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John T.), retiring to a farm of 40,000 acres at
Burr Oaks, 111. He died, at Henderson, Ky., Jan.
29. 1879.

SUMMERFIELI), a village of St. Clair County,
on the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railway,
27 miles east of St. Louis ; was the liome of Gen.
Fred. Hecker. Population (1890). 557.

SUMNER, a city of Lawrence County, on the
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad, 19
miles west of Vincennes, Ind. ; has a fine school-
house, several churclies, banks, flour and woolen
mills, and two weekly newspapers. Population
(1880), 1,021; (1890). l",037.

SUPERINTENDENTS OF PUBLIC INSTRUC
TION. The office of State Superintendent of
Public Instruction was created by act of the
Legislature, at a special se.ssion held in 1854, its
duties previous to that time, from 1845, liaving
been discharged by the Secretary of State as
Superintendent, ex-officio. The following is a li.st
of the incumbents from the date of the formal



514



HISTOKIOAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



creation of the office down to the present time
(1899), with the date and duration of the term of
each Ninian W. Edwards (by appointment of
the Governor), 1854-57; WiUiam H. Powell (by
election), 1857-59; Newton Bateman, 1859-63;
John P. Brooks, 1863-65; Newton Bateman,
1865-75; Samuel W. Etter, 1875-79; James P.
Slade, 1879-83; Henry Raab, 1883-87; Richard
Edwards, 1887-91; Henry Raab, 1891-95; Samuel
M. Inglis, 1895-98; James H. Freeman, June,
1898, to January, 1899 (by appointment of the
Governor, to fill the unexpired term of Prof.
Inglis, who died in office, June 1, 1898) ; Alfred
Baylis, 1899—.

Previous to 1870 the tenure of the office was
two years, but, by the Constitution adopted that
year, it was extended to four years, the elections
occurring on the even years between those for
Governor and other State officers except State
Treasurer.

SUPREME COURT, JUDGES OF THE. The
following is a list of Justices of the Supreme
Court of Illinois who have held office since tlie
organization of the State Government, with the
period of their respective incumbencies : Joseph
Phillips, 1818-22 (resigned) ; Thomas C. Browne,
1818 48 (term expired on adoption of new Con-
stitution); William P. Foster, Oct. 9, 1818, to
July 7, 1819 (resigned) , John Reynolds, 1818-25 ;
Thomas Reynolds (vice Phillips), 1822-25; Wil-
liam Wilson (vice Foster) 1819-48 (term expired
on adoption of new Constitution); Samuel D
Lockwood, 1825-48 (term expired on adoption of
new Constitution) ; Theophilus W. Smith, 1825-42
(resigned); Thomas Ford, Feb. 15, 1841, to Au-
gust 1, 1842 (resigned) ; Sidney Breese, Feb. 15,
1841, to Dec. 19, 1842 (resigned)— also (by re-elec-
tions), 1857-78 (died in office) ; Walter B. Scales,
1841-47 (resigned)— also (vice Trumbull), 1854-57
(resigned); Samuel H. Treat, 1841-55 (resigned);
Stephen A. Douglas, 1841-42 (resigned) ; John D.
Caton (vice Ford) August, 1842, to March, 1843—
also (vice Robinson and by successive re-elec-
tions), May, 1843 to January, 1864 (resigned);
James Semple (vice Breese), Jan. 14, 1843, to
April 16, 1843 (resigned) ; Richard M. Young (vice
Smith), 1843-47 (resigned) ; John M. Robinson
(vice Ford), Jan. 14, 1843, to April 27, 1843 (died
in office); Jesse B. Thomas, Jr., (vice Douglas),
1843-45 (resigned)— also (vice Young), 1847-48;
James Shields (vice Semple), 1843-45 (resigned) ;
Norman H. Purple (vice Thomas), 1843-48 (retired
under Constitution of 1848) ; Gustaviis Koerner
(vice Shields), 1845-48 (retired by Constitution);
William A. Denning (vice Scales), 1847-48 (re-



