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and John Russell were among the first instruc-
tors. Later, Dr. Benjamin Shurtleff donated the
college §10,000, and the institution was named in
his honor. College classes were not organized
until 1840, and several years elapsed before a class
graduated. Its endowment in 1898 was over
§126,000, in addition to 1135,000 worth of real and
personal property. About 355 students were in
attendance. Besides preparatory and collegiate
departments, the college also maintains a theo-
logical school. It has a faculty of twenty
instructors and is co-educational.

SIBLEY, a village of Ford County, on the Chi-
cago Division of the Wabash Railway, 105 miles
south-southwest of Chicago; has banks and a
weekly newspaper. The district is agricultural.
Population (1890), 404.

SIBLEY, Joseph, lawyer and jurist, was born
at Westfield, Mass. , in 1818 ; learned the trade of
a whip maker and afterwards engaged in mer-
chandising. In 1843 he began the study of law
at Syracuse, N. Y., and, upon admission to the
bar, came west, finally settling at Nauvoo, Han-
cock County. He maintained a neutral attitude
during the Mormon troubles, thus giving offense
to a section of the community. In 1847 he was
an unsuccessful candidate for the Legislature,
but was elected in 1850, and re-elected in 1852.
In 1853 he removed to Warsaw, and, in 1855, was
elected Judge of the Circuit Court, and re-elected
in 1861, '67 and '73, being assigned to the bench
of the Appellate Court of the Second District, in
1877. His residence, after 1865, was at Quincy,
where he died, June 18, 1897.

SIDELL, a village of Vermilion County, at the
Junction of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois and
the Peoria & Evansville Railroads; has a bank
and a newspaper. Population (1890), 525.

SIDNEY, a village of Champaign County, on
the main line of the Wabash Railway, at the junc-
tion of a branch to Champaign, 48 miles east-north-
east of Decatur. It is in a farming district ; has a
bank and a newspaper. Population, 581.

SIM, (Dr.) ■William, pioneer physician, was
born at Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1795, came to



America in early manhood, and was the first phy-
sician to settle at Golconda, in Pope County,
which he represented in the Fom-th and Fifth
General AsserabUes (1824 and '38). He married
a Miss Elizabetli Jack of Philadelphia, making
the journey from Golconda to Philadelphia for
that purpose on horseback. He had a family of
five children, one son, Dr. Francis L. Sim, rising
to distinction as a physician, and, for a time,
being President of a Medical College at IMemphis,
Tenn. The elder Dr. Sim died at Golconda, in

SIMS, James, early legislator and Methodist
preacher, was a native of South Carolina, but
removed to Kentucky in early manhood, thence
to St. Clair County, HI., and, in 1820, to Sanga-
mon County, where he was elected, in 1822, as the
first Representative from that county in the
Third General Assembly. At the succeeding ses-
sion of the Legislature, he was one of those who
voted against the Convention resolution designed
to prepare the way for making Illinois a slave
State. Mr. Sims resided for a time in Menard
County, but finally removed to Morgan.

SI^'(^!ER, Horace M., capitalist, was born in
Schnectady, N. Y., Oct. 1, 1823; came to Chicago
in 1836 and found employment on tlie Illinois &
Michigan Canal, serving as superintendent of
repairs upon the Canal until 1853. While thus
employed he became one of the proprietors of
the stone-quarries at Lemont, managed by the
firm of Singer & Talcott until about 1890, when
they became the property of the Western Stone
Company. Originally a Democrat, he became a
Republican during the Civil War, and served as a
member of the Twenty-fifth General Assembly
(1867) for Cook County, was elected County Cctoi-
missioner in 18T0, and was Chairman of the
Republican County Central Committee in 1880.
He was also associated with several financial
institutions, being a director of the First National
Bank and of the Auditorium Company of Clii-
cago, and a member of the Union League and
Calumet Clubs. Died, at Pasadena, Cal., Dec.
28, 1896.

SINGLETON, James W., Congressman, born
at Paxton, Va., Nov. 23, 1811; was educated at
the Winchester (Va.) Academy, and removed to
Illinois in 1833, settUng first at Mount Sterling,
Brown County, and. some twenty years later,
near Quincy. By profession he was a lawyer,
and was [jrominent in political and commercial
affairs. In his later years he devoted consider-
able attention to stock-raising. He was elected
Brigadier-General of the Illinois militia in 1844,

being identified to some extent with the "Mor-
mon War"; was a member of the Constitutional
Conventions of 1847 and 1862, served .six terms iu
the Legislature, and was elected, on tlie Demo-
cratic ticket, to Congress in 1878, and again in
1880. In 1882 he ran as an independent Demo
crat, but was defeated by the regular nominee of
his party, James M. Riggs. During the War of
the Rebellion he was one of the most conspicuous
leaders of the "peace party." He constructed
the Quincy & Toledo (now part of the Wabash)
and the Quincy, Alton & St. Louis (now part of
the Chicago, Bmlington & Quincy) Railways,
being President of both companies. His death
occurred at Baltimore, Md., April 4. 1892.

