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Springfield Railroad, built from Bates to Grafton
in 1882, and absorbed by the Wabash, St. Louis &
Pacific Railway Company ; was surrendered by the
receivers of the latter in 1886, and passed under
the control of the bond-holders, by whom it was
transferred to a corporation known as the St.
Louis & Central Illinois Railroad Company. In
June, 1887, the St. Louis, Alton & Springfield
Railroad Company was organized, with power to
liuild extensions from Nevi'bern to Alton, and
from Bates to Springfield, which was done. In
October, 1890, a receiver was appointed, followed
by a reorganization under the present name (St.
Louis, Chicago & St. Paul). Default was made
on the interest and, in June following, it was
again placed in the hands of receivers, by whom
it was operated until 1898. The total earnings
and income for the fiscal year 1897-98 were
§318.815, operating expenses, $373,270; total
capitalization, S4,853,.526, of which, §1,500.000
was in the form of stock and .51,235 000 in income
bonds.

ST. LOUIS, INDIANAPOLIS A EASTERN
RAILROAD, a railroad line UO miles in length,
extending from Switz City, Ind., to Etfingham,
111.— 56 miles being within the State of Illinois.
It is of standard gauge and the track laid chiefly
with iron rails.— (History.) The orginal corpo-
ration was chartered in 1869 as the Springfield,
Effingham & Quincy Railway Company. It was
built as a narrow-gauge line by tlie Cincinnati,
EflSngham & Quincy Construction Company,
which went into the hands of a receiver in 1878.
The road was completed by the receiver in 1880,
and, in 1885, restored to the Construction Com-
pany by the discharge of the receiver. For a
short time it was operated in connection with
the Bloomfield Railroad of Indiana, but was
reorganized in 1886 as the Indiana & Illinois
Southern Railroad, and the gauge changed to
.standard in 1887. Having made default in the
payment of interest, it was sold under foreclosure
in 1890 and purchased in the interest of the bond-
holders, by whom it was conveyed to the St.
Louis, Indianapolis & Eastern Railroad Company,
in whose name the line is operated. Its business



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HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



is limited, and chiefly local. The total earnings
in 1898 were $65.. 583 and the expenditures .'>69,113.
Its capital stock was .§740,900; bonded debt,
§978,000, other indebtedness increasing the total
capital investment to §1,816,736.

ST. LOUIS, JACKSONVILLE & CHICAGO
BAILROAD. (See Chicngo d- Alton Railmnd. )

ST. LOUIS, JERSETVILLE & SPRINGFIELD
RAILROAD. (See St. Louis, Chicago & St. Paul
Railroad.)

ST. LOUIS, MOUNT CARMEL & NEW AL-
BANY RAILROAD. (See Louisville, Evansville
& St. Louis {Consolidated} Railroad.)

ST. LOUIS, PEORIA & NORTHERN RAIL-
WAT, known as "Peoria Short Line," a corpo-
ration organized, Feb. 39, 1896, to take over and
unite the properties of the St. Louis & Eastern,
the St. Louis & Peoria and the North and South
Railways, and to extend the same due north
from Springfield to Peoria (60 miles), and thence
to Fulton or East Clinton, 111., on the Upper Mis-
sissippi. The line extends from Springfield to
Glen Carbon (84.46 miles), with trackage facilities
over the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis Railroad
and the Merchants' Terminal Bridge (18 miles)
to St. Louis.— (History.) This road has been
made up of three sections or divisions. (1) The
initial section of the line was constructed under
the name of the St. Louis & Chicago Railroad of
Illinois, incorporated in 1885, and opened from
Mount Olive to Alhambra in 1887. It passed
into the hands of a receiver, was sold under fore-
closure in 1889, and reorganized, in 1890, as the St.
Louis & Peoria Railroad. The St. Louis & East-
ern, chartered in 1889, built the line from Glen
Carbon to Marine, which was opened in 1893 ; the
following year, bought tlie St. Louis & Peoria
line, and, in 1895, constructed the link (8 miles)
between Alhambra and Marine. (3) The North
& South Railroad Company of Illinois, organized
in 1890, as successor to the St. Louis & Chicago
Railway Company, proceeded in the construction
of the line (50.46 miles) from Mt. Olive to Spring-
field, which was subsequently leased to the Chi-
cago, Peoria & St. Louis, then under the
management of the Jacksonville, Louisville & St.
Louis Railway. The latter corporation having
defaulted, the property passed into the hands of
a receiver. By expiration of the lease in Decem-
ber, 1896, the property reverted to the proprietary
Company, which took possession, Jan. 1, 1896.
The St. Louis & Southeastern then bought the
line outright, and it was incorporated as a part of
t he new organization under the name of the St.
Louis, Peoria & Northern Railway, the North



