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and a majority, over all, of nearly 90,000 votes.

TANNER, Tazewell B., jurist, was born in
Henry County, Va., and came to Jefferson
County, 111, about 1846 or '47, at first taking a
position as teacher and Superintendent of Public
Schools. Later, he was connected with "The
Jeffersonian," a Democratic paper at Mount Ver-
non, and, in 1849, went to the gold regions of
California, meeting with reasonable success as a
miner. Returning in a year or two, he was
elected Clerk of the Circuit Court, and, while in
the discharge of his duties, prosecuted the study
of law, finally, on admission to the bar, entering
into partnership with the late Col. Thomas S.
Casey. In 1854 he was elected Representative in
the Nineteenth General Assembly, and was in-
strumental in securing the appropriation for the
erection of a Supreme Court building at Mount
Vernon. In 1862 he served as a Delegate to the
State Constitutional Convention of that year ; was
elected Circuit Judge in 1873, and, in 1877, was
assigned to duty on the Appellate bench, but, at
the expiration of his term, declined a re-election
and resumed the practice of his profession at
Mount Vernon, Died, March 25, 1880.

TAXATION, in its legal sense, the mode of
raising revenue. In its general sense its purposes
are the support of the State and local govern-
ments, tlie promotion of the public good by
fostering education and works of public improve-
ment, the protection of society by the preser-
vation of order and the punishment of crime, and
the support of the helpless and destitute. In
practice, and as prescribed by the Constitution,
the raising of revenue is required to be done "by
levying a tax by valuation, so that every person
and corporation shall pay a tax in proportion to
the value of his, her or its property — such value
to be ascertained by some person or persons, to be
elected or appointed in such manner as the Gen-
eral Assembly shall direct, and not otherwise."
(State Constitution, 1870 — Art. Revenue, Sec. 1.)
The person selected under the law to make this
valuation is the Assessor of the county or the
township (in counties under township organiza-
tion), and he is required to make a return to the
County Board at its July meeting each year — the
latter having authority to hear complaints of tax-
payers and adjust inequalities when found to
exist. It is made tlie duty of the Assessor to



include in his return, as real-estate, all lands and
tlie buildings or other improvements erected
tliereon; and, under the head of personal prop-
erty, all tangible effects, besides moneys, credits,
bonds or stocks, shares of stock of companies or
corporations, investments, annuities, franchises,
royalties, etc. Property- used for school, churcli
or cemetery purposes, as well as public buildings
and other property belonging to tlie State and
General Government. munici|)alities, public
charities, public libraries, agricultural and scien-
tific societies, are declared exempt. Nominally,
all property subject to taxation is required to be
assessed at its cash valuation ; but, in reality, the
valuation, of late years, has been on a basis of
twenty-five to thirty-three per cent of its esti-
mated cash value. In the larger cities, however,
the valuation is often much lower tlian this,
while very large amounts escape assessment
altogether. Tlie Revenue Act, passed at the
special session of the Fortietli General Assembly
(1898). requires the Assessor to make a return of
all property subject to taxation in his district, at
its cash valuation, upon which a Board of Review
fixes a tax on the basis of twenty per cent of
.such cash valuation. An abstract of the property
assessment of each county goes before the State
Board of Equalization, at its annual meeting in
August, for the purpose of comparison and equal-
izing valuations between counties, but the Board
has no power to modify the assessments of indi-
vidual tax-payers. (See State Board of Equali-
zation.) This Board has exclusive power to fix
the valuation for pur])oses of taxation of the
capital stock or francliises of companies (except
certain specified manufacturing corporations) .in-
corporated under the State laws, together with the
"railroad track" and "rolling stock" of railroads,
and the capital stock of railroads and telegraph
lines, and to fix the distribution of the latter
between counties in wliicli tliey lie. — The Consti-
tution of 18-18 empowered tlie Legislature to
impose a capitation tax. of not less than fifty
cents nor more than one dollar, upon each free
white male citizen entitled to the right of suf-
frage, between the ages of 21 and 60 years, but the
Constitution of 18TU giants no sucli power,
though it authorizes the exteni^on of the "objects
and subjects of taxation" in accordance with the
principle contained in tlie first section of the
Revenue Article. — Special assessments in cities,
for the construction of sewers, pavements, etc.,
being local and in the form of benefits, cannot
be said to come under the head of general tax-
ation. The same is to be sairl of revenue derivd

from fines and penalties, which are forms of
punishment for specific offenses, and go to the
benefit of certain specified funds.