SINNET, John S., pioneer, was born at Lex-
ington, Ky., March 10, 1796; at three years of age,
taken by his parents to Mis.souri ; enlisted in the
War of 1812, but, soon after the war, came to
Illinois, and, about 1818, settled in what is now
Christian County, locating on land constituting
a part of the present city of Taylorville. In 1840
he removed to Tazewell Countj', dying there, Jan.
13, 1872.

SKINNER, Mark, jurist, was born at Manches-
ter, Vt., Sept. 13, 1813; graduated from Middle-
bury College in 1833, studied law, and, in 1836,
came to Chicago; was admitted to the bar in
1839, became City Attorney in 1840, later JIaster
in Chancery for Cook County, and finally United
States District Attorney under President Tyler.
As member of the House Finance Committee in
the Fifteenth General Assembly (1846-48), he
aided influentially iu securing the adoption of
measures for refunding and paying the State
debt. In 18.51 he was elected Judge of the Court
of Common Pleas (now Superior Court) of Cook
County, but declined a re-election in 18.53. Origi-
nally a Democrat, Judge Skinner was an ardent
opponent of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill and a
liberal supporter of the Government policy dur-
ing the rebellion. He liberally aided the United
vStates Sanitary Commission and was identified
with all the leading charities of the city.
Among the great business enterprises with wliich
he was officially associated were the Galena & Chi-
cago Union and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy
Railways (in each of which he was a Director),
the Chicago Marine & Fire Insurance Company,
the Gas-Light and Coke Company and others.
Died, Sept. 16, 1887. Judge Skinner's only sur-
viving son was killed in the trenches before
Petersburg, the last year of the Civil War.

SKINNER, Otis Ainsworth, clergyman and
author, was born at Royalton, Vt. , July 3, 1807 ;



taught for some time, became a Universalist
minister, serving churches in Baltimore, Boston
and New York between 1831 and 1857; then
came to Elgin, 111., was elected President of Lom-
bard University at Galesburg, but the following
year took charge of a church at Joliet. Died, at
Naperville, Sept. 18, 1861. He wrote several vol-
umes on religious topics, and, at different times,
edited religious periodicals at Baltimore, Haver-
hill, Mass., and Boston.

SKINNER, Ozias C, lawyer and jurist, was
born at Floyd, Oneida County, N. Y., in 1817; in
1836, removed to Illinois, settling in Peoria
County, where he engaged in farming. In 1838
he began the .study of law at Greenville, Ohio,
and was admitted to the bar of that State in 1840.
Eighteen months later he returned to Illinois,
and began practice at Carthage. Hancock County,
removing to Quincy in 1844. During the "Mor-
mon War" he served as Aid-de-camp to Governor
Ford. In 1848 he was elected to the lower liouse
of the Sixteenth General Assembly, and, for a
short time, served as Prosecuting Attorney for
the district including Adams and Brown Coun-
ties. In 1851 he was elected Judge of the (then)
Fifteenth Judicial Circuit, and, in 1855, suc-
ceeded Judge S. H. Treat on the Supreme bench,
resigning this position in April, 1858, two months
before the expiration of his term. He was a
large land owner and had extensive agricultural
interests. He built, and was the first President
of the Carthage & Quincy Railroad, now a part
of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy system. He
was a prominent member of the Constitutional
Convention of 1869, serving as Chairman of the
Committee on Judiciary. Died in 1877.

SLADE, Charles, early Congressman ; his early
history, including date and place of birth, are
imknown. In 1820 he was elected Representative
from Washington County in the Second General
Assembly, and, in 1826, was re-elected to the
same body for Clinton and Washington. In 1832
he was elected one of the three Congressmen
from Illinois, representing the First District.
After attending the lirst session of the Twenty-
third Congress, while on his way home, he was
attacked with cholera, dying near Vincennes,
Ind., July 11, 1834.

