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ticket was put in nomination consisting of
William H. Bissell for Governor (by acclama-
tion); Francis A. Hoffman of Du Page County,
for Lieutenant-Governor; Ozias M. Hatch of
Pike, for Secretary of State ; Jesse K. Dubois of
Lawrence, for Auditor; James Miller of McLean,
for Treasurer, and William H. Powell of Peoria,



for Superintendent of Public Instruction. Hoff-
man, having been found ineligible by lack of resi-
dence after the date of naturalization, withdrew,
and his place was subsequently filled bj' the
nomination of John Wood of Quincy. The plat-
form adopted was outspoken in its pledges of
unswerving loyalty to the Union and opposition
to the extension of slavery into new territory. A
delegation was appointed to the National Con-
vention to be held in Philadelphia on June 17,
following, and a State Central Committee was
named to conduct the State campaign, consisting
of James C. Conkling of Sangamon County ;
Asaliel Gridley of McLean; Burton C. Cook of
La Salle, and Charles H. Ray and Norman B.
Judd of Cook. The principal speakers of tlie
occasion, before the convention or in popular
meetings held while the members were present in
Bloomington, included the names of O. H. Brown-
ing, Owen Lovejoy, Abraham Lincoln, Burton
C. Cook, Richard Yates, the venerable John
Dixon, founder of the city bearing his name, and
Governor Reeder of Pennsylvania, who had been
Territorial Governor of Kansas by appointment
of President Pierce, but had refused to carry out
the policy of the adn^inistration for making
Kansas a slave State. None of the speeches
were fully reported, but that of Mr. Lincoln has
been universally regarded by those who heard it
as the gem of the occasion and the most brilliant
of his life, foreshadowing his celebrated "house-
divided-against-itself" speech of June 17, 1858.
John L. Scripps, editor of "The Chicago Demo-
cratic Press," writing of it, at the time, to his
paper, said; "Never has it been our fortune to
listen to a more eloquent and masterly presenta-
tion of a subject. . . . For an hour anil a half lie
(Mr. Lincoln) held the assemblage spellbound b}'
the power of his argument, the intense irony of
his invective, and the deep earnestne.ss and fervid
brilliancy of his eloquence. When he concluded,
the audience sprang to their feet and clieer after
cheer told how deeply their liearts had been
touched and their souls warmed up to a generous
entliusiasm." At the election, in November
following, although the Democratic candidate
for President carried the State by a plurality of
over 9,000 votes, the entire State ticket put in
nomination at Bloomington was successful by
majorities ranging from 3,000 to 80,000 for the
several candidates.

BLUE ISLAND, a village of Cook County, on
the Calumet River and the Chicago, Rock Island
& Pacific, the Chicago & Grand Trunk and
the Illinois Central Railways, 15 miles south of



54



HISTOEICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



Chicago. It has a high school, churches and two
newspapers, besides brick, smelting and oil works.
Population (1880), 1,.542: (1890), 3,521.

BLUE ISLAND RAILROAD, a short line 3.96
miles in length, lying wholly within Illinois;
capital stock 825.000; operated by the Illinois
Central Railroad Company. Its funded debt
(1895) was 8100,000 and its floating debt, 83,779.

BLUE MOUND, a town of Macon County, on
the Wabash Railway. 14 miles southeast of Deca-
tur; is in a grain and live-stock region; has a
bank and one newspaper. Population (1880), 533;
(1890), 696.

BLUFFS, a village of Scott County, at the
junction of the Quincy and Hannibal branches of
the Wabash Railway, 52 miles west of Spring-
Held; has a bank and a newspaper. Population
(1880), 163; (1890), 453.

BOAL, Robert, -M.D., physician and legis-
lator, born near Harrisburg, Pa., in 1806; was
brought by his parents to Ohio when five years
old and educated at Cincinnati, graduating from
the Ohio Medical College in 1838; settled at
Lacon, 111., in 1836, practicing there until 1863,
when, having been appointed Surgeon of the
Board of Enrollment fori- that District, he re-
moved to Peoria. Other public positions held by
Dr. Boal have been those of Senator in the
Fourteenth and Fifteenth General Assemblies
(1844-48), Representati%'e in the Nineteenth and
Twentieth (1854-58), and Trustee of the Institu-
tion for the Deaf and Dumb at Jacksonville,
remaining in the latter position seventeen years
under the successive administrations of Gov-
ernors Bissell, Yates, Oglesby, Palmer and Bever-
idge — the last five years of his service being
President of the Board. He was also President
of the State Medical Board in 1883. Dr. Boal
continued to practice at Peoria until about 1890,
when he retired, and, in 1893, returned to Lacon
to reside with his daughter, the widow of the
late Colonel Greenbury L. Fort, for eight years
Representative in Congress from the Eighth
District.

