belleville, III, in 1823. He belonged to a
prominent family in the early history of the
State, his father, David Blaokwell, who was also
a lawyer and settled in Belleville about 1819,
having been a member of the Second General
Assembly (1830) from St. Clair County, and also
of the Fourth and Fifth. In April, 1823, he was
appointed by Governor Coles Secretary of State,
succeeding Judge Samuel D. Lockwood, after-
wards a Justice of the Supreme Court, who had
just received from President Monroe the appoint-
ment of Receiver of Public Moneys at the
Edwardsville Land Office. Mr. Blackwell served
in the Secretary's office to October. 1824, during
a part of the time acting as editor of "The Illinois
Intelligencer." which had been removed from
Kaskaskia to Vandalia, and in which he strongly
opposed the policy of making Illinois a slave
State. He finally died in Belleville. Robert
Blackwell, a brother of David and the uncle of
tlie subject of this sketch, was joint owner with
Daniel P. Cook, of "The Illinois Herald"— after-
wards "The Intelligencer" — at Kaskaskia, in
1816. and in April. 1817, succeeded Cook in the
office of Territorial Auditor of Public Accounts,
being himself succeeded by Elijah C. Berry, who
had become his partner on "The Intelligencer,"
and served as Auditor until the organization of
the State Government in 1818. Blackwell & Berry-
were chosen State Printers after the removal of
the State capital to Vandalia in 1820, serving in
this capacity for some years. Robert Blackwell
located at Vandalia and served as a member of
the House from Fayette County in the Eighth
and Ninth General Assemblies (1832-36) and in
the Senate, 1840 42. Robert S.— the son of David,
and the younger member of this somewhat
famous and historic family — whose name stands at
the head of this paragraph, attended the common
scliools at Belleville in his boyhood, but in early-
manhood removed to Galena, where he engaged
in mercantile pursuits. He later studied law
with Hon. O. H. Browning at Quincy, beginning
practice at Rushville, where he was associated
for a time with Judge Minshall. In 18.52 he
removed to Chicago, having for his first partner
Corydon Beckwith. afterwards of the Supreme
Court, still later being associated with a number
of prominent lawyers of that day. He is de-
scribed by his biographers as "an able lawyer, an
eloquent advocate and a brilliant scholar."
"Blackwell on Tax Titles," from his pen, has been
accepted by the profession as a high authority on
that branch of law. He also published a revisioa



50



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



of the Statutes in 1858, and began an "Abstract
of Decisions of the Supreme Court," which had
reached the third or fourth volume at his death.
May 16, 1863.

BLAIR, William, merchant, was born at
Homer, Cortland County, N. Y., May 20, 1818,
being descended through five generations of New
England ancestors. After attending school in
the town of Cortland, which became his father's
residence, at the age of 14 he obtained employ-
ment in a stove and hardware store, four years
later (1836) coming to Joliet, III., to take charge
of a branch store which the firm had established
there. The next year he purchased the stock and
continued the business on his own account. In
August, 1842, he removed to Chicago, where he
established the earliest and one of the most
extensive wholesale hardware concerns in that
city, with which lie remained connected nearly
fifty years. Dm-ing this period he was associated
with various partners, including C. B. Nelson,
E. G. Hall, O. W. Belden, James H. Horton and
others, besides, at times, conducting the business
alone. He suffered by the fire of 1871 in common
with other business men of Chicago, but promptly
resumed business and, within the next two or
three years, had erected business blocks, succes-
sively, on Lake and Randolph Streets, but retired
from business in 1888. He was a Director of the
Merchants' National Bank of Chicago from its
organization in 1865, as also for a time of the
Atlantic & Pacific Telegraph Company and the
Chicago Gaslight & Coke Company, a Trustee of
Lake Forest University, one of the Managers of
the Presbyterian Hospital and a member of the
Chicago Historical Society. Died in Chicago,
May 10, 1899.

BLAKELT, David, journalist, was born in
Franklin County, Vt., in 1834; learned the print-
er's trade and graduated from the University of
Vermont in 1857. He was a member of a musical
family which, under the name of "The Blakely
Family," made several successful tours of the
West. He engaged in journalism at Rochester,
Minn., and, in 1863, was elected Secretary of
State and ex-officio Superintendent of Schools,
serving until 1865, when he resigned and, in
partnership with a brother, bought "The Chicago
Evening Post," with which he was connected at
the time of the great fire and for some time after-
ward. Later, he returned to Minnesota and
became one of the proprietors and a member of
the editorial staff of "The St. Paul Pioneer-Press."
In his later years Mr. Blakely was President of
the Blakely Printing Company, of Chicago, also



conducting a large printing business in New
York, which was his residence. He was manager
for several years of the celebrated Gilmore Band
of musicians, and also instrumental in organizing
the celebrated Sousa's Band, of which he was
manager up to the time of his decease in New
York, Nov. 7, 1896.

