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in search of gold, taking a quartz-mill which was
erected near where Central City, Colo., now is,
and which was the second steam-engine in that
region. He returned home in time to vote for
Stephen A. Douglas for President, the same year,
but became a stalwart Republican, two weeks
later, when the advocates of secession began to
develop their policy after the election of Lincoln.
In 1861 he enlisted, under the call for .500,000 vol-
unteers following the first battle of Bull Run, and
was commissioned a Captain in the Third Illinois
Cavalry (Col. Eugene A. Carr), serving two and a
half years, dm-ing which time he took part in
several hard-fought battles, and being present at
the fall of Vicksburg. At the end of his service
he became associated with his former partner in
the erection of a large flouring mill at I.iitchfield,
but, in 1869, the firm bought an extensive flour-



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



495



ing mill at Alton, of which he became the princi-
pal owner in 1881, and which has since been
greatly enlarged and improved, until it is now one
of the most extensive establishments of its kind
in the State. Capt. Sparks was elected to tlie
House of Representatives in 1888, and to the State
Senate in 1894, serving in the sessions of ISOS and
"97; was also strongly supported as a candidate
for the Republican nomination for Congress in
1896.

SPARKS, William A. J., ex-Congressman, was
born near New Albany, Ind., Nov. 19, 1828, at 8
years of age was brought by his parents to Illi-
nois, and shortly afterwards left an orphan.
Thrown on his own resources, he found work
upon a farm, his attendance at the district
schools being limited to the winter months.
Later, he passed through McKendree College,
supporting himself, meanwhile, by teaching,
graduating in 18.50. He read law with Judge
Sidney Breese, and was admitted to the bar in
1851. His first public ofRce was that of Receiver
of the Land Office at Edwardsville, to which he
was appointed by President Pierce in 1853, re-
maining until 1850, when he was chosen Presi-
dential Elector on the Democratic ticket. The
same year he was elected to the lower house of
the General Assembly, and, in 1863-64, served in
the State Senate for the unexpired term of James
M. Rodgers, deceased. He was a delegate to the
National Democratic Convention in 1868, and a
Democratic Representative in Congress from 1875
to 1883. In 1885 lie was appointed, by President
Cleveland, Commissioner of the General Land
OflSce in Washington, retiring, by resignation, in
1887. His home is at Carlyle.

SPARTA & ST. GENEVIEVE RAILROAD.
(See Centralia & Chester Railroad.)

SPEED, Joshua Fry, merchant, and intimate
friend of Abraham Lincoln ; was educated in the
local schools and at St. Joseph'.s College, Bards-
town, Ky.', after wliich he spent some time in a
wholesale nrercantile establishment in Louisville.
About 1835 he came to Springfield, 111., where he
engaged in the mercantile business, later becom-
ing the intimate friend and associate of Abraham
Lincoln, to whom he offered the privilege of
sharing a room over his store, when Mr. Linc^oln
removed from New Salem to Springfield, in 1830.
Mr. Speed returned to Kentucky in 1843, but the
friendship with Mr. Lincoln, which was of a
most devoted character, continued until the
death of the latter. Having located in Jefferson
County, Ky., Mr. Speed was elected to the Legis-
lature in 1848, but was never again willing to



accept office, though often solicited to do so. In
1851 he removed to Louisville, where he acquired
a handsome fortune in the real-estate business.
On the breaking out of the rebellion in 1861, he
heartily embraced the cause of the Union, and.
during the war, was entrusted with many deli-
cate and important duties in the interest of the
( tovernment, by Mr. Lincoln, whom he frequently .
visited in Washington. His death occurred at
Louisville, May 29, 1882.— James (Speed), an
older brother of the preceding, was a prominent
Unionist of Kentucky, and, after the war, a
leading Republican of that State, serving as dele-
gate to the National Republican Conventions of
1872 and 1876. In 1864 he was appointed Attor-
ney-General by Mr. Lincoln and served until 1806.
when he resigned on acco\int of disagreement
with President Johnson. He died in 1887, at the
age of 75 years.

SPOON RIVER, rises in Bureau County, flows
southward through Stark County into Peoria,
thence southwest through Knox, and to the south
and southeast, through Fulton County, entering
the Illinois River opposite Havana. It is about
150 miles long.