tired by Constitution) ; Lyman Trumbull, 1848-53
(resigned); Ozias C. Skinner (vice Treat), 1855-58
(resigned); Pinkney H. Walker (vice Skinner),
1858-85 (deceased); Corydon Beckwith (by ai)-
pointment, vice Caton), Jan. 7, 1864, to June 6,
1864; Charles B. Lawrence (one term), 1864-73;
Anthony Thornton, 1870-73 (resigned); John M.
Scott (two terms), 1870-88 ; Benjamin R. Sheldon
(two terms), 1870-88; William K. McAllister,
1870-75 (resigned) ; John Scholfield (vice Thorn-
ton), 1878 93 (died); T. Lyle Dickey (vice
McAllister), 1875-85 (died); David J. Baker (ap-
pointed, vice Breese), July 9, 1878, to June 2,
1879— also, 1888-97; John H. Mulkey, 1879-88;
Damon G. Timnicliffe (appointed, vice Walker),
Feb. 15, 1885, to June 1, 1885; Simeon P. Shope,
1885-94; Joseph M. Bailey, 1888-95 (died in office).
The Supreme Court, as at present constituted
(1899), is as follows; Carroll C. Boggs, elected,
1897; Jesse J. Phillips (vice Scholfield, deceased)
elected, 1893, and re-elected, 1897; Jacob W. Wil-
kin, elected, 1888, and re-elected, 1897; Joseph
N. Carter, elected, 1894; Alfred M. Craig, elec-
ted, 1873, and re-elected, 1882 and "91 ; James H.
Cartwright (vice Bailey), elected, 1895, and re-
elected, 1897 ; Benjamin D. Magruder (vice
Dickey), elected, 1885, "88 and "97. The terms of
Justices Boggs, Phillips, Wilkin, Cartwright and
Magruder expire in 1906 ; that of Justice Carter
on 1903; and Justice Craig's, in 1900. Under the
Constitution of 1818, the Justices of the Supreme
C'om-t were chosen by joint ballot of the Legisla-
ture, but, under the Constitutions of 1848 and
1870, by popular vote for terms of nine years
each. (See Judicial System; also sketches of
individual members of the Supreme Court under
their proper names. )

SURVEYS, EARLY GOVERNMENT. The first
United States law passed on the subject of Gov-
ernment surveys was dated. May 20, 1785. After
reserving certain lands to be allotted by way of
pensions and to be donated for school purposes,
it provided for the division of the remaining pub-
lic lands among the original thirteen States.
This, however, was, in effect, repealed by the Ordi-
nance of 1788. The latter provided for a rectan-
gular system of surveys which, with but little
modification, has remained in force ever since.
Briefly outlined, the system is as follows: Town-
ships, six miles square, are laid out from principal
bases, each township containing thirty-six sec-
tions of one square mile, numbered consecutively,
the niuneration to commence at the upper right
hand corner of the towjiship. The first principal
meridian (84° 51' west of Greenwich), coincided



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



515



■with the line dividing Indiana and Ohio. The
second (1" 37' farther west) had direct relation
to surveys in Eastern Illinois. The tliird (89 10'
30" west of Greenwich) and the fourth (90" 29'
56" west) governed the remainder of Illinois sur-
veys. Tlie first Public Surveyor was Thomas
Hutchins, who was called "the geographer."
(See Hutchins, Thomas.)