BOARD OF ARBITRATION, a Bureau of the
State Government, created by an act of the Legis-
lature, approved August 3, 1895. It is appointed
by the Executive and is composed of three mem-
bers (not more than two of whom can belong to
the same political party), one of whom must be
an employer of labor and one a member of some
labor organization. The term of office for the
members first named was fixed at two years;
after March 1, 1897, it is to be three years, one
member retiring annually. A compensation of



81,500 per annum is allowed to each member of
the Board, while the Secretary, who must also be
a stenographer, receives a salary of 81,300 per
annum. When a controversy arises between an
individual, firm or corporation employing not less
than twenty-five persons, and his or its employes,
application may be made by the aggrieved
party to the Board for an inquiry into the
nature of the disagreement, or both parties may
unite in the submission of a case. The Board is
required to visit the locality, carefully investi-
gate the cause of the dispute and render a deci-
sion as soon as practicable, the same to be at once
made public. If the application be filed by the
employer, it must be accompanied by a stipula-
tion to continue in business, and order no lock-out
for the space of three weeks after its date. In
like manner, complaining employes must promise
to continue peacefully at work, under existing
conditions, for a like period. The Board is
granted power to send for persons and papers and
to administer oaths to witnesses. Its decisions
are binding upon applicants for six months after
rendition, or until either party shall have given
the other sixty days' notice in writing of his or
their intention not to be bound thereby. In case
the Board shall learn that a disagreement exists
between employes and an employer having less
than twenty-five persons in his employ, and that
a strike or lock-out is seriously threatened, it is
made the duty of the body to put itself into
communication with both employer and employes
and endeavor to effect an amicable settlement
between them by mediation. The absence of any
provision in the law prescribing penalties for its
violation leaves the observance of the law, in its
present form, dependent upon the voluntary
action of the parties interested.

BOARD OF EQUALIZATION, a body organ
ized under act of the General Assembly, approved
March 8, 1867. It first consisted of twenty-five
members, one from each Senatorial District.
The first Board was appointed by the Governor,
holding office two years, afterwards becoming
elective for a term of four years. In 1873 the
law was amended, reducing the number of mem-
bers to one for each Congressional District, the
whole number at that time becoming nineteen,
with the Auditor as a member ex-officio, who
usually presides. From 1884 to 1897 it consisted
of twenty elective members, but, in 1897, it was
increased to twenty two. The Board meets
annually on the second Tuesday of August. The
abstracts of the property assessed for taxation in
the several counties of the State are laid before



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



55



it for examination and equalization, but it may
not reduce the aggregate valuation nor increase
it more than one per cent. Its powers over the
returns of the assessors do not extend beyond
equalization of assessments between counties.
The Board is required to consider the various
classes of property separately, and determine
such rates of addition to or deduction from the
listed, or asses.sed, valuation of each class as it
may deem equitable and just. The statutes pre-
scribe rules for determining the value of all the
classes of property enumerated — personal, real,
railroad, telegraph, etc. The valuation of the
capital stock of railroads, telegraph and other
corporations (except newspapers) is fixed by the
Board. Its consideration having been completed,
the Board is required to summarize the results of
its labors in a comparative table, which must be
again examined, comjiared and perfected.
Reports of each annual meeting, with the results
reached, are printed at tlie expense of the State
and distributed as are other public documents.
The present Board (1S971901) consists by dis-
tricts of (1) George F. McKnight, (2) John J.
McKenna, (3) Solomon Simon, (4) Andrew Mc-
Ansh, (5) Albert Oberndorf, (6) Henry Severin,
(7) Edward S. Taylor, (S) Tlieodore S. Rogers,
(9) Charles A. Works, (10) Thomas P. Pierce, (11)
Samuel M. Barnes, (12) Frank P. Martin, (13)
Frank K. Robeson, (U) W. O. Cadwallader, (15)
J. S. Cruttenden, (16) H. D. Hirshheimer, (17)
Thomas N. Leavitt, (1«) Joseph F. Long, (19)
Richard Cadle, (20) Cliarles Emerson, (21) John
W. Larimer, (22) William A. Wall, besides the
Auditor of Public Accounts as ex-officio member
— the District members being divided politically
in the proportion of eighteen Republicans to four
Democrats.

BOARD OF PUBLIC CHARITIES, a State
Bureau, created by act of the Legislatiu'e in
1869, upon the recommendation of Governor
Oglesby. Tlie act creating the Board gives the
Commissioners supervisory oversight of the
financial and administrative conduct of all the
charitable and correctional institutions of tlie
State, with the exception of the penitentiaries,
and they are especially charged with looking
after and caring for the condition of the paupers
and the insane. As originally constituted tlie
Board ,-onsisted of five male members who em-
ployed a Secretary. Later provision was made
for the appointment of a female Commissioner.
The office is not elective. The Board has always
carefully scrutinized the accounts of the various
State charitable institutions, and, under its man-



agement, no charge of peculation against any-
official connected with the same has ever been
substantiated ; there have been no scandals, and
only one or two isolated charges of cruelty to
inmates. Its supervision of the county jails and
almshouses has been careful and conscientious,
and has resulted in benefit alike to the tax-payers
and the inmates. The Board, at the close of the
year 1898, consisted of tlie following five mem-
bers, their terms ending as indicated in paren-
thesis: J. C. Corbus (1898), R. D. Lawrence
(1899), Julia C. Lathiop (1900), William J. Cal-
houn (1901), Ephraim Banning (1902), J. C. Cor-
bus was President and Frederick H. Wines,
Secretary.

