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Speaker. In 1877 he was appointed by Governor
CuUom a member of the Railroad and Warehouse
Commission, of which body he served as President
until 1883. He was a man of remarkably genial
temperament, liberal impulses, and wide popu-
larity. Died. March 25, 1886.

SMITH, William Sooy, soldier and civil engi-
neer, was born at Tarlton, Pickaway County,
Ohio, July 23, 1830 ; graduated at Ohio University
in 1849, and, at the United States Military Acad-
emy, in 1853, having among his classmates, at the
latter, Generals McPherson, Schofield and Sheri-
dan. Coming to Chicago the following year, lie
first found employment as an engineer on the
Illinois Central Railroad, but later became assist-
ant of Lieutenant-Colonel Graham in engineer
service on the lakes ; a year later took charge of
a select school in Buffalo ; in 1857 made tlie first
surveys for the International Bridge at Niagara
Falls, then went into the service of extensive
locomotive and bridge- works at Trenton, N. J.,
in their interest making a visit to Cuba, and also
superintending the construction of a bridge
across the Savannah River. The war intervening,
he returned North and was appointed Lieutenant-
Colonel and assigned to duty as Assistant Adju-
tant-General at Camp Denison, Ohio, but, in
June, 1862, was commissioned Colonel of the
Thirteenth Ohio Volunteers, participating in the
West Virginia campaigns, and later, at Shiloli ami
Perryville. In April, 1862, he was promoted
Brigadier-General of volunteers, commanding
divisions in the Army of the Ohio until the fall
of 1862, when he joined Grant and took part in
the Vicksburg campaign, as commander of the
First Division of the Sixteenth Army Corps.
Subsequently he was made Chief of the Cavalry
Department, serving on the staffs of Grant and
Sherman, until compelled to resign, in 1864, on
account of impaired health. During the war
General Smith rendered valuable service to the
Union cause in great emergencies, by his knowl-
edge of engineering. On retiring to private life
he resumed his profession at Chicago, and since
has been employed by the Government on some
of its most stupendous works on the lakes, and
has also planned several of the most important
railroad bridges across the Missouri and other



streams. He has been much consulted in refer-
ence to municipal engineering, and his name is
connected with a number of the gigantic edifices
in Chicago.

SMITHBORO, a village and railroad junction
in Bond County, 3 miles east of Greenville.
Population, 393.

SNAPP, Henry, Congressman, born in Livings-
ton County, N. Y., June 30, 1822, came to Illinois
with his father when 11 years old, and, having
read law at Joliet, was admitted to the bar in
1847. He practiced in Will County for twenty
years before entering public life. In 1868 he was
elected to the State Senate and occupied a seat in
tliat body until his election, in 1871, to the Forty-
second Congress, by the Republicans of the (then)
Sixth Illinois District, as successor to B. C. Cook,
who had resigned. Died, at Joliet, Nov. 23, 1895.

SNOW, Herman W., ex-Congressman, was born
in La Porte County, Ind., July 3, 1836, but was
reared in Kentucky, working upon a farm for
five years, while yet in his minority becoming a
resident of Illinois. For several years he was a
school teacher, meanwhile studying law and
being admitted to the bar. Early in the war he
enlisted as a private in the One Hundred and
Thirty-ninth Illinois Volunteers, rising to the
rank of Captain. His term of service having
expired, he re-enlisted in the One Hundred and
Fifty-first Illinois, and was mustered out with
the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. After tlie close
of the war he resumed teaching at the Chicago
High School, and later served in the General
Assembly (1873-74) as Representative from Wood-
ford County. In 1890 he was elected, as a Demo-
crat, to represent the Ninth Illinois District in
Congress, but was defeated by his Republican
opponent in 1892.

SNOWHOOK, WiUiam B., first Collector of
Customs at Chicago, was born in Ireland in 1804;
at the age of eight years was brought to New
York, where he learned the printer's trade,
and worked for some time in the same office
with Horace Greeley. At 16 he went back to
Ireland, remaining two years, but, returning to
the United States, began the study of law ; was
also employed on the Passaic Canal; in 1836,
came to Chicago, and was soon after associated
with William B. Ogden in a contract on the Illi-
nois & Michigan Canal, which lasted until 1841.
As early as ln40 he became prominent as a leader
in the Democratic party, and, in 1846, received
from President Polk an appointment as first Col-
lector of Customs for Chicago (having previously
served as Special Surveyor of the Port, while



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



491



attached to tlie District of Detroit) ; in 1853, was
re-appointed to the CoUectorsliip by President
Pierce, serving two years. During the "Mormon
War" (1844) he organized and equipped, at his
own expense, the Montgomery Guards, and was
commissioned Colonel, but the disturbances were
brouglit to an end before the order to march.
From IS.'iG he devoted his attention chiefly to his
])ractice. but, in 1862, was one of the Democrats
of Chicago who took part in a movement to sus-
tain the Government by stimulating enlistments;
was also a member of the Convention which
nominated Mr. Greeley for President in 1872.
Died, in Cliicago, May 5, 1882.