SWEET, (Gen.) Benjamin J., soldier, was
Iwrn at Kirkland, Oneida County, X. Y., April
24, 1832; came with his father, in 1848, to Sheboy-
gan, Wis., studied law, was elected to the State
Senate in 1859, and, in 1861, enlisted in the Sixth
Wisconsin Volunteers, being commissioned Major
in 1862. Later, he resigned and, returning home,
assisted in the organization of tlie Twenty-first
and Twenty-second regiments, being elected
Colonel of the former; and with it taking part in
the campaign in Western Kentucky anil Tennes-
see In 1863 he was assigned to command at
Camp Douglas, and was there on the exposure,
in November, 1864, of the conspiracy to release
the rebel prisoners. (See Camp Douglas Conspir-
acy.) The service which he rendered in the
defeat of this bold and dangerous conspiracy
evinced his courage and sagacity, and was of
inestimable value to the couutrj'. After the
war, General Sweet located at Lombard, near
Chicago, was appointed Pension Agent at Chi-
cago, afterwards served as Supervisor of Internal
Revenue, and. in lsT2, became Deputy Commis-
sioner of Internal Revenue at Washington. Died,
in Washington, Jan. 1, 1874 — Miss Ada C.
(Sweet), for eight years (1874-82) the efficient
Pension Agent at Chicago, is General Sweet's
daughter.

SWEETSER, A. C, soldier and Department
Commander G. A. R. , was born in Oxford County.
Jlaine, in 1839; came to Bloomington, 111., in
ls."i7; enlisted at the beginning of the Civil War
in the Eighth Illinois Volunteers and, later, in the
Thirty-ninth; at the battle of Wierbottom
Church, Va , in June, 1864, was shot through
both legs, necessitating the amputation of one of
them. After the war he held several offices of
trust, including those of City Collector of Bloom-
in, ton and Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue
for the Springfield District , in 1887 was elected
Department Commander of the Grand Army of
the Republic for Illinois. Died, at Bloomington,
Marcli 23. 189G.

SWETT, Leonard, lawyer, was born near
Turner, Maine, August 11, 182.5; was educated at
Waterville College (now Colby University), but
left before graduation ; read law in Portland, and,



while seeking a location in the West, enlisted in
an Indiana regiment for the Mexican War, being
attacked by climatic fever, was discharged before
completing his term of enlistment. He soon
after came to Bloomington, 111., where he became
the intimate friend of Abraham Lincoln and
David Davis, traveling the circuit with them for
a number of years. He early became active in
.'^tate politics, was a member of the Republican
State Convention of 18.56, was elected to the
lower house of the General Assembly in 185H,
and, in 1860, was a zealous supporter of Mr. Lin-
coln as a Presidential Elector for the State-at-
large. In 1862 he received the Republican
nomination for Congress in his District, but was
defeated. Removing to Chicago in 1865, he
gained increased distinction as a lawyer, espe-
cially in the management of criminal cases. In
1872 he was a supporter of Horace Greeley for
President, but later returned to tlie Republican
party, and, in the National Republican Conven-
tion of 1888, presented the name of Judge
Gresham for nomination for the Presidency.
Died, June 8, 1889.

SWIGERT, Charles PhiUp, ex-Auditor of Pub-
lic Accounts, was born in tlie Province of Baden,
Germany, Nov. 27, 1843, brought by his parents
to Chicago, 111., in childliood, and, in his boy-
hood, attended the Scammon School in that city
In 1854 his family removed to a farm in Kanka-
kee County, where, between the ages of 12 and
18, he assisted his father in "breaking" between
400 and 500 acres of prairie land. On the break-
ing out of the war, in 1861, although scarcely 18
years of age, he enlisted as a private in the Fortv-
.second Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and, in April,
1862, was one of twenty heroic volunteers who
ran tlie blockade, on the gunboat Carondelet. at
Island No. 10, assisting materially in the reduc-
tion of that rebel stronghold, which resulted in
the capture of 7,000 prisoners. At the battle of
Farmington, Miss., during the siege of Corinth,
in May, 1862, lie had his right arm torn from its
socket by a six-pound cannon-ball, compelling his
retirement from the army. Returning home,
after many weeks spent in hospital at Jefferson
Barracks and Quincy. 111., he received his final
discharge. Dec. 21, 1862. spent a year in school,
also took a course in Bryant & Stratton's Com-
mercial College in Cliicago, and having learned
to write with his left hand, taught for a time in
Kankakee County ; served as letter-carrier in Chi-
cago, and for a year as Deputy County Clerk of
Kankakee County, followed by two terms (186T-
69) as a student in the Soldiers' College at Fulton.