SLADE, James P., ex-State Superintendent of
Public Instruction, was born at Westerlo, Albany
County, N. Y., Feb. 9, 1837, and spent his boy-
hood with his parents on a farm, except while
absent at school; in 1856 removed to Belleville,
111., where he soon became connected with the
public schools, serving for a number of years as

Principal of the Belleville High School. While
connected with the Belleville schools, he was
elected County Superintendent, remaining in
office some ten years ; later had charge of Almira
College at Greenville, Bond County, served six
years as Superintendent of Schools at East St.
Louis and, in 1878, was elected State Superintend-
ent of Public Instruction as the nominee of the
Republican party. On retirement from the
office of State Superintendent, he resumed his
place at the head of Almira College, but, for the
past few years, lias been Superintendent of
Schools at East St. Louis.

Slavery and Slave Latca.)

were first brought into the Illinois country by a
Frenchman named Pierre F. Renault, about
1722. At that time the present State formed a
part of Louisiana, and the traffic in slaves was
regulated by French royal edicts. When Great
Britain acquired the territory, at the close of the
French and Indian War, the former subjects of
France were guaranteed security for their per-
sons "and effects," and no interference with
slavery was attempted. Upon the conquest of
Illinois by Virginia (see Clark, George Rogers),
the French very generally professed allegiance to
that commonwealth, and, in her deed of cession
to the United States, Virginia expressly stipulated
for the protection of the "rights and liberties"
of the French citizens. This was construed as
recognizing the right of property in negro
slaves. Even the Ordinance of 1787, while pro-
hibiting slavery in the Northwest Territory, pre-
served to the settlers (reference being especially
made to the French and Canadians) "of the Kas-
kaskias, St. Vincents and neighboring villages,
their laws and customs, now (then) in force,
relative to the descent and conveyance of prop-
erty. ' ' A conservative construction of this clause
was, that while it prohibited the extension of
slavery and the importation of slaves, the status
of those who were at that time in involuntary
servitude, and of their descendants, was left im-
changed. There vs'ere those, however, who denied
the con.stitutionality of tlie Ordinance in toto,
on the ground that Congress had exceeded its
powers in its passage. There was also a party
which claimed that all children of slaves, born
after 1787, were free from birth. In 1794 a con-
vention was held at Vincennes, pursuant to a call
from Governor Harrison, and a memorial to Con-
gress was adopted, praying for the repeal — or, at
least a modification — of the sixth clause of the



Ordinance of 1787. The first Congressional Com-
mittee, to which this petition was referred,
reported adversely upon it ; but a second commit-
tee recommended the suspension of the operation
of the clause in question for ten years. But no
action was taken by the National Legislature,
and, in 1807, a counter petition, extensively
signed, was forwarded to that body, and Congi-ess
left the matter in statu quo. It is worthy of note
that some of the most earnest opponents of the
measure were Representatives from Southern
Slave States, John Randolph, of Virginia, being
one of them. Tlie pro-slavery party in the State
then prepared what is popularly known as the
"Indenture Law," which was one of the first acts
adopted by Governor Edwards and liis Council,
and was re-enacted by the first Territorial Legis-
lature in 1812, It was entitled, "An Act relating
to the Introduction of Negroes and Mulattoes into
this Territory," and gave permission to bring
slaves above 15 j'ears of age into the State, when
they might be registered and kept in servitude
within certain limitations. Slaves under that
age might also be brought in, registered, and held
in bondage until they reached the age of 3.5, if
males, and 30, if females. The issue of registered
slaves were to serve their mother's master until
the age of 30 or 28, according to sex. The effect
of this legislation was rapidly to increase the
number of slaves. The Constitution of 1818 pro-
liibited the introduction of slavery thereafter —
that is to .say. after its adoption. In 1822 the
slave-holding party, with their supporters, began
to agitate the question of so amending tlie
organic law as to make Illinois a slave State. To
effect such a change the calling of a convention
was necessary, and, for eighteen months, tlie
struggle between "conventionists" and their
opponents was bitter and fierce. The question
was submitted to a popular vote on August 2,
1824. the result of the count showing 4,972 votes
for such convention and 6,040 against. This
decisive result settled the (juestion of slave-hold-
ing in Illinois for all future time, though the
existence of slavery in the State continued to be
recognized by the National Census until 1840.
The number, according to the census of 1810, was
168; in 1820 they had increased to 917. Then
the number began to diminish, being reduced in
1830 to 747, and, in 1840 (the last census whic'h
shows any portion of the population held in
bondage), it was 331.