SPRINGER, (Rev.) Francis, D.D., educator
and Army Chaplain, born in Franklin County,
Pa., March 19, 1810; was left an orphan at an
early age, and educated at Pennsylvania College,
Gettysburg; entered the Lutheran ministry in
1836, and, in 1839, removed to Springfield, 111.,
where he preached and taught school; in 1847
became President of Ilillsboro College, which, in
1852, was removed to Springfield and became Illi-
nois State University, now known as Concordia
Seminary. Later, he served for a time as Super-
intendent of Schools for the city of Springfield,
but, in September, 1861, resigned to accept the
Chaplaincy of the Tenth Illinois Cavalry ; by suc-
cessive resignations and appointments, held the
positions of Chaplain of the First Arkansas Infan-
try (1863-64) and Post Chaplain at Fort Smitli,
Ark., serving in the latter position until April,
1867, when he was commissioned Chaplain of the
United States Army. This position he resigned
while stationed at Fort Harker, Kan.. August 23.
1867. During a considerable part of liis incum-
bency as Chaplain at Fort Smith, he acted as
-A.gent of the Bureau of Refugees and Freedmen.
performing important service in caring for non-
combatants rendered homeless by the vici.ssitudes
of war. After the war he served, for a time, as
Superintendent of Schools for Montgomery
County, 111. ; was instrumental in the founding
of Carthage (111.) College, and was a member of



496



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



its Board of Control at the time of his death. He
was elected Chaplain of the Illinois House of
Representatives at the session of the Thirty-fifth
General Assembly (1887), and Chaplain of the
Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of
Illinois for two consecutive terms (1890-'93).
He was also member of the Stephi
No. 30, G. A. R. , at Springfield, and
Chaplain from January, 1884, to his death, which
occurred at Springfield, Oct. 31, 1893.

SPRINGER, William McKendree, ex-Congress-
man, Justice of United States Court, was born in
Sullivan County, Ind. , May 30, 1836. In 1848 he
removed with his parents to Jacksonville, 111.,
was fitted for college in the public high school at
Jacksonville, imder the tuition of the late Dr.
Bateman, entered Illinois College, remaining
three years, when he removed to the Indiana
State University, graduating there in 1858. The
following year he was admitted to the bar and
commenced practice in Logan County, but soon
after removed to Springfield. He entered public
life as Secretary of the Constitutional Convention
of 1862. In 1871-73 he represented Sangamon
County in the Legislature, and, in 1874, was
elected to Congress from the Thirteenth Illinois
District as a Democrat. From that time until
the close of the Fifty-third Congress (1895), he
served in Congress continuously, and was recog-
nized as one of the leaders of his party on the
floor, being at the head of many important com-
mittees when that party was in the ascendancy,
and a candidate for the Democratic caucus nomi-
nation for Speaker, in 1893. In 1894 he was the
candidate of his party for Congress for the
eleventh time, but was defeated by his Repub-
lican opponent, James A. Connolly. In 1895
President Cleveland appointed him United
States District Judge for Indian Territory.

SPRINGFIELD, the State capital, and the
county-seat of Sangamon County, situated five
miles south of the Sangamon River and 185 miles
southwest of Chicago; is an important railway
center. The first settlement on the site of the
present city was made by John Kelly in 1819.
On April 10, 1831, it was selected, by the first
Board of County Commissioners, as the temporary
county-seat of Sangamon Count3', the organi-
zation of which had been authorized by act of
the Legislature in January previous, and the
name Springfield was given to it. In 1823 the
selection was made permanent. The latter year
the first sale of lands took place, the original site
being entered by Pascal P. Enos, Elijah lies and
Thomas Cox. The town was platted about the



same time, and the name "Calhoun" was given to
a section in the northwest quarter of the present
city — this being the "hey-day" of the South
Carolina statesman's greatest popularity — but
the change was not popularly accepted, and the
new name was soon dropped. It was incorpo-
rated as a town, April 3, 1832, and as a city, April
6, 1840; and re-incorporated, under the general,
law in 1883. It was made the State capital by
act of the Legislature, passed at the session of
1837, which went into effect, July 4, 1889, and the
Legislature first convened there in December of
the latter year. The general surface is flat,
though there is rolling gi-ound to the west. The
city has excellent water-works, a paid fire-depart-
ment, six banks, electric street railways, gas and
electric lighting, commodious hotels, fine
churches, numerous handsome residences, beauti-
ful parks, thorough sewerage, and is one of the
best paved and handsomest cities in the State.
The city proper, in 1890, contained an area of four
square miles, but has since been enlarged by the
annexation of the following suburbs: North
Springfield, April 7, 1891 ; West Springfield, Jan.
4, 1898 ; and South Springfield and the village of
Laurel, April 5, 1898. These additions give to
the present city an area of 5.84 square miles.
The population of the original city, according to
the census of 1880, was 19,743, and, in 1890, 34,963,
while that of the annexed suburbs, at the last
census, was 2,109— making a total of 29,072. The
latest school census (1898) showed a total popu-
lation of 33,375 — estimated population (1899),
35,000. Besides the State House, the city has a
handsome United States Government Building
for United States Court and post-office purposes,
a county courthouse (the former State capitol),
a city hall and (State) Executive Mansion.
Springfield was the home of Abraham Lincoln.
His former residence has been donated to the
State, and his tomb and monument are in the
beautiful Oak Ridge cemetery, adjofning the
city. Springfield is an important coal-mining
center, and has many important industries,
notably a watcli factory, rolling mills, and exten-
sive manufactories of agricultural implements
and furniture. It is also the permanent location
of the State Fairs, for which extensive buildings
have been erected on the Fair Grounds north of
the city. There are three daily papers — two
morning and one evening— published here, be-
sides various other publications.