516



HISTOKICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



111. The latter year he entered upon the duties
of Treasurer of Kankakee County, serving, by
successive re-elections, until 1880, wlien he re-
signed to take the jjosition of State Auditor, to
which lie was elected a second time in 1884. In
all these positions Mr. Swigert has proved him-
self an upright, capable and high-minded public
official. Of late years his residence has been in
Chicago.

SWING, (Rev.) David, clergyman and pulpit
orator, was born of German ancestry, at Cincin-
nati, Ohio, August 23, 1836. After 1837 (his
father dying about this time ) . the family resided
for a time at Reedsburgh, and, later, on a farm
near Williamsburgh, in Clermont County, in the
same State. In 1853, having graduated from the
Miami (Ohio) University, he commenced the
study of theology, but, in 1854, accepted the
position of Professor of Languages in his Alma
Mater, which he continued to fill for thirteen
years. His fii-st pastorate was in connection with
the Westminster Presbyterian Church of Chi-
cago, whicli he assumed in 1866. His church
edifice was destroyed in the great Chicago fire,
but was later rebuilt. As a preacher he was
popular ; but, in April, 1874, he was placed on trial,
before an ecclesiastical court of his own denomi-
nation, on charges of heresy. He was acquitted
by the trial court, but, before the appeal taken by
the prosecution could be heard, he personally
withdrew from afSliatiou with the denomination.
Shortly afterward he became pastor of an inde-
pendent religious organization known as the
"Central Church," preaching, first at McVicker"s
Theatre and, afterward, at Central Music Hall,
Chicago. He was a fluent and popular speaker
on all themes, a frequent and valued contributor
to numerous magazines, as well as the author of
several volumes. Among his best known books
are "Motives of Life," "Truths for To-day," and
"Club Essays." Died, in Chicago, Oct. 3, 1894.

SYCAMORE, the county-seat of De Kalb
County (founded in 1836), 56 miles west of Chi-
cago, at the intersection of the Chicago & North-
western and the Chicago Great Western Rail-
roads; lies in a region devoted to agriculture,
dairying and stock-raising. The city itself con-
tains several factories, the principal products
being agricultural implements, flour, insulated
wire, brick, tile, varnish, furniture, soap and
carriages and wagons. There are also works for
canning vegetables and fruit, besides two creamer-
ies. The town is lighted by electricity, and has
high-pressure water-works. There are eleven
churches, three graded pulilic schools and a



young ladies' seminary. Population (1880),
3.028; (1890), 2,987; (1898), estimated, 3,400.

TAFT, Lorado, sculptor, was born at Elmwood,
Peoria County, 111., April 29, 1860; at an early
age evinced a predilection for sculpture and
began modeUng; graduated at the University of
Illinois in 1880, then went to Paris and studied
sculpture in the famous Ecole des Beaux Arts
until 1885, The following year he settled in Chi
cago, finally becoming associated with the Chi-
cago Art Institute. He has been a lecturer on
art in the Chicago University. Mr. Taft fur-
nished the decorations of the Horticultural Build-
ing on the World's Fair Grounds, in 1893.

TALCOTT, Mancel, business man, was born
in Rome, N. Y., Oct. 13, 1817; attended the com-
mon schools until 17 years of age, when he set
out for the West, traveling on foot from Detroit
to Chicago, and thence to Park Ridge, where he
worked at farming until 1850, Then, having
followed the occupation of a miner for some time,
in California, with some success, he united with
Horace M. Singer in establishing the firm of
Singer & Talcott, stone-dealers, which lasted dur-
ing most of his life. He served as a member of
the Chicago City Council, on the Board of Coimty
Commissioners, as a member of the Police Board,
and was one of the founders of the First National
Bank, and President, for several years, of the
Stock Yards National Bank. Liberal and public-
spirited, he contributed freely to works of
charitj'. Died, June 5, 1878.