BLAKEMAN, Curtlss, sea-captain, and pioneer
settler, came from New England to Madison
County, 111., in 1819, and settled in what was
afterwards known as the "Marine Settlement," of
which he was one of the founders. This settle-
ment, of which the present town of Marine (first
called Madison) was the outcome, took its name
from the fact that several of the early settlers, like
Captain Blakeman, were sea-faring men. Captain
Blakeman became a prominent citizen and repre-
sented Madison County in the lower branch of
the Third and Fourth General Assemblies (1833
and 1834), in the former being one of the opponents
of the pro-slavery amendment of the Constitution.
A son of his, of the same name, was a Represent-
ative in the Thirteentli, Fifteenth and Sixteenth
General Assemblies from Madison County.

BLANCHAKD, Jonatlian, clergyman and edu
cator, was born in Rockingham, Vt., Jan. 19,
1811; graduated at Middlebury College in 1832;
then, after teaching some time, spent two years
in Andover Theological Seminar}', finally gradu-
ating in theology at Lane Seminary, Cincinnati,
in 183S, where he remained nine years as pastor
of the Sixth Presbyterian Church of that city.
Before this time he had become interested in
various reforms, and, in 1843, was sent as a
delegate to the second World's Anti-Slavery
Convention in London, serving as the American
Vice-President of that body. In 1846 he assimied
the Presidency of Knox College at Galesburg,
remaining until 1858, during his connection
with that institution doing much to increase its
capacity and resources. After two years spent in
pastoral work, he accepted (1860) the Presidency
of Wheaton College, which he continued to fill
until 1882, when he was chosen President Emer-
itus, remaining in this position until his death.
May 14, 1892.

BLAJTDINSVILLE, a town in McDonough
County, on the Toledo, Peoria & Warsaw Rail-
road, 26 miles southeast of Burlington, Iowa, and
64 miles west by south from Peoria. It is a ship-
ping point for the grain grown in the suiTound-
ing country, and has a grain elevatoi and steam
flour and saw mills. It also has banks, two
weekly newspapers and several churches. Popu-
lation (1890), 877.



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



51



BLANEY, Jerome Van Zandt, early physician,
boru at Newcastle, Del., May 1, 1820; was edu-
cated at Princeton and graduated in medicine at
Pliiladelpliia when too young to receive his
diploma; in 1842 came west and joined Dr. Daniel
Brainard in founding Rush Medical College at
Chicago, for a time filling three chairs in that
institution ; also, for a time, occupied the chair of
Chemistry and Natural Philosophy in Northwest-
ern University. In 1861 he was appointed Sur-
geon, and afterwards Medical Director, in the
army, and was Surgeon-in-Chief on the staff of
General Sheridan at the time of the battle of
Winchester ; after the war was delegated by the
Government to pay off medical officers in the
Northwest, in this capacity disbursing over S600,-
000; finally retiring with the rank of Lieutenant-
Colonel. Died. Dec. 11. 1874.

BLATCHFORD, Eliphalet Wickes, LL.D.,
son of Dr. John Blatchford, was born at Stillwater,
N. Y., May 31, 1826; being a grandson of Samuel
Blatchford, D.D., who came to New York from
England, in 1795. He prepared for college at Lan-
singburg Academy. New York, and at Marion
College, Mo. , finally graduating at Illinois College,
Jacksonville, in the class of 184"). After graduat-
ing, he was employed for several years in tlie law
offices of his uncles, R. M. and E. H. Blatchford,
New York. For considerations of health he re-
turned to the West, and, in 1850, engaged in busi-
ness for himself as a lead manufacturer in St.
Louis, Mo., afterwards associating with him tlie
late Morris Collins, under the firm name of Blatch-
ford & Collins. In 1854 a branch was established
in Chicago, known as Collins & Blatchford. After
a few years the firm was dis.solved, Mr. Blatch-
ford taking the Chicago business, whicli has
continued as E. W. Blatchford & Co to the pres-
ent time. While Mr. Blatchford has invariably
declined political offices, he has been recognized
as a staunch Republican, and the services of few
men have been in more frecjuent request for
positions of trust in connection with educational
and benevolent enterprises. Among the numer-
ous positions of this character which he has been
called to fill are those of Treasurer of the North-
western Branch of the United States Sanitary
Commission, during the Civil War, to which he
devoted a large part of his time ; Trustee of Illi-
nois College (1866-75); President of the Chicago
Academy of Sciences; a member, and for seven-
teen years President, of the Board of Trustees of
the Chicago Eye and Ear Infirmary ; Trustee of
the Chicago Art Institute ; Executor and Trustee
of the late Walter L. Newberry, and, since its