& South Railroad going out of existence. In
May, 1899, the St. Louis, Peoria & Northern was
sold to the reorganized Chicago & Alton Railroad
Company, to be operated as a short line between
Peoria & St. Louis.

ST. LOUIS, ROCK ISLAND & CHICAGO
RAILROAD. (See Chicago, Burlington & Quinay
Ra ilroad. )

ST. LOUIS SOUTHERN RAILROAD, a line
running from Pinckneyville, 111., via Murphys-
boro, to Carbondale. The company is also the
lessee of the Carbondale & Shawneetown Kail-
road, extending from Carbondale to Marion, 17.5
miles — total, 50.5 miles. The track is of standard
gauge and laid with 56 and 60-pound steel rails.
The company was organized in August, 1886, to
succeed to the property of the St. Louis Coal Rail-
road (organized in 1879) and the St. Louis Central
Railway ; and was leased for 980 years from Dec.
1, 1886, to the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute
Railroad Company, at an annual rental equal to
thirty per cent of the gross earnings, with a mini-
mum guarantee of §33,000, which is sufficient
to pay the interest on the first mortgage bonds.
During the year 1896 this line passed under lease
from the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Rail-
road Company, into the hands of the Illinois
Central Railroad C'ompany.

ST, LOUIS, SPRINGFIELD & YINCENNES
RAILROAD COMPANY, a corporation organized
in July, 1899, to take over the property of the
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railway in the
State of Illinois, known as the Ohio & Mississippi
and the Springfield & Illinois Southeastern
Railways — the former extending from Vin-
cennes, Ind., to East St. Louis, and the latter
from Beardstown to Shawneetown. The prop-
erty was sold under foreclosure, at Cincinnati,
July 10, 1899, and transferred, for purposes of
reorganization, into the hands of tlie new cor-
poration, July 28, 1899. (For history of the
several lines see Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern
Railway.)

ST. LOUIS, VANDALIA & TERRE HAUTE
RAILROAD. This line extends from East St.
Louis eastward across the State, to the Indiana
State line, a distance of 158.3 miles. The Terre
Haute & Indianapolis Railroad Company is the
lessee. The track is single, of standard gauge,
and laid with steel rails. The outstanding capi-
tal stock, in 1898, was §3,934,058, the bonded debt,
§4,496.000, and the floating debt, §218.480.— (His-
tory ) The St. Louis, Vandalia & Terre Haute
Railroad was chartered in 1865, opened in 1870
and leased to the Terre Haute & Indianapolis



IIISTOUICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



501



Railroad, for itself and the Pittsburg;, Cincinuati,
Chicago & St. Louis Railroad.