TAYLOR, Abner, ex-Congressman, is a native
of Maine, and a resident of Cliicago. He has been
in active business all his life as contractor, builder
and merchant, and, for some time, a member of
the wholesale dry -goods firm of J. V. Farwell &
Co. , of Chicago. He was a member of the Tliirty-
fourth General Assembly, a delegate to the
National Republican Convention of 1884, and
represented the First Illinois District in the Fifty-
first and Fifty -second Congresses, 1889 to 1893.
Mr. Taylor was one of the contractors for the
erection of the new State Capitol of Texas.

TAYLOR, Benjamin Franklin, journalist, poet
and lecturer, was born at Lowville, N. Y., July
19, 1819; graduated at Madison University in
1839, the next year becoming literary and dra-
matic critic of "The Chicago Evening Journal."
Here, in a few years, he acquired a wide reputa-
tion as a journalist and poet, and was much in
demand as a lecturer on literary topics. His
letters from the field during the Rebellion, as
war corre.spondent of "The Evening Journal,"
won for him even a greater popularity, and were
complimented by translation into more than one
European language. After the war, he gave his
attention more unreservedly to literature, his
principal works appearing after that date His
publications in book form, including both prose
and poetry, comprise the following; "Attractions
of Language" (1845); "January and June"
(1853); "Pictures in Camp and Field" (1871);
"The World on Wheels" (1873); "Old Time Pic-
tures and Sheaves of Rhyme" (1874); "Songs of
Yesterday" (1877); "Summer Savory Gleaned
from Rural Nooks" (1879) ; "Between the Gates"
—pictures of California life— (1881); "Dulce
Domum, the Burden of Song" (1884), and "Theo-
philus Trent, or Old Times in the Oak Openings,"
a novel (1887). The last was in tlie hands of the
publishers at hLs death, Feb. 27. 1887. Among
his most popular poems are "The Isle of the Long
Ago." "The Old Village Choir," and "Rhymes of
the River, " ' "The London Times" " complimented
Mr. Taylor witli the title of "The Oliver Gold-
smith of America."

TAYLOR, Edmund Dick, early Indian-trader
and legislator, was born at Fairfield C. H. , Va.,
Oct. 18. 1803 — the son of a commis.sary in the
arm}" of the Revolution, under General Greene,
and a cousin of General (later. President) Zachary
Taylor; left his native State in his youth and, at
an early day. came to Springfield. 111., where he



opened an Indian-trading post and general store ;
was elected from Sangamon County to the lower
branch of the Seventli General Assembly ( 1830)
and re-elected in 1833— the latter year being a
competitor of Abraham Lincoln, whom he
defeated. In 1834 he was elected to the State
Senate and, at the next session of the Legislature,
was one of tlie celebrated "Long Nine'-" who
secured the removal of the State Capital to
Springfield. He resigned before the close of his
term to accept, from President Jackson, the ap-
pointment of Receiver of Public Moneys at Chi-
cago. Here he became one of the promoters of
the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad (1837),
serving as one of the Commissioners to secure
subscriptions of stock, and was also active in
advocating the construction of the Illinois &
Michigan Canal. The title of "Colonel,"' by
which he was known during most of his life, was
acquired by service, with that rank, on the staff
of Gov. John Reynolds, during the Black Hawk
War of 1832. After coming to Chicago, Colonel
Taylor became one of the Trustees of the Chicago
branch of the State Bank, and was later identified
with various banking enterprises, as also a .some-
what extensive operator in real estate. An active
Democrat in the early part of his career in Illi-
nois, Colonel Taylor was one of the members of
his party to take ground against the Kansas-Neb
raska bill in 18.54, and advocated the election of
General Bissell to the governorship in 18.56. In
1860 he was again in line with his party in sup-
port of Senator Douglas for the Presidency, and
was an opponent of the war policy of the Govern-
ment still later, as shown by his participation in
the celebrated "Peace Convention" at Spring-
field, of June 17, 1863. In the latter years of his
life he became extensively interested in coal
lands in La Salle and adjoining counties, and,
for a considerable time, served as President of the
Northern Illinois Coal & Mining Company, his
home, during a part of this period, being at
Mendota. Died, in Chicago, Dec. 4, 1891.