incorporation, President of the Board of Trustees
of The Newberry Library; Trustee of the John
Crerar Library ; one of the founders and Presi-
dent of the Board of Trustees of the Chicago
Manual Training School; life member of the
Chicago Historical Society ; for nearly forty
years President of the Board of Directors of the
Chicago Theological Seminary; during his resi-
dence in Chicago an officer of the New England
Congregational Church ; a corporate member of
the American Board of Commissioners for For-
eign Missions, and for fourteen years its Vice-
President; a charter member of the City
Missionary Society, and of the Congregational
Club of Chicago; a member of the Chicago
Union League, the University, the Literary and
the Commercial Clubs, of which latter he has
been President. Oct. 7, 1858, Mr. Blatchford was
married to Miss Mary Emily Williams, daughter
of John C.Williams, of Chicago. Seven children —
four sons and three daughters — have blessed this
union, the eldest son, Paul, being to day one of
Chicago's valued business men. Mr. Blatchford's
life has been one of ceaseless and successful
activity in business, and to him Chicago owes
much of its prosperity. In the giving of time
and money for Christian, educational and benevo-
lent enterprises, he has been conspicuous for his
generosity, and noted for his valuable counsel and
executive ability in carrying these enterprises to
success.

BLATCHFORD, John, D.D., was born at New-
field (now Bridgeport), Conn., May 24, 1799;
removed in childhood to Lansingburg, N. Y.,
and was educated at Cambridge Academy and
Union College in that State, graduating in 1820.
He finished his theological course at Princeton,
N. J., in 1823, after which he ministered succe.s-
sively to Presbyterian churches at Pittstown and
Stillwater, N. Y., in 1830 accepting the pastorate
of the First Congregational Church of Bridge-
port, Conn. In 1836 he came to the West, spend-
ing the following winter at Jacksonville, 111., and,
in 1837, was installed the first pastor of the First
Presbyterian Church of Chicago, where he
remained until compelled by failing health to
resign and return to the East. In 1841 he ac-
cepted the chair of Intellectual and Moral Phi-
losophy at JIarion College, Mo., subsequently
assuming the Presidency. The institution having
been purchased by the Free Masons, in 1844, he
removed to West Ely, Mo., and thence, in 1847,
to Quincy, 111., where he resided during the
remainder of his Ufe. His death occurred in St.
Louis, April 8, 1855. The churches he serveil



52



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



testified strongly to Dr. Blatchford's faithful,
acceptable and successful performance of his
ministerial duties. He was married in 1825 to
Frances Wickes. daughter of Eliphalet Wiokes,
Esq., of Jamaica. Long Island, N. Y.

BLEDSOE, Albert Taylor, teacher and law-
yer, was born in Frankfort, Ky., Nov. 9, 1809;
gTaduated at West Point Military Academy in
1830, and, after two years' service at Fort Gib-
son. Indian Territory, retired from the army in
1833. Dm-ing 1833-34 he was Adjunct Professor
of Mathematics and teacher of French at Kenyon
College, Ohio, and, in 1835-36, Professor of
Mathematics at Miami University. Then, hav-
ing studied theology, he served for several years
as rector of Episcopal churches in Ohio. In 1838
he settled at Springfield, 111., and began the prac-
tice of law, remaining several years, when he
removed to Washington, D. C. Later he became
Professor of Mathematics, first (1848-54) in the
University of Mississippi, and (1854-61) in the
University of Virginia. He then entered the
Confederate service with the rank of Colonel,
but soon became Acting Assistant Secretary of
War ; in 1863 visited England to collect material
for a work on the Con.stitution, which was pub-
lished in 1866, when he settled at Baltimore,
where he began the publication of "The Southern
Review," which became the recognized organ of
the Methodist Episcopal Church South. Later
he became a minister of the Methodist Church.
He gained considerable reputation for eloquence
during his residence in Illinois, and was the
author of a number of works on religious and
political subjects, the latter maintaining the
right of secession; was a man of recognized
ability, but lacked stability of character. Died
at Alexandria, Va., Dec. 8. 1877.

BLODGETT, Henry Williams, jurist, was born
at Amherst, Mass., in 1821. At the age of 10
years he removed with his parents to Illinois,
where he attended the district schools, later
returning to Amherst to spend a year at the
Academy. Returning home, he spent the years
1839-42 in teaching and surveying. In 1842 he
began the study of law at Chicago, being
admitted to the bar in 1845, and beginning prac-
tice at Waukegan, 111., where he has continued
to reside. In 1852 he was elected to the lower
house of the Legislature from Lake County, as
an anti-slavery candidate, and, in 1858, to the
State Senate, in the latter serving four years.
He gained distinction as a railroad solicitor, being
employed at different times by the Chicago &
Northwestern, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St.