ST. LOUIS & CAIRO RAILROAD, extend.s
from East St. Louis to Cairo, 111., It'll. 6 miles, with
a branch from Millstadt Junction to High Prairie,
y miles. The track is of standard gauge and laid
mainly with steel rails. — (History.) The origi-
nal charter was granted to the Cairo & St. Louis
Railroad Compan}', Feb. 16, 1865, and the road
opened, March 1, 1875. Subsequently it passed
into the hands of a receiver, was sold under fore-
closure, July 14, 1881, and was taken charge of
by a new company under its present name, Feb.
1, 1883. On Feb. 1, 1886, it was leased to the
Mobile & Ohio Railroad Company for forty -ti\e
years, and now constitutes the Illinois Di\ision
of that line, giving it a connection with St.
Louis. (See Mobile & Ohio Rciilway.)

ST. LOUIS & CENTRAL ILLINOIS RAIL-
ROAD. (See St. Louis, Chicago & St. Paid
Railroad.)

ST. LOUIS & CHICAGO RAILROAD (of
Illinois). (See St. Loiiin, Peoria A Northern
Maihcai/. )

ST. LOUIS & EASTERN RAILROAD. (See
St. Lmii.'i. Peoria d- yorfhrni Eadicay.}

ST. LOUIS & PEORIA RAILWAY. (See
St. Lo»/.s, Peoria d- Xorthern Radiray. )

ST. LUKE'S HOSPITAL, located in Chicago.
It was chartered in 1865, its incorporators, in
their initial statement, substantially declaring
their object to be the establishment of a free hos-
pital under the control of tlie Protestant Epis-
copal Church, which should be open to the
afflicted poor, without distinction of race or
creed. The hospital was opened on a small scale,
but steadily increased until 1879, when re-incur-
poration was effected under the general law. In
1885 a new building was erected on land donated
for that purpose, at a cost exceeding §150,000,
exclusive of §20,000 for furnisliing. ^Yhile its
primary object has been to afford accommoda-
tion, with medical and surgical care, gratuitously,
to the needy poor, the institution also provides a
considerable number of comfortable, well-fur-
nished private rooms for patients who are able
and willing to pay for the same. It contains an
amphitheater for surgical operations and clinics,
and has a free dispensary for out-patients. Dur-
ing the past few years important additions
have been made, the number of beds increased,
and provision made for a training school for
nurses. The medical staff (1896) consists of
thirteen pliysicians and surgeons and two
pathologists.



ST. MARY'S SCHOOL, a young ladies' semi-
nary, under the patronage of the Episcopal
Church, at Knoxville, Knox County, 111. ; was
incorporated in 1858, in 1898 had a faculty of four-
teen teacliers, giving instruction to 113 pupils.
The branches taught include the classics, the
sciences, fine arts, music and preparatorj- studies.
The institution has a library of 3,200 volumes,
and owns property valued at §130,500, of which
§100,000 is real estate.

STAGER, Anson, soldier and Telegraph Super-
intendent, was born in Ontario County, N. Y.,
April 20, 1835; at 16 years of age entered the serv-
ice of Henry O'Reilly, a printer who afterwards
bec:ame a pioneer in building telegraph lines, and
with whom he became associated in various enter-
prises of this character. Having introduced
several improvements in the construction of bat-
teries and the arrangement of wires, he was, in
1852, made General Superintendent of the princi-
pal lines in the West, and, on the organization of
the Western Union Company, was retained in
this position. Earlj^ in the Civil War lie was
entrusted with tlie management of telegraph
lines in Southern Ohio and along the Virginia
border, and, in October following, was appointed
General Superintendent of Government tele-
graphs, remaining in this position until Septem-
ber, 1868, his services being recognized in his
promotion to a brevet Brigadier-Generalship of
Volunteers. In 1869 General Stager returned to
Cliicago and, in addition to his duties as General
Superintendent, engaged in tlie promotion of a
number of enterprises connected with the manu-
facture of electrical appliances and other
branches of the business. One of these was the
consolidation of the telephone companies, of
which he became President, as also of the West-
ern Edison Electric Light Company, besides being
a Director in several other corporations. Died,
in Chicago. March 26, 1885.