TAYLORVILLE, a city and county-seat of
Christian County, situated on the South Fork of
the Sangamon River and on the Wabash Railway
at its point of intersection with the Springfield
Division of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern.
It is about 27 miles southeast of Springfield, and
some 28 miles southwest of Decatur. It has
several banks, flour mills, carriage and wagon
shops, a manufactory of farming implements,
two daily and weekly papers, seven churches and
two graded schools, each of which is accommo-
dated in a handsome building. Much coal is

mined in this vicinity. Population (1880), 2,237:
(1890), 2,839.

TAZEWELL COUNTY, a central county on
the Illinois River ; was first settled in 1833 and
organized in 1827 ; has an area of 650 square miles
— was named for Governor Tazewell of Virginia.
It is drained by the Illinois and Mackinaw Rivers
and traversed by several lines of railway. The
surface is generally level, the soil alluvial and
rich, but, requiring drainage, especially on the
river bottoms. Gravel, coal and sandstone are
found, but, generally speaking, Tazewell is an
agricultural county. The cereals are extensively
cultivated; wool is also clipped, and there ai-e
dairy interests of some importance. Distilling is
extensively conducted at Pekin, the county-seat,
which is also the seat of other mechanical indus-
tries. (See also Pekin.) Population of the
county (1880), 39,666; (1890), 29,.556.

TEMPLE, John Taylor, M.D., early Chicago
physician, born in "Virginia in 1804, graduated in
medicine at Middlebury College, Vt., in 1830, and,
in 1833, arrived in Chicago. At this time he had
a contract for carrying the United States mail
from Chicago to Fort Howard, near Green Bay,
and the following year undertook a similar con-
tract between Chicago and Ottawa. Having sold
these out three years later, he devoted his atten-
tion to the practice of his profession, though
interested, for a time, in contracts for the con-
struction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Dr.
Temple was instrumental in erecting the first
house (after Rev. Jesse Walker's missionary
station at Wolf Point), for public religious
worship in Chicago, and, although himself a
Baptist, it was used in common by Protestant
denominations. He was a member of the first
Board of Trustees of Rush Medical College,
though he later became a convert to homeopathy,
and finally, removing to St. Louis, assisted in
founding the St. Louis School of Homeopathy,
dying there, Feb. 24, 1877.

TENURE OF OFFICE. (See Elections.)

RAILROAD. (See St. Louis, Alton & Terre
Haute Railroad.)

St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad.)

ROAD, a corporation operating no line of its own
within the State, but the lessee and operator of
the following lines (which see): St. Louis,
Vandalia & Terre Haute, 158.3 miles; Terre
Haute & Peoria. 145.12 miles; East St. Louis
& Carondelet, 12.74 miles— total length of leased-



lines in Illinois, 316.16 miles. Tlie Terre Haute
& Indianapolis Railroad was incorporated in
Indiana in 1847. as the Terre Haute & Rich-
mond, completed a line between tlie points
named in the title, in 1852. and took its present
name in 1866. Tlie Pennsylvania Railroad Com-
pany purchased a controlling interest in its stock
in 1893.