SPRINGFIELD, EFFINGHAM & SOUTH-
EASTERN RAILROAD. (See St. Louis, Indian-
apolis & Eastern Railroad. )



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



497



SPRINGFIELD & ILLINOIS SOUTHEAST-
ERN RAILROAD. (See Baltimurc A Ohio
Sotitltwesteni RtiHroad. )

SPRINGFIELD & NORTHWESTERN RAIL-
ROAD. (See Chicago, Peoria & St Louis
Railroad of IlUnois.)

SPRING VALLEY, an incorporated city in
Bureau County, at the intersection of the Chicago
& Northwestern, tlie Chicago, Rock Island &
Pacific and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy
Railways, 100 miles southwest of Chicago. It
lies in a coal-niiuing region and has important
manufacturing interests as well. It has a
national bank, with a capital of .$.jO,000, and
one daily and two weekly newspapers. Popula-
tion (1890), 3,837.

ST. AGATHA'S SCHOOL, an institution for
young ladies, at Springfield, under the patronage
of the Bishop of the Episcopal Clmrch, incorpo-
rated in 1889. It has a faculty of eight teachers
giving instruction in the preparatory and higher
branches, including music and fine arts. It
reported fifty-five pupils in 1894, and real estate
valued at Sl.5,000.

ST. ALBAN'S ACADEMY, a boys' and young
men's school at Knoxville, 111., incorporated in
1896 under the auspices of the Episcopal Church ;
in 1898 had a faculty of seven teachers, with
forty-five pupils, and property valued at §61.100,
of which S.">4,000 was real estate. Instruction is
given in the classical and scientific branches,
besides music and preparatory studies.

ST. ANNE, a village of Kankakee County, at
the crossing of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois and
the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis
Railways, 67 miles south of Chicago. The dis-
trict is agricultural. The town has a bank and a
weekly newspaper. Population (1890), 718.

ST. CHARLES, a city in Kane County, on Fo.x;
River, and the point of intersection of the Chi-
cago & Northwestern and the Chicago Great
Western Railways. It is situated 38 miles west of
Chicago and 8 miles south of Elgin. The river
furnishes excellent water power, which is only
partially utilized. Manufacturing is carried on
to some extent, and there is a large dairy inter-
est. The city lies on both siiles of the Fox River,
and has a number of handsome private resi-
dences. Population (1880), 1,533; (1890), 1,690.

ST. CLAIR, Arthur, first Governor of the
Northwest Territory, was born of titled ancestry
at Thurso, Scotland, in 1T34: came to America in
1757 as an ensign, having purchased his commis-
sion, participated in the capture of Louisburg.
Canada, in 1758, and fought under Wolfe at



Quebec. In 1764 he settled in Pennsylvania,
where he amassed a moderate fortune, and be-
came prominent in public affairs. He served with
distinction during the Revolutionary War, rising
to the rank of Major-General, and succeeding
General Gates in command at Ticonderoga, but,
later, was censured by Washington for his hasty
evacuation of the post, though finally vindicated
by a military court. His Revolutionary record,
however, was generally good, and even distin-
guished. He represented Pennsj'lvania in the
Continental Congress, and presided over that
body in 1787. He served as Governor of tlie
Northwest Territory (including the present State
of Illinois) from 1789 to 1803. As an executive
he was not successful, being unpopular because
of his arbitrariness. In November, 1791, he-
suffered a serious defeat by the Indians in the
valley between the Miami and the Wabash. In
this campaign he was badly crijipled by the gout,
and had to be carried on a litter ; he was again
vindicated by a Congressional investigation. His
first visit to the Illinois Country was made in
1790, wlien he organized St. Clair County, which
was named in his honor. In 1803 President Jef-
ferson removed him from the governorslii|) of
Ohio Territory, of which he had continued to be
the Governor after its separation from Indiana
and Illinois. The remainder of his life was
spent in comparative penury. Shortly before his
decease, he was granted an annuity by the Penn-
sylvania Legislature and by Congress. Died, at
Greensburg, Pa.. August 31, 1818.