TALCOTT, (Capt.) Williani, soldier of the
War of 1813 and pioneer, was born in Gilead,
Conn., March 6, 1774; emigrated to Rome, Oneida
County, N. Y. , in 1810, and engaged in farming ;
served as a Lieutenant in the Oneida County
niihtia during the War of 1813-14, being stationed
at Sackett's Harbor under the command of Gen.
Winfield Scott. In 1835, in company with his
eldest son, Thomas B. Talcott, he made an ex-
tended tour through the West, finally selecting a
location in Illinois at tlie junction of Rock River
and the Pecatonica, where the town of Rockton
now stands — there being only two white faniilies,
at that time, within the present limits of Winne-
bago County. Two years later (1837), he brought
his family to this point, with his sons took up a
considerable body of Government land and
erected tvs'o mills, to which customers came
from a long distance. In 1838 Captain Talcott
took part in the organization of the first Congre-
gational Church in that section of the State. A
zealous anti-slaveiy man, he supported James G-



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



Birney (the Liberty candidate for President) in
IS44, ooutinuing to act with tliat party until the
organization of the Republican party in 1850;
was deeply interested in the War for the Union,
but died before its conclusion, Sept. 2, 1864. —
Maj. Thomas B. (Talcott). oldest son of the pre-
ceding, was born at Hebron, Conn , April 17,
1806; was taken to Rome, N. Y., by his father in
infancy, and, after reaching maturity, engaged
in mercantile business with his brother in Che-
mung County; in 1835 accompanied his father in
a tour through the West, finally locating at
Rockton, where he engaged in agriculture. On
the organization of Winnebago County, in 1836,
he was elected one of the first County Commis-
sioners, and, in I8.3O, to the State Senate, serving
four years. He also held various local offices.
Died, Sept. 30, 1894.— Hon. Wait (Talcott), second
son of Capt. William Talcott, was born at He-
bron, Conn., Oct. 17, 1807, and taken to Rome,
N. Y., where he remained until his 19th year,
when he engaged in business at Booneville and,
still later, in Utica; in 1838, removed to Illinois
and joined his father at Rockton, finally
becoming a citizen of Rockford, where, in his
later years, he was extensively engaged in manu-
facturing, having become, in 1854, with his
brother Sylvester, a partner of the firm of J. H.
Manny & Co., in the manufacture of the Manny
reaper and mower. He was an original anti-
slavery man and, at one time, a Free-Soil candidate
for Congress, but became a zealous Republican
and ardent friend of Abraham Lincoln, whom he
employed as an attorney in the famous suit of
McCormick vs. the Maimy Reaper Company for
infringement of patent. In 1854 he was elected
to the State Senate, succeeding his brother,
Thomas B., and was the first Collector of Internal
Revenue in the Second District, appointed bj' Mr.
Lincoln in 1862, and continuing in ofiice some
five years. Though too old for active service in
the field, during the Civil War, he voluntarily
hired a substitute to take his place. Jlr. Talcott
was one of the original incorporators and Trus-
tees of Beloit College, and a founder of Rockford
Female Seminary, remaining a trustee of each
for many years. Died, June 7, 1890. — SylTester
(Talcott), third son of William Talcott, born at
Rome, N. Y., Oct. 14, 1810; when of age, engaged
in mercantile business in Chemung County; in
1837 removed, with other members of the family,
to Winnebago County, 111., where he joined his
father in the entry of C iuvernment lands and the
erection of mills, as already detailed. He became
one of the first Justices of the Peace in Winne-



bago County, also serve



Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 108 of 207)