(Vandalia Line), a line of road extending from
Terre Haute. lud.. to Peoria. 111., 14."> 13 miles,
with 28.78 miles of trackage, making in all 173.9
miles in operation, all being in Illinois— operated
by the Terre Haute & Indianapolis Railroad Com-
pany. The gauge is standard, and the rails are
steel. (History. ) It was organized Feb. 7, 1887.
successor to the Illinois Midland Railroad. The
latter was made up by the consolidation (Nov. 4,
1874) of three lines: (1) The Peoria, Atlanta &
Decatur Railroad, chartered in 1869 and opened in
1874; (2) the Paris & Decatur Railroad, chartered
in 1861 and opened in December, 1872 ; and (3) the
Paris & Terre Haute Railroad, chartered in 1873
and opened in 1874 — the consolidated lines
assuming the name of the Illinois Midland Rail-
road. In 1886 the Illinois Midland was sold under
foreclosure and, in February, 1887, reorganized
as the Terre Haute & Peoria Railroad. In 1893
it was leased for ninety-nine years to the Terre
Haute & Indianapolis Railroad Company, and is
operated as a part of the "Vandalia System."
The capital stock (1898) was §3.764,200; funded
debt, 82,230,000,— total capital invested, §6,227,-

TEUTOPOLIS, a village of Effingham County,
on the Terre Haute & Indianapolis Railroad, 4
miles east of Effingham; was originally settled
by a colony of Germans from Cincinnati. Popu-
lation (1890), 825.

THOMAS, Horace H., lawyer and legislator,
was born in Vermont, Dec. 18, 1831, graduated at
Middlebury College, and, after admission to the
bar, removed to Chicago, where he commenced
practice. At the outbreak of the rebellion he
enlisted and was commissioned Assistant Adju-
tant-General of the Army of the Ohio. At the
close of the war he took up his i esidence in Ten-
nessee, serving as Quartermaster upon the staff
of Governor Brownlow. In 1^67 he returned to
Chicago and resumed practice. He was elected
a Representative in the Legislature in 1878 and
re-elected in 1880, being chosen Speaker of the
House during his latter term. In 1888 he was
elected State Senator from the Sixth District,
serving during the sessions of the Thirty-sixth

and Thirty-seventh General Assemblies. In
1897, General Thomas was appointed United
States Appraiser in connection with the Custom
House in Chicago.

THOMAS, Jesse Burgess, jurist and United
States Senator, was born at Hagerstown, Md.,
claiming direct descent from Lord Baltimore.
Taken west in childhood, he grew to maidiood
and settled at Lawrenceburg, Indiana Territory,
in 1803 ; in 1805 was Speaker of the Territorial
Legislature and, later. repre.sented the Territory
as Delegate in Congress. On the organization of
Illinois Territory (which he had favored), he
removed to Kaskaskia, was appointed one of the
first Judges for the new Territory, and, in 1818,
as Delegate from St. Clair County, presided over
the first State Constitutional Convention, and, on
the admission of the State, became one of the
first United States Senators— Governor Edwards
being his colleague. Though an avowed advo-
cate of slavery, he gained no little prominence
as the author of the celebrated "Missouri Com-
promise," adopted in 1820. He was re-elected to
the Senate in 1823, serving until 1829. He sub-
sequently removed to Mount Vernon, Ohio, where
he died by suicide, Feb. 3. 1850. — Jesse Burgess
(Thomas), Jr. , nephew of the United States Sena-
tor of the same name, was born at Lebanon, Ohio,
July 31, 1806, was educated at Transylvania
Universitj-, and, being admitted to the bar,
located at Edwardsville, 111. He first appeared
in connection with public affairs as Secretary of
the State Senate in 1830, being re-elected in 1833 ;
in 1834 was elected Representative in the General
Assembly from Madison County, but, in Feljni-
ary following, was appointed Attorney-General,
serving only one year. He afterwards held the
l)o.sition of Circuit Judge (1837-39), his home being
then in Springfield ; in 1843 he became Associ-
ate Justice of the Supreme Court, by appointment
of the Governor, as successor to Stej)hen A. Doug-
las, and was afterwards elected to the same
office by the Legislature, remaining imtil 1848.
During a part of his professional career he was
the partner of David Prickett and William L.
May, at Springfield, and afterwards a member of
the Galena bar, finally removing to Chicago,
where he died, Feb, 21, 1850.— Jesse B. (Thomas)
third, clergyman and son of the last named ; born
at Edwardsville, 111.. July 29, 1832; educated at
Kenyon College, Ohio, and Rochester (N. Y.)
Theological Seminary; practiced law for a time
in Chicago, but finally entered the Baptist minis-
try, serving churches at Waukegan. 111,. Brook-
lyn, N. Y., and San Francisco (1862-69). He