STANDISH, John Van Ness, a lineal descendant
of Capt. Miles Standish, the Pilgrim leader, was
born at Woodstock, Vt., Feb. 26, 1825. His early
years were spent on a farm, but a love of knowl-
edge and books became his ruling passion, and he
devoted several years to study, in the "Liberal
Institute" at Lebanon, X. H., finally graduating,
with the degree of A. B,, at Norwich University
in tlie class of 1S47. Later, he received the
degree of .V.M., in due course, from liis Alma
Mater in 1855; that of Ph.D. from Knox College,
in 1883. of LL.D from St. Lawrence University
in 1893. and from Norwich, in 1898. Dr. Standish
chose the profession of a teacher, and has spent



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HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



over fifty years in its pursuit in connection with
private and public schools and the College, of
which more than forty years were as Professor and
President of I;ombard University at Galesburg.
He has also lectured and conducted Teachers'
Institutes all over the State, and, in 1859, was
elected President of the State Teachers' Associ-
ation. He made three visits to the Old World—
in 1879, '83-83, and '91 -OS— and, during his second
trip, traveled over 40,000 miles, visiting nearly
every country of Europe, including the "Land of
the Midnight Sun," besides Northern Africa
from the Mediterranean to the Desert of Sahara,
Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Asia Minor. A lover
of art, he has visited nearly all the principal
museums and picture galleries of the world. In
jjolitics he is a Republican, and, in opposition to
many college men, a firm believer in the doctrine
of protection. In religion, he is a Universalist.

STAPP, James T. I}., State Auditor, was born
in Woodford County, Ky.. April 13, 1804; at the
age of 13 accompanied his widowed mother to
Kaskaskia, 111., where she settled; before he was
20 years old, was employed as a clerk in the office
of the State Auditor, and, upon the resignation of
that officer, was appointed his successor, being
twice thereafter elected by the Legislature, serv-
ing nearly five years. He resigned the auditor-
ship to accept tlie Presidency of the State Bank
at Vandalia, which post lie filled for thirteen
years; acted 'as Aid-de-camp on Governor Rey-
nolds staff in the Black Hawk War, and served
as Adjutant of the Third Illinois Volunteers dur-
ing the war with Mexico. President Taylor
appointed Mr. Stapp Receiver of the United
States Land Office at Vandalia, which office he
held during the Fillmore administration, resign-
ing in 185.5. Two years later he removed to
Decatur, where he continued to reside until his
death in 1876. A handsome Methodist chapel,
erected by him in that city, bears his name.

STARK COUNTY, an interior county in tlie
northern half of the State, lying west of the Illi-
nois River; has an area of 390 square miles. It
has a rich, alhivial soil, well watered by numer-
ous small streams. The principal industries are
agricvilture and stock-raising, and the chief
towns are Toulon and Wyoming. The county
was erected from Putnam and Knox in 1839, and
named in honor of General Stark, of Revolution-
ary fame. The earliest settler was Isaac B.
Essex, who built a cabin on Spoon River, in 1838,
and gave his name to a township. Of other pio-
neer families, the Buswells, Smiths, Spencers and
^ came from New England ; the Thom-



ases, Moores, Holgates, Fullers and Whittakers
from Pennsylvania; the Coxes from Ohio; the
Perrys and Parkers from Virginia ; the McClana-
hans from Kentucky ; the Hendersons from Ten-
nessee ; the Lees and Hazens from New Jersey ;
the Halls from England, and the Turnbulls and
Olivers from Scotland. The pioneer church was
the Congregational at Toulon. Population (1880),
11,307; (1890), 9,983.