Hooper Warren — who has been mentioned else-
where as editor of "The Ed wardsville Spectator,"
and a leading factor in securing the defeat of the

scheme to make Illinois a slave State in 1822 — in
an article in the first number of "The Genius of
Liberty" (January, 1841), speaking of that con-
test, says there were, at its beginning, only three
papers in the State— "The Intelligencer" at Van-
dalia, "The Gazette" at Shawneetown, and "The
Spectator" at Edwardsville. The first two of
these, at the outset, favored the Convention
scheme, while "The Spectator" opposed it. The
management of the campaign on the part of the
pro-slaverj- party was assigned to Emanuel J.
West, Theophilus W. Smith and Oliver L. Kelly,
and a paper was established by the name of "The
Illinois Republican." with Smith as editor.
Among the active opponents of the measure were
George Churchill, Thomas Lippincott, Samuel D.
Lockwood, Henry Starr (afterwards of Cincin-
nati), Rev. John M. Peck and Rev. James
Lemen, of St. Clair County. Others who con-
tributed to the cause were Daniel P. Cook, Morris

Birkbeck, Dr. Hugh Steel and Burton of

Jackson County, Dr. Henry Perrine of Bond;
William Leggett of Edwardsville (afterwards
editor of "The New York Evening Post"), Ben-
jamin Lundy (then of Missouri), David Blackwell
and Rev. John Dew, of St. Clair County. Still
others were Nathaniel Pope (Judge of the United
States District Court), William B. Archer, Wil-
liam H. Brown and Benjamin Mills (of Vaudaliai.
John Tillson. Dr. Horatio Newhall, George For-
quer. Col. Thomas ^Mather, Thomas Ford, Judge
David J. Baker, Charles W. Hunter and Henry II.
Snow (of Alton). This testimony is of interest
as coming from one who probably had more to do
with defeating the scheme, with the exception of
(lov. Edward Coles. Out.side of the more elabor-
ate Histories of Illinois, the most accurate and
iletailed accounts of this particular period are to
be found in "Sketch of Edward Coles" by the late
E. B. Washburne, and "Early Movement in Illi-
nois for the Legalization of Slavery," an ad-
dress before the Chicago Historical Society
(1864), by Hon. William H. Brown, of Chicago.
(See also, Coles, Edward: Warren. Hooper; Brown.
William H.; Churchill, George; Lippincott,
Tliomas; a,jxd Newspajiers, Early, elsewhere in this
volume. )

SLOAN, Wesley, legislator and jurist, was
born in Dorchester County, Md,, Feb. 20,, 1806.
At the age of 17, having received a fair academic
education, he accompanied his parents to Phila-
delphia, where, for a year, he was employed in a
wholesale grocery. His father dying, he returned
to Maryland and engaged in teaching, at the
same time .studying law, and being admitted to



the bar in 1831. He came to Illinois in 1838,
going first to Chicago, and afterward to Kaskas-
kia, finally settling at Golconda in 1839, which
continued to be his home the remainder of his
life. In 1848 he was elected to the Legislature,
and re-elected in 18,50, ''y2. and '.lO, serving three
times as Chairman of the Judiciary Committee.
He was one of the members of the first State
Board of Education, created by Act of Feb. 18,
1857, and took a prominent part in the founding
and organization of the State educational insti-
tutions. In 1857 lie was elected to the bench of
the Nineteenth Judicial Circuit, and re-elected in
1861, but declined a re-election for a third term.
Died, Jan. 15, 1887.

SMITH, Abner, jurist, was born at Orange,
Franklin County, Mass., August 4, 1843, of an
old New England family, whose ancestors came
to Massachusetts Colony about 1630; was edu-
cated in the public schools and at Middlebury
College, Vt., graduating from the latter in 1866.
After graduation he spent a year as a teacher in
Newton Academy, at Shoreham, Vt., coming to
Chicago in 1867, and entering upon the study of
law, being admitted to the bar in 1868. The next
twenty-five years were spent in the practice of
his profession in Chicago, within that time serv-
ing as the attorney of several important corpo-
rations. In 1893 he was elected a Judge of the
Circuit Court of Cook County, and re-elected
in 1897, his term of service continuing until

SMITH, (Dr.) Charles (jilmau, physician, was
born at Exeter, N. H., Jan. 4, 1828, received his
early education at Phillips Academy, in his native
place, finally graduating from Harvard Univer-
sity in 1847. He soon after commenced the study
of medicine in the Harvard Jledical School, but
completed his course at the University of Penn-
sylvania in 1851. After two years spent as
attending physician of the Alms House in South
Boston, Mass., in 1853 he came to Chicago, where
he soon acquired an extensive practice. During
the Civil War he was one of six physicians
employed by the Government for the treatment
of prisoners of war in hospital at Camp Douglas.
In 1868 he visited Europe for the purpose of
observing the management of hospitals in Ger-
many, France and England, on his return being
invited to lecture in the Woman's Medical College
in Chicago, and also becoming consulting phy-
sician in the Women's and Children's Hospital,
as well as in the Presbyterian Hospital — a position
which he continued to occupy for the remainder
of his life, gaining a wide reputation in the treat-

ment of women's and children's diseases. Died,
Jan. 10, 1894.