SNYDER, Adam Wilson, pioneer lawyer, and
early Congressman, was l)orn at Connellsville,
Pa., Oct. 6, 1799. In early life he followed the
occupation of wool-curling for a livelihood,
attending school in the winter. In 1815, he emi-
grated to Columbus, Ohio, and afterwards settled
in Ridge Prairie, St. Clair County, 111. Being
offered a situation in a wool-curling and fulling
mill at Cahokia, lie removed thitlier in 1817. He
formed the friendship of Judge Je.sse B. Thomas,
and, through the latter's encouragement and aid,
studied law and gained a solid professional, poli-
tical, social and financial position. In 1830 he
was elected State Senator from St. Clair County,
and re-elected for two successive terms. He
served througli the Black Hawk War as private.
Adjutant and Captain. In 1833 he removed to
Belleville, and, in 1834. was defeated for Congress
by Governor Reynolds, wliom he, in turn, defeated
in 1836. Two years later Reynolds again defeated
him for the same position, and, in 1840, he was
elected State Senator. In 1841 he was the Demo-
cratic nominee for Governor. The election was
held in August, 1842, but. in May preceding, he
died at liis home in Belleville. His place on the
ticket was filled by Thomas Ford, who was
elected. — William H. (Snyder), son of the pre-
ceding, was born in St. Clair County, 111., July
12, 1825; educated at McKendree College, studied
law with Lieutenant-Governor Koerner, and was
admitted to practice in 1845; also served for a
time as Postmaster of the city of Belleville, and,
during the Mexican War, as First-Lieutenant and
Adjutant of the Fifth Illinois Volunteers. From
18.50 to '54 lie represented his county in the Legis-
lature; in 1855 was appointed, by Governor Mat-
teson. State's Attorney, which position he filled
for two years. He was an unsuccessful candidate
for the office of Secretary of State in 1856, and,
in 1857, was elected a Judge of the Twenty-
fourth Circuit, was re-elected for the Third Cir-



cuit in '73, '79 and '85. He was also a member of
the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70. Died,
at Belleville, Deo. 24, 1892.

SOLDIERS' AND SAILORS' HOME, a State
charitable institution, founded by act of the
Legislature in 1885, and located at Quincy,
Adams County. The object of its establish-
ment was to provide a comfortable home for
such disabled or dependent veterans of the
United States land or naval forces as had
honorably served during the Civil War. It
was opened for the reception of veterans on
March 3, 1887, the first cost of site and build-
ings having been about §350, 000. Tlie total num ■
her of inmates admitted up to June 30, 1894, was
2.813; the number in attendance during the two
pre\-lous years 988, and the whole number present
on Nov. 10, 1894, 1,088. The value of property at
that time was $393,636,08. Considerable appro-
priations have been made for additions to the
buildings at subsequent sessions of the Legisla-
ture. The General Government pays to the State
SlOO per j-ear for eacli veteran supported at the
Home.

SOLDIERS' ORPHANS' HOME, ILLINOIS, an
institution, created by act of 1865, for the main-
tenance and education of children of deceased
soldiers of the Civil War. An eiglity-acre tract,
one mile north of Normal, was selected as the
site, and the first principal building was com-
pleted and opened for the admission of benefici-
aries on June 1, 1869. Its first cost was §135,000,
the site ha>ving been donated. Repairs and the
construction of new buildings, from time to
time, have considerably increased this sum. In
1875 the benefits of tlie institution were extended,
by legislative enactment, to the children of sol-
diers who had died after the close of the war.
The aggregate number of inmates, in 1894, was
072, of wliom 323 were males and 249 females.

SOLDIERS' WIDOWS' HOME. Provision was
made for the establishment of this institution by
the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, in an act,
approved, June 13, 1895, appropriating §20,000 for
the purchase of a site, the erection of buildings
and furnishing the same. It is designed for the
reception and care of the mothers, wives, widows
and daughters of such honorably discharged
soldiers or sailors, in the United States service, as
may have died, or may be physically or men-
tally unable to provide for the families natu-
rally dependent on them, provided that such
persons have been residents of the State for
at least one year previous to admission, and
are without means or ability for self-support.



HISTOKICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



The affairs of the Home are managed by a
board of five trustees, of whom two are men and
three women, the former to be members of the
Grand Army of the Republic and of different
political parties, and the latter members of the
Women's ReUef Corps of this State. The institu-
tion was located at Wilmington, occupying a
site of seventeen acres, where it was formally
opened in a house of eighteen rooms, March 11,
1896, with twenty-six applications for admit-
tance. The plan contemplates an early enlarge-
ment by the erection of additional cottages.

SORENTO, a village of Bond County, at the
intersection of the Joliet & St. Louis and the
Toledo, St. Louis & Kansas City Railways, 14
miles southeast of Litchfield ; has a bank and a
newspaper. Its interests are agricultural.
Population (1890), 538.

SOULARD, James Gaston, pioneer, born of
French ancestry in St. Louis, Mo. , July 15, 1798 ;
resided there until 1831, when, ha\nng married
the daughter of a soldier of the Revolution, he
received an appointment at Fort Snelling, near
the present city of St. Paul, then under command
of Col. Snelling, who was his wife's brother-in-
law. The Fort was reached after a tedious jour-
ney by flat-boat and overland, late in the fall of
1831, his wife accompanying him. Three years
later they returned to St. Louis, where, being an
engineer, he was engaged for several years in
surveying. In 1837 he removed with his family
to Galena, for the next six years had charge of a
store of the Gratiot Brothers, early business men
of that locality. Towards the close of this period
he received the appointment of County Recorder,
also holding the position of County Surveyor and
Postmaster of Galena at the same time. His
later years were devoted to farming and horti-
culture, his death taking place, Sept. 17, 1878.
Mr. Soulard was probably the first man to engage
in freighting between Galena and Chicago.
"The Galena Advertiser" of Sept. 14, 1839, makes
mention of a wagon-load of lead sent by him to
Chicago, his team taking back a load of salt, the
paper remarking: "This is the first wagon that
has ever passed from the Mississippi River to
Chicago." Great results were predicted from
the exchange of commodities between the lake
and the lead mine district. — Mrs. Eliza M.
Hjint (Soulard), wife of the preceding, was born
at Detroit, Deo. 18, 1804, her father being Col.
Thomas A. Hunt, who had taken part in the
Battle of Bunker Hill and remained in the army
until his death, at St. Louis, in 1807. His descend-
ants have maintained their connection with the



army ever since, a son being a prominent artillery
officer at the Battle of Gettysburg. Mrs. Soulard
was married at St. Louis, in 1830, and survived
her husband some sixteen years, dying at Galena,
August 11, 1894. She had resided in Galena
nearly seventy years, and at the date of her
death, in the 90th year of her age, she was that
city's oldest resident.

SOUTH CHICAGO & WESTERN INDIANA
RAILROAD. (See Chicago & Western Indiana
Railroad.)

SOUTH DANVILLE, a suburb of the city of
Danville, Vermilion County. Population (1890),
799.

SOUTHEAST & ST. LOUIS RAILWAY. (See
Louisville d- XashviUe Railroad.)

SOUTH ELGIN, a village of Kane County,
near the city of Elgin. Population (1890), 505.

SOUTHERN COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE,
located at Albion, Edwatds County, incorporated
in 1891 ; had a faculty of ten teachers with 319
pupils (1897-98)— about equally male and female.
Besides classical, scientific, normal, music and
fine arts departments, instruction is given in pre-
paratory studies and business education. Its
property is valued at §16,500.

SOUTHERN HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE,
located at Anna, Union County, founded by act
of the Legislature in 1869. The original site com-
prised 390 acres and cost a little more than
$23,000, of which one-fourth was donated by citi-
zens of the county. The construction of build-
ings was begun in 1869, but it was not until
March, 1875, that the north wing (the first com-
pleted) was ready for occupancy. Other portions
were completed a year later. The Trustees pur-
chased 160 additional acres in 1883. The first
cost (up to September, 1876) was nearly 8635,000.
In 1881 one wing of the main bviilding was de-
stroyed by fire, and was subsequently rebuilt ; tlie
patients being, meanwhile, cared for in temporary
wooden barracks. The total value of lands and
buildings belonging to the State, June 30, 1894,
was estimated at §738,580, and, of property of all
sorts, at $833,700. The wooden barracks were
later converted into a permanent ward, additions
made to the main buildings, a detached building
for the accommodation of 300 patients erected,
numerous outbuildings put up and general im-
provements made. A second fire on the night of
Jan. 3, 1895, destroyed a large part of the main
building, inflicting a loss upon the State of
$175,000. Provision was made for rebuilding by
the Legislature of that year. The institution has
capacity for about 750 patients.