STAENE, Alexander, Secretary of State and
State Treasurer, was born in Philadelphia, Pa.,
Nov. 31, 1813; in the spring of 1836 removed to
Illinois, settling at Griggsville, Pike County,
where he ojjened a general store. From 1839 to
'43 he served as Commissioner of Pike County,
and, in the latter year, was elected to the lower
house of the General Assembly, and re-elected in
1844. Having, in the meanwhile, disposed of his
store at Griggsville and removed to Pittsfield, he
was appointed, by Judge Purple, Clerk of the Cir-
cuit Court, and elected to the same office for four
years, when it was made elective. In 1853 he
was elected Secretary of State, when he removed
to Springfield, returning to Griggsville at the
expiration of his term in IS.")™, to assume the
Presidency of the old Hannibal and Naples Rail-
road (now a part of the Wabasli system). He
represented Pike and Brown Counfies in the Con-
stitutional Convention of 1863, and the same year
was elected State Treasurer. He thereupon
again removed to Springfield, where he resided
until his death, being, with his sons, extensively
engaged in coal mining. In 1870, and again in
1873, he was elected State Senator from Sanga-
mon County. Died, at Springfield, Marcli 31,
1886.

STARVED ROCK, a celebrated rock or cliff on
the south side of Illinois River, in La Salle
County, upon which the French explorer. La
Salle, and his lieutenant, Tonty, erected a fort in
1683, which they named Fort St. Louis. It was
one mile north of the supposed location of the
Indian village of La Vantum, the metropolis, so
to speak, of the Illinois Indians about the time of
the arrival of the first French explorers. The
population of tliis village, in 1680, according to
Father Membre, was some seven or eight thou-
sand. Both La Vantum and Fort St. Louis were
repeatedly attacked by the Iroquois. The Illinois
were temporarily driven from La Vantum, but
the French, for the time being, successfully
defended their fortification. In 1703 the fort was
abandoned as a military post, but continued to
be used as a French trading-post until 1718,
when it was burned bv Indians. The Illinois



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



were not again molested until 1723, when the
Foxes made an unsuccessful attack upon them.
The larger portion of the tribe, however, resolved
to cast in their fortunes with other tribes on the
Mississippi River. Those who remained fell an
easy prey to the foes by whom thej' were sur-
rounded. In 1769 they were attacked from the
north by tribes who desired to avenge the murder
of Pontiac* Finding themselves hard pressed,
they betook themselves to the bluff where Fort
St. liOuis had formerly stood. Here they were
besieged for twelve days, when, destitute of food
or water, they made a gallant but hopeless sortie.
According to a tradition handed down among the
Indians, all were massacred bj- the besiegers in
an attempt to escape by night, except one half-
breed, who succeeded in evading his pursuers.
This sanguinary catastrophe has given the rock
its popular name. Elmer Baldwin, in his History
of La Salle County (1877), says: "The bones of
the victims lay scattered about the cliff in pro-
fusion after the settlement by tlie whites, and
are still found mingled plentifully with the soil."
(See La Salle. Hubert Carelier; Tonty: Furl St.
Louis.)

STATE 1}A>"K OF ILLIXOIS. The first legis-
lation, having for its object the establishment of
a bank within the territory which now consti-
tutes the State of Illinois, was the passage, by the
Territorial Legislature of 1816, of an act incor-
porating the "Bank of Illinois at Shawneetown,
with branches at Edwardsville and Kaskaskia."
In tlie Second General Assembly of tlie State
(1820) an act was passed, over tlie Governor's
veto and in defiance of the adverse judgment of
the Council of Revision, establishing a State
Bank at Vandalia with brancl^es at Shawneetown,
Edwardsville, and Brownsville in Jackson County.
This was, in effect, a recluirtering of the banks at
Shawneetown and Eilwardsville. So far as the
former is concerned, it seems to have been well
managed ; but the official conduct of the officers
of the latter, on the basis of charges made by
Governor Edwards in is2li. was made the .subject
of a legislative investigation, which (although it
resulted in nothing) seems to have had some
basis of fact, in view of the losses finallj- sus-
tained in winding up its affairs — that of the Gen-
eral Government amounting to 854,000. Grave
charges were made in this connection against
men wlio were then, or afterwards became,
prominent in State affairs, including one Justice
tif the Supreme Court and one (still later) a
Ignited States Senator. The experiment was dis-
astrous, as. ten vears later (1831), it was found