ST. CLAIR COUNTY, the first county organ-
ized within the territory comprised in the pres-
ent State of Illinois — the whole region west
of the Ohio River having been first placed under
civil jurisdiction, under the name of "Illinois
County," by an act of the Virginia House of
Delegates, passed in October, 1778, a few months
after the capture of Kaskaskia by Col. George
Rogers Clark. (See IlUnois; also Clark, George
Rogers.) St. Clair County was finally set off
by an order of Gov. Arthur St Clair, on occa-
sion of his first visit to the "Illinois Country,"
in April, 1790 — more than two years after his
a.ssumption of the duties of Governor of the
Northwest Territory, which then comprehended
the "Illinois Countrj-" as well as the whole
region within the present States of Ohio, Indiana,
Michigan and Wisconsin. Governor St. Clair'.s
order, which bears date, April 37, 1790, defines
the boundaries of the new county — which took
his own name— as follows: "Beginning at the
mouth of the Little Michillimackanack River,



498



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



running thence southerly in a direct line to the
mouth of the little river above Fort Massac upon
the Ohio River ; thence with the said river to its
junction with the Mississippi; thence up the
Mississippi to the mouth of the Illinois, and so up
the Illinois River to the place of beginning, with
all the adjacent islands of said rivers, Illinois and
Mississippi." The "Little Michillimackanack,"'
the initial point mentioned in this description —
also variously spelled "Makina" and "Macki-
naw," the latter being the name by which the
stream is now known — empties into the Illinois
River on the south side a few miles below
Pekin, in Tazewell County. The boundaries
of St. Clair County, as given by Gov. St. Clair,
indicate the imperfect knowledge of the topog-
raphy of the "Illinois Country" existing in
that day, as a line drawn south from the mouth
of the Mackinaw River, instead of reaching the
Ohio "above Fort Massac," wovild have followed
the longitude of the present city of Springfield,
striking the Mississippi about the nortliwestern
corner of Jackson County, twenty-five miles west
of the mouth of the Ohio. The object of Gov-
ernor St. Clair's order was. of course, to include
the settled portions of the Illinois Country in tlie
new county ; and, if it had had the effect intended,
the eastern border of the county would have fol-
lowed a line some fifty miles farther eastward,
along the eastern border of Marion, Jefferson,
Franklin, Williamson and Johnson Counties,
reaching the Ohio River about the present site of
Metropolis City in Massac County, and embracing
about one-half of the area of the present State of
Illinois. For all practical purposes it embraced
all the Illinois Country, as it included that por-
tion in which the white settlements were located.
(See St. Clair, Artliur; also Illinois Country.)
The early records of St. Clair County are in the
French language ; its first settlers and its early
civilization were French, and the first church to
inculcate the doctrine of Christianity was the
Roman Catholic. The first proceedings in court
under the common law were had in 1796. The
first Justices of the Peace were appointed in 1807,
and, as there was no penitentiary, the wliipping-
post and pillory played an important part in the
code of penalties, these punishments being im-
partially meted out as late as the time of Judge
(afterwards Governor) Reynolds, to "the lame, the
halt and the blind," for such offenses as the lar-
ceny of a silk handkerchief. -4t first three
places — Cahokia, Prairie du Rocher and Kaskas-
kia — were named as county-seats by Governor St.
Clair ; but Randolph Count)' having been set off



in 1895, Cahokia became the county-seat of the
older county, so remaining until 1813, when
Belleville was selected as the seat of justice. At
that time it was a mere cornfield owned by
George Blair, although settlements had previously
been established in Ridge Prairie and at Badgley.
Judge Jesse B. Thomas held his first court in a
log-cabin, but a rude court house was erected in
1814, and, the same year, George E. Blair estab-
lished a hostelry, Joseph Kerr opened a store,
and, in 1817, additional improvements were
inaugurated by Daniel Murray and others, from
Baltimore. John H. Dennis and the Mitchells
and Wests (from Virginia) settled soon after-
ward, becoming farmers and mechanics. Belle-
ville was incorporated in 1819. In 182.5 Governor
Edwards bought the large landed interests of
Etienne Personeau, a large French land-owner,
ordered a new survey of the town and infused fresh
life into its development. Settlers began to arrive
in large numbers, mainly Virginians, who brought
with them their slaves, the right to hold which
was, for many years, a fruitful and perennial
source of strife. Emigrants from Germany
began to arrive at an early day, and now a large
proportion of the population of Belleville and St.
Clair County is made up of that nationality. The
county, as at present organized, lies on the west-
ern border of the south half of the State, immedi-
ately opposite St. Louis, and comprises some 680
square miles. Three-fourths of it are underlaid
by a vein of coal, six to eight feet thick, and
about one hundred feet below the surface. Con-
siderable wheat is raised. The principal towns
are Belleville, East St. Louis, Lebanon and Jlas-
coutah. Population of the county (1880), 61,806;
(1890), 66,.571.