,.^^^;,i \''' ^ ^







HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



493



SOUTHERN ILLINOIS NORMAL UNIVER-
SITY, establislied in 1869, and located, after
competitive bidding, at Carbondale, which offered
lands and bonds at first estimated to be of the
value of $229,000, but wliich later depreciated,
through shrinkage, to §7.i.OOO. Construction was
commenced in May, ISTO, and the first or main
building was completed and appropriately dedi-
cated in July, 1874. Its cost was §26r),000, but it
was destroyed by fire, Nov. 26, 188:!. In Febru-
ary, 1887, a new structure was completed at a cost
of §150,000. Two normal courses of instruction
are given — classical and scientific — each extend-
ing over a period of four years. The conditions
of admission require that the pupil shall be 16
years of age, and shall possess the qualifications
enabling him to pass examination for a second-
grade teacher's certificate. Those unable to do so
may enter a preparatory department for six
months. Pupils who pledge themselves to teach
in the public schools, not less than half the time
of their attendance at the University, receive
free tuition with a small charge for incidentals,
while others pay a tuition fee. The number of
students in attendance for the year 1897-98 was
720, coming from forty-seven counties, chiefly in
the southern half of the State, with represent-
atives from eight other States. The teaching
faculty for the same year consisted, besides the
President, of sixteen instructors in the various
departments, of whom five were ladies and
eleven gentlemen.

SOUTHERN PENITENTIARY, THE, located
near Chester, on the Mississippi River. Its erec-
tion was rendered necessary bj' the overcrowding
of the Northern Penitentiary. (See Northern
Penitentiary.) The law providing for its estab-
lishment required the Commissioners to select a
site convenient of access, adjacent to stone and
timber, and having a high elevation, with a never
failing supply of water. In 1877, 122 acres were
purchased at Chester, and the erection of build-
ings commenced. The first approjiriation was of
.5200,000, and §300,000 was added in 1879. By
5Iarch, 1878, 200 convicts were received, and
their labor was utilized in the completion of the
buildings, which are constructed upon approved
modern principles. The prison receives convicts
sent from the southern ])ortion of the State, and
has accommodation for some 1,200 prisoners. In
connection with this penitentiary is an asylum
for insane convicts, the erection of which was
provided for by the Legislature in 1889.

SOUTH GROVE, a village of De Kalb County.
Population (1890), 730.



SPALDING, Jesse, manufacturer. Collector of
Customs and Street Railway President, was born
at Athens, Bradford County, Pa., April 15, 1833;
early commenced lumbering on the Susquehanna,
and, at 23, began dealing on his own account. In
1857 he removed to Chicago, and soon after bought
the property of the New York Lumber Company
at tlie mouth of the Slenominee River in Wiscon-
sin, where, with different partners, and finally
practically alone, he has carried on the business
of lumber manufacture on a large scale ever
since. In 1881 he was appointed, by President
Arthur, Collector of the Port of Chicago, and, in
1889, received from President Harrison an
appointment as one of the Government Directors
of the Union Pacific Railway. Mr. Spalding was
a zealous supporter of the Government diiring
the War of the Rebellion and rendered valualjle
aid in the construction and equipment of Camp
Douglas and the barracks at Chicago for the
returning soldiers, receiving Auditor's warrants
in payment, when no funds in the State treasury
were available for the purpose. He was associ-
ated with William B. Ogden and others in the
project for connecting Green Bay and Sturgeon
Bay by a ship canal, which was completed in
1883, and, on the death of Mr. Ogden, succeeded
to the Presidency of the Canal Company, serving
until 1893, when the canal was turned over to the
General Government. He has also been identified
with many other public enterprises intimately
connected with the development and prosperity
of Chicago, and, in July, 1899, became President
of the Chicago Union Traction Company, having
control of the North and West Chicago Street
Railway Systems.