Paul, the Michigan Southern and the Pittsburg
& Fort Wayne Companies. Of the second named
road he was one of the projectors, procuring its
charter, and being identified with it in the sev-
eral capacities of Attorney, Director and Presi-
dent. In 1870 President Grant appointed him
Judge of the United States District Court for the
Northern District of Illinois. This position he
continued to occupy for twenty -two years, resign-
ing it in 1892 to accept an appointment by Presi-
dent Cleveland as one of the counsel for the
United States before the Behring Sea Arbitrators
at Paris, wliich was his last official service.

BLOOMIIVGDALE, a village of Du Page County,
30 miles west by north from Chicago. Population
(1880), 226; (1890), 463.

BLOOMINGTON, the county-seat of McLean
County, a flourishing city and railroad center, 60
miles northeast of Springfield. Coal is mined in
the surrounding countr}'. Besides car-shops and
repair works, employing between 1.000 and 3,000
hands, there are manufactories of stoves and
furnaces, plows, separators and flour. Nurseries
in tlie vicinity are numerous, and horse-breeding
receives much attention. The city is the seat of
the Illinois Wesleyan College and a Roman
Catholic College, and has eight or nine news-
papers (three published daily) besides educational,
trade and society publications. Bloomington has
paved streets and electric railways, the latter
connecting the city with Normal (two miles dis-
tant), which is the site of the "State Normal
University" and "Soldiers' Orphans' Home."
Population (1880), 17.180; (1890), 20,484.

BLOOMIKGTOA CONVENTION OF 1856.
Although not fiirmallj' called as such, this was
the first Republican State Convention held in
Illinois, out of which grew a permanent Repub-
lican organization in the State. A mass conven-
tion of those opposed to the repeal of the Missouri
Compromise (known as an "Anti-Nebraska
Convention") was held at Springfield during the
week of the State Fair of 1854 (on Oct. 4 and 5),
and, although it adopted a platform in harmonj'
with the principles which afterwards became the
foundation of the Republican party, and appointed
a State Central Committee, besides putting in
nomination a candidate for State Treasurer — the
only State officer elected that year — the organi-
zation was not perpetuated, the State Central
Committee failing to organize. The Bloomington
Convention of 1856 met in accordance with a call
issued by a State Central Committee appointed
by the Convention of Anti-Nebraska editors held
at Decatur on February 22, 1856. (See AiiH-Neb-



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



53



raska Editorial Convention.) The call did not
even contain the word "Republican, " but was
addressed to those opposed to the principles of
the Nebraska Bill and the policy of the existing
Democratic administration. The Convention
met on May 29, 1856, the date designated by the
Editorial Convention at Decatur, but was rather
in the nature of a mas.s than a delegate conven-
tion, as party organizations existed in few coun-
ties of the State at tliat time. Consequently
representation was very unequal and followed no
systematic rule. Out of one hundred counties
into which the State was then divided, only
seventy were represented by delegates, ranging
from one to twenty-five each, leaving thirty
coimties (embracing nearly the whole of tlie
southern part of the State) entirely unrepre-
sented. Lee County had the largest representa-
tion (twenty-five), Morgan County (the home of
Richard Yates) coming next with twenty dele-
gates, while Cook County had seventeen and
Sangamon had five. The whole number of
delegates, as shown by the contemporaneous
record, was 269. Among the leading spirits in
the Convention were Abraham Lincoln, Archi-
bald Williams, O. H. Browning, Richard Yates,
John M. Palmer, Owen Lovejoy, Norman B.
Judd, Burton C. Cook and others who afterwards
became prominent in State politics. The delega-
tion from Cook County included the names of
John Wentworth, Grant Goodrich, George
Schneider, Mark Skinner, Charles H. Ray and
Charles L. Wilson. The temporary organization
was effected with Archibald Williams of Adams
County in the chair, followed by the election of
Jolin M. Palmer of Macoupin, as Permanent
President. The otlier officers were: Vice-Presi-
dents — John A. Davis of Stephenson; William
Ross of Pike; James McKee of Cook; John H.
Brj'ant of Bureau ; A. C. Harding of Warren ;
Richard Yates of Jlorgan; Dr. H. C. Johns of
Macon; D. L. Phillips of Union; George Smith
of Madison; Tliomas A. Marshall of Coles; J. M.
Rugglesof Mason ; (i.D. A. Parksof Will, and John
Clark of Schuyler. Secretaries — Henry S. Baker
of Madison ; Charles L. Wilson of Cook ; John
Tillson of Adams; Washington Bushnell of La
Salle, and B. J. F. Hanna of Randolph. A State



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