then became pastor of the Michigan Avenue Bap-
tist Church, in Chicago, remaining until 1874,
when he returned to Brooklyn. In 188T he
became Professor of Biblical History in the
Theological Seminary at Newton, Mass., where he
has since resided. He is the author of several
volumes, and. in 1866, received the degree of D.D.
from the old University of Chicago.

THOMAS, Jobn, pioneer and soldier of the
Black Hawk War, was born in Wythe Count}',
Va., Jan. 11, 1800. At the age of 18 he accom-
panied his parents to St. Clair County, 111., where
the family located in what was then called the
Alexander settlement, near the present site of
Shiloh. When he was 22 he rented a farm
(although he had not enougli money to buy a
horse) and married. Six years later he bought
and stocked a farm, and, from that time forward,
rapidly accumulated real property, until he
became one of the most extensive owners of farm-
ing land in St. Clair County. In early life he
was fond of military exercise, holding various
offices in local organizations and serving as a
Colonel in the Black Hawk War. In 1824 he was
one of the leaders of the party opposed to the
amendment of tlie State Constitution to sanction
slavery, was a zealous opponent of the Kansas-
Nebraska bill in 1854. and a firm supporter of the
Republican party from the date of its formation.
He was elected to the lower house of the General
Assembly in 1838, '62, "64, "72 and "74; and to the
State Senate in 1878, serving four years in the
latter body. Died, at Belleville, Dec. 16, 1894, in
the 9r)th year of his age.

THOMAS, John R., ex-Congressman, was bovn
at Mount Vernon, 111., Oct. 11, 1846. He served
in the Union Army during the War of the Rebel-
lion, rising from the ranks to a captaincy. After
his return home he studied law, and was admit-
ted to the bar in 1869. From 1872 to 1876 he was
State's Attorney, and, from 1879 to 1889, repre-
sented his District in Congress. In 1897, Mr.
Tliomas was appointed by President McKinle.v
an additional United States District Judge for
Indian Territory. His home is now at Vanita,
in that Territory.

THOMAS, William, pioneer lawyer and legis-
lator, was born in what is now Allen County,
Ky., Nov. 22, 1802; received a rudimentary edu-
cation, and served as deputy of his father (who
was Sheriff) , and afterwards of the County Clerk ;
studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1823 ;
in 1826 removed to Jacksonville, 111., where he
taught school, served as a private in the Winne-
bago War (1827), and at the session of 1828-39,

reported the proceedings of the General Assem-
bly for "'The Vandalia Intelligencer" ; was State's
Attorney and School Commissioner of Morgan
County; served as Quartermaster and Commis-
sary in the Black Hawk War (1831-32), first under
Gen. Joseph Duncan and, a year later, under
General Whiteside ; in 1839 was appointed Circuit
Judge, but legislated out of office two years later.
It was as a member of the Legislature, however,
that he gained the greatest prominence, first as
State Senator in 1834-40, and Representative in
1846-48 and 18.")0-52, when he was especially influ-
ential in the legislation which resulted in estab-
lishing the institutions for the Deaf and Dumb
and the Blind, and the Hospital for the Insane
(the first in the State) at Jacksonville— serving,
for a time, as a member of the Board of Trustees
of the latter. He was also prominent in connec-
tion with many enterprises of a local character,
including the establishment of the Illinois Female
College, to which, although without children of
his own, he was a liberal contributor. During
tlie first year of the war he was a member of the
Board of Army Auditors by appointment of Gov-
ernor Yates. Died, at Jacksonville, August 23,

THORNTON, Anthony, jurist, was born in
Bourbon County, Ky., Nov. 9, 1814 — being

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