SPALDING, John Lancaster, Catholic Bishop,
was born in Lebanon, Ky., June 2, 1840; educated
in the United States and in Europe, ordained a
priest in the Catholic Church in 1863, and there-
upon attached to the cathedral at Louisville, as
assistant. In 1869 he organized a congregation
of colored people, and built for their use the
Church of St. Augustine, having been assigned
to that parish as pastor. Soon afterwards he was
appointed Secretary to tlie Bishop and made
Chancellor of the Diocese. In 1873 he was trans-
ferred from Louisville to New York, where he
was attached to the missionary parish of St.
Michael's. He had, by this time, achieved no little
fame as a pulpit orator and lecturer. Wlien
the diocese of Peoria, 111., was created, in 1877, the
choice of the Pope fell upon him for the new see,
and he was consecrated Bishop, on May 1 of that
year, by Cardinal McCloskey at New York. His



494



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



administration has been characterized by both
energy and success. He has devoted much atten-
tion to the subject of emigration, and has brought
about the founding of many new settlements in
the far West. He was also largely instrumental
in bringing about the founding of the Catholic
University at Washington. He is a frequent
contributor to the reviews, and the author of a
number of religious works.

SPANISH INVASION OF ILLINOIS. In the
month of June, 1779, soon after the declaration
of war between Spain and Great Britain, an expe-
dition was organized in Canada, to attack the
Spanish posts along the Mississippi. Simultane-
ously, a force was to be dispatched from Pensa-
cola against New Orleans, then commanded by
a young Spanish Colonel, Don Bernardo de
Galvez. Secret instructions had b^en sent to
British Commandants, all through the Western
country, to co-operate with both expeditions. De
Galvez, having learned of the scheme through
intercepted letters, resolved to forestall the attack
by becoming the assailant. At the head of a
force of G70 men, lie set out and captured Baton
Rouge, Fort Manchac and Natchez, almost with-
out opposition. The British in Canada, being
ignorant of what had been going on in the South,
in February following dispatched a force from
Mackinac to support the expedition from Pensa-
cola, and, incidentally, to subdue the American
rebels while en route. Cahokia and Kaskaskia
were contemplated points of attack, as well as
the Spanish forts at St. Louis and St. Genevieve.
This movement was planned by Capt. Patrick
Sinclair, commandant at Mackinac, but Captain
Hesse was placed in charge of the expedition,
which numbered some 750 men, including a force
of Indians led by a chief named Wabasha. The
British arrived before St. Louis, early on the
morning of May 26, 1780, taking the Spaniards
by surprise. Meanwhile Col. George Rogers
Clark, liaving been apprised of the project,
arrived at Cahokia from the falls of the Ohio,
twenty-four hours in advance of the attack, his
presence and readiness to co-operate with the
Spanish, no doubt, contributing to the defeat of
the expedition. The accounts of what followed
are conflicting, the number of killed on the St.
Louis shore being variously estimated from seven
or eight to sixty-eight — the last being the esti-
mate of Capt. Sinclair in his official report. All
agree, however, that the invading party was
forced to retreat in great haste. Colonel Mont-
gomery, who had been in command at Cahokia,
with a force of 350 and a party of Spanish allies,



pursued the retreating invaders as far as the
Rock River, destroying many Indian villages on
the way. This movement on the part of the
British served as a pretext for an attempted re-
prisal, undertaken by the Spaniards, witli the aid
of a number of Cahokians, early in 1781. Starting
early in January, this latter expedition crossed
Illinois, with the design of attacking Fort St.
Joseph, at the head of Lake Michigan, which had
been captured from the English by Thomas Brady
and afterwards retaken. The Spaniards were com-
manded by Don Eugenic Pourre, and supported
by a force of Cahokians and Indians. The fort
was easily taken and the British flag replaced by
the ensign of Spain. The affair was regarded as
of but little moment, at the time, the post being
evacuated in a few days, and tlie Spaniards
returning to St. Louis. Yet it led to serious
international complications, and tlie "conquest"
was seriously urged by the Spanish ministrj' as
giving that country a right to the territory trav-
ersed. This claim was supported by France
before the signing of tlie Treaty of Paris, but
was defeated, through the combined efforts of
Messrs. Jay, Franklin and Adams, the American
Commissioners in charge of the peace negoti-
ations with England.

SPARKS, (Capt.) David R., manufactm-er and
legislator, was born near Lanesville, Ind., in
1823; in 1836, removed with his parents to Ma-
coupin Coimty, 111. : in 1847, enlisted for the
Mexican War, crossing the plains to Santa Fe,
New Mexico. In 1850 he made the overland trip
to California, returning the next year by the
Isthmus of Panama. In 1855 lie engaged in the
railUng business at Staunton, Macoupin County,
but, in 18G0, made a third trip acrass the plains



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