SMITH, David Allen, lawyer, was born near
Richmond, Va. , June 18, 1809 ; removed with his
father, at an early day, to Pulaski, Tenn. ; at 17
went to Courtland, Lawrence County, Ala.,
where he studied law with Judge Bramlette and
began practice. His father, dying about 1831, left
him the owner of a number of slaves whom, in
1837, he brought to Carlinville, 111., and emanci-
pated, giving bond that they should not become
a charge to the State. In 1839 he removed to
Jacksonville, where he practiced law until his
death. Col. John J. Hardin was his partner at
the time of his death on the battle-field of Buena
Vista. Mr. Smith was a Trustee and generous
patron of Illinois College, for a quarter of a cen-
tury, but never held any political office. As a
lawyer he was conscientious and faithful to the
interests of his clients; as a citizen, liberal, pub-
lic-spirited and patriotic. He contributed liber-
ally to the support of the Government dur-
ing the war for the Union. Died, at Anoka,
Minn., July 13, 1865, where he had gone to
accompany an invalid son. — Thomas William
(Smith), eldest son of the preceding, born at
Courtland, Ala., Sept. 27, 1832; died at Clear-
water, Minn., Oct. 39, 1865. He graduated at
Illinois College in 1852, studied law and served
as Captain in the Tenth Illinois Volunteers,
until, broken in health, he returned home to

SMITH, Dietrich C, ex-Congressman, was
born at Ostfriesland, Hanover, April 4, 1840, in
boyhood came to the LTuited States, and, since
1849, has been a resident of Pekin, Tazewell
County. In 1861 he enlisted in the Eighth Illi-
nois Volunteers, was promoted to a Lieutenancy,
and, while so serving, was severely wounded at
Shiloh. Later, he was attached to the One Hun-
dred and Thirty-ninth Illinois Infantry, and was
mustered out of service as Captain of Company C
of that regiment. His business is that of banker
and manufacturer, besides which he has bad con-
siderable experience in the construction and
management of railroads. He was a member of
the Thirtieth General Assembl3% and, in 1880, was
elected Representative in Congress from what
was then the Thirteenth District, on the Repub-
lican ticket, defeating Adlai E. Stevenson, after-
wards Vice-President. In 1882, liis county (Taze-
well) having been attached to the district for
many years represented by Wm. M. Springer, he
was defeated by the latter as a candidate for re-



SMITH, George, one of Chicago's pioneers and
early bankers, was born in Aberdeenshire, Scot-
land, March 8, 1808. It was his early intention
to study medicine, and he entered Aberdeen Col-
lege with this end in view, but was forced to quit
the institution at the end of two years, because
of impaired vision. In 1833 he came to America,
and, in 1834, settled in Cliicago, where he resided
until 1861, meanwliile spending one year in Scot-
land. He invested largely in real e.state in Chi-
cago and Wisconsin, at one time owning a
considerable portion of tlie present site of I\Iil-
waukee. In 1837 he secured the charter for the
Wisconsin Marine and Fire Insurance Company,
whose headquarters were at Milwaukee. He was
really the owner of the company, although Alex-
ander Mitchell, of Milwaukee, was its Secretary.
Under this charter Mr. Smith was able to issue
$1,500,000 in certificates, which circulated freely
as currency. In 1839 he foundetl Chicago's first
private banking house. About 1843 he was inter-
ested in a storage and commission business in
Chicago, with a Mr. Webster as partner. He
was a Director in the old Galena & Chicago
Union Railroad (now a part of the Chicago &
Northwestern), and aided it, while in course of
construction, by loans of money; was also a
charter member of the Chicago Board of Trade,
organized in 1848. In 18.'34, the State of Wiscon-
sin having prohibited the circulation of the Wis-
consin Marine and Fire Insurance certificates
above mentioned, Mr. Smith sold out the com-
pany to his partner, Mitchell, and bought two
Georgia bank charters, which, together, em-
powered him to issue 83,000,000 in currency. The
notes were duly issued in Georgia, and put into
circulation in Illinois, over the counter of George
Suiith & Co.'s Chicago bank. About 18.")6 Mr.
Smith began winding up his affairs' in Chicago,

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