ST. JOHN, a village of Perry County, on the
Illinois Central Railway, two miles nortli of
Duquoin. Coal is mined and salt manufactured
here. Population, 49.5.

ST. JOSEPH, a village of Champaign County,
on the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St.
Louis Railway, 10 miles east of Champaign.
Population, .553.

ST. JOSEPH'S HOSPITAL, (Chicago), founded
in 1860, by the Sisters of Charity. Having been de-
stroyed in the fire of 1871, it was rebuilt in the
following year. In 1893 it was reconstructed, en-
larged and made thoroughly modern in its appoint-
ments. It can accommodate about 230 patients.
The Sisters attend to the nursing, and conduct the
domestic and financial affairs. The medical staff
comprises ten physicans and surgeons, among
whom are some of the most eminent in Chicago.



lIISTOniCAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



ST. LOUIS, ALTON A. CHICAGO RAILROAD.

(See Cliicago & Altun Bailiuad. )

ST. LOUIS, ALTOS & SPRINGFIELD RAIL-
ROAD. (See St. Louis. Chicago d- St. Paul
Railroad.)

ST. LOUIS, ALTON & TERRE HAUTE
RAILOAD, a corporation formerlj- operating an
extensive system of railroads in Illinois. The Terre
Haute & Alton Railroad Companj- (the original
corporation) was chartered in January, 1851,
work begun in 1852, and the main line from
Terre Haute to Alton (172.5 miles) completed,
March 1, 1856. The Belleville & Illinoistown
branch (from Belleville to East St. Louis) was
chartered in 1852. and completed between the
points named in the title, in the fall of 1854.
This corporation secured authority to construct
an extension from Illinoistown (now East St.
Louis) to Alton, which was completed in October,
1856, giving the first railroad connection between
Alton & St. Louis. Simultaneously with this,
these two roads (the Terre Haute & Alton and
the Belleville & Illinoistown) were consolidated
under a single charter by special act of the Legis-
lature in February, 1854, the consolidated line
taking the name of the Terre Haute, Alton & St.
Louis Railroad. Subsequently the road became
financially embarassed, Avas sold under foreclosure
and reorganized, in 1862, under the name of the
St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad. June
1, 1867, the main line (from Terre Haute to St.
Louis) was leased for niety-nine years to tlie
Indianapolis & St. Louis Railway Company (an
Indiana corporation) guaranteed by certain other
lines, but the lease was subsequently broken by
the insolvency of the lessee and some of the
guarantors. The Indianapolis & St. Louis went
into the hands of a receiver in 1882, and was sold
under foreclosure, in Jul}' of the same year, its
interest being absorbed bj- the Cleveland, Cin-
cinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railway, by which
the main line is now operated. The properties
ofHcially reported as remaining in the hands of
the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad,
June 30, 1895. beside the Belleville Branch (14.40
miles), included the following leased and subsidi-
ary lines: Belleville & Southern Illinois — "Cairo
Short Line"' (56.40 miles); Belleville & Eldorado,
(.50.20 miles): Belleville & Carondelet (17.30
miles); St. Louis Southern and branches (47.27
miles), and Chicago, St. Louis & Paducah Rail-
way (53.50 miles). All these have been leased,
since the close of the fiscal year 1895, to the Illi-
nois Central. (For sketches of these several
roads see headings of eacli. )



ST. LOUIS, CHICAGO & ST. PAUL RAIL-
ROAD, (Bluff Line), a line running from Spring-
field to Granite City, 111., (opposite St. Louis),
102.1 miles, with a branch from Lock Haven to
Grafton, 111., 8.4 miles — total length of line in
Illinois, 110.5 miles. The track is of standard
gauge, laid with 56 to 70-pound steel rails. — (His-
tory. ) The road was originally incorporated
under the name of the St. Louis, Jerseyville &



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