necessary for the State to incur a debt of S100,0(K)
to redeem the outstanding circulation. Influ-
enced, however, by the popular demand for an
increase in the "circulating medium," the State
continued its experiment of becoming a stock-
holder in banks managed by its citizens, and
accordingly we find it, in 1835, legislating in the
same direction for the establisliing of a central
"Bank of Illinois" at Springfield, with branches
at other points as might be reiiuired, not to ex-
ceed six in number. One of these branches was
established at Vandalia and another at Chicago,
furnishing the first banking institution of the
latter city. Two years later, wlien the State was
entering upon its scheme of internal improve-
ment, laws were enacted increasing the capital
stock of these banks to .$4,000,000 in the aggre-
gate. Following the example of similar institu-
tions elsewhere, they suspended specie payments
a few months later, but were protected by "stay
laws" and other devices until 1842, when, the
internal improvement scheme having been finallj
abandoned, they fell in general collapse. The
State ceased to be a stock-holder in 1843, and the
banks were put in course of liquidation, though
it required several years, and the enactment of
various laws, to complete the work.

STATE CAPITALS. The first State capital of
Illinois was Kaskaskia, where the first Territorial
Legislature convened, Nov. 25, 1812. At that
time there were but five counties in the State —
St. Clair and Randolph being the most important,
and Kaskaskia being the county-seat of the
latter. Illinois was admitted into the Union as a
State in 1818, and the first Constitution provided
that the seat of government sliould remain at
Kaskaskia until removed by legislative enact-
ment. That instrument, liowever, made it obli-
gatory upon the Legislature, at its first session,
to petition Congress for a grant of not more than
foiu- sections of land, on which should be erected
a town, which should remain the seat of govern-
ment for twenty years. The petition was duly
presented and granted ; and, in accordance \vith
tlie power granted by the Constitution, a Board
of five Commissioners selected tlie site of the
present city of Vandalia, then a point in the
wilderness, twenty miles north of any settle-
ment. But so great was the faith of speculators
in the future of the jiroposed city, that town lots
were soon selling at §100 to §780 each. The Com-
missioners, in obedience to law, erected a plain
two-story frame building — scarcely more than a
commodious slianty^to which the State offices
were removed in December, 1820. This building



504



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OP ILLINOIS.



was burned, Dec. 9, 1833, and a brick structure
erected in its place. Later, when the question of
a second removal of the capital began to be agi-
tated, the citizens of Vandalia assumed the risk
of erecting a new, brick State House, costing
$16,000. Of this amount $6,000 was reimbursed
by the Governor from the contingent fund, and
the balance ($10,000) was appropriated in 1837,
when the seat of government was removed to
Springfield, by vote of the Tenth General Assem-
bly on the fourtli ballot. The other places receiv-
ing the principal vote at the time of the removal
to Springfield, were Jacksonville, Vandalia,
Peoria, Alton and lUiopolis — Springfield receiv-
ing the largest vote at each ballot. The law
removing the capital appropriated $50,000 from
the State Treasury, provided that a like amount
should be raised by private subscription and
guaranteed by bond, and that at least two acres
of land should be donated as a site. Two State
Houses have been erected at Springfield, the first
cost of the present one (including furnishing)
having been a little in excess of $4,000,000.
Abraham Lincoln, who was a member of the
Legislature from Sangamon County at the time,
was an influential factor in securing the removal
of the capital to Springfield.

STATE DEBT. The State debt, which proved
so formidable a burden upon the State of Illinois
for a generation, and, for a part of that period,
seriously checked its prosperity, was the direct
outgrowth of the internal improvement scheme
entered upon in 1837. (See Internal Improvement
Policy. ) At the time this enterprise was under-
taken the aggregate debt of the State was less
than $400,000 — accumulated within the preceding
six years. Two years later (1838) it had increased



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