BOGARDUS, Charles, legislator, was born
in Cayuga County, N. Y., March 28, 1841, and
left an orphan at six years of age ; was educated
in tlie common schools, began working in a store
at 12, and, in 1863, enlLsted in the One Hundred
and Fifty-first New York Infantry, being elected
First Lieutenant, and retiring from the service
as Lieutenant-Colonel "for gallant and meritori-
ous service" before Petersburg. While in the
service he participated in some of the most
important battles in Virginia, and was once
wounded and once captured. In 1S73 he located
in Ford County, 111., where he has been a success-
ful operator in real estate. He has been twice
elected to the House of Representatives (1884 and
'.H6) and three times to the State Senate (1888,
'93 and '96), and has served on the most important
committees in each house, and has proved him-
self one of tlie most useful members. At the
session of 189.5 he was chosen President pro tern.
of the Senate.

BO(iGS, Carroll C, Justice of the Supreme
Court, was born in Fairfield, Wayne County,
111., Oct. 19, 1844, and still resides in his native
town; has held the offices of State's Attorney,
County Judge of Wayne County, and Judge of
the Circuit Court for the Second Judicial Circuit,
being assigned also to Appellate Court duty. In
June, 1897, Judge Boggs was elected a Justice of
the Supreme Court to succeed Judge David J.
Baker, his term to continue until 1906.

BOLTWOOD, Heiiry L., the son .of WiUiam
and Electa (Stetson) Boltwood, was born at Am-
herst, Mass., Jan. 17, 1831; fitted for college at
•Amherst Academy and graduated from Amherst
College in 1853. While in college he taught
school every winter, commencing on a salarj- of
S4 per week and "boarding round" among the
scholars. After graduating he taught in acad-
emies at Limerick, Me., and at Pembroke and



56



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



Derry, N. H., and in tlie high school at Law-
rence, Mass. ; also served as School Commissioner
for Rockingham County, N. H. In 1864 he went
into the service of the Sanitary Commission in
the Department of the Gulf, remaining until the
close of the war ; was also ordained Chaplain of a
colored regiment, but was not regularlj' mustered
in. After the close of the war lie was emploj'ed
as Superintendent of Schools at Griggsville, 111. ,
for two years, and, while there, in 1867, organ-
ized the first township high school ever organized
in the State, where he remained eleven years. He
afterwards organized the township high school at
Ottawa, remaining there five years, after which,
in 1883, he organized and took charge of the
township high school at Evanston, where he has
since been employed in his profession as a teacher.
Professor Bolt wood has been a member of the State
Board of Education and has served as President
of the State Teachers' Association. As a teacher
he has given special attention to English language
and literature, and to history, being the author
of an English Grammar, a High School Speller
and "Topical Outlines of General History,"
besides many contributions to educational jour-
nals. He has done a great deal of institute work,
both in Illinois and Iowa, and has been known
somewhat as a tariff reformer.

BOKD, Lester L., lawyer, was born at Raven-
na, Ohio, Oct. 27, 1829 ; educated in the common
schools and at an academy, meanwhile laboring
in local factories ; studied law and was admitted
to the bar in 1853, the following year coming to
Chicago, where he has given his attention chiefly
to practice in connection with patent laws. Mr.
Bond served several terms in the Chicago City
Council, was Republican Presidential Elector in
1868, and served two terms in the General Assem-
bly— 1866-70.

BOND, Shadrach, first Territorial Delegate in
Congress from Illinois and first Governor of the
State, was born in Maryland, and, after being
liberally educated, removed to Kaskaskia while
Illinois was a part of the Northwest Territory.
He served as a member of the first Territorial
Legislature (of Indiana Territor}') and was the
first Delegate from the Territory of Illinois in
Congress, serving from 1812 to 1814. In the
latter year he was appointed Receiver of Public
Moneys; he also held a commission as Captain in
the War of 1812. On the admission of the State,
in 1818, he was elected Governor, and occupied
the executive chair until 1822. Died at Kaskas-
kia, April 13, 1833.— Shadrach Bond, Sr., an uncle
of the preceding, came to Illinois in 1781 and was



elected Delegate from St. Clair County (then
comprehending all Illinois) to the Territorial
Legislature of Northwest Territory, in 1799, and,
in 1804, to the Legislative Council of the newly
organized Territory of Indiana.

BOND COUNTY, a small county lying north-
east from St. Louis, having an area of 380 square
miles and a population (1890) of 14,550. The
first American settlers located here in 1807, com-
ing from the South, and building Hill's and
Jones's forts for protection from the Indians.
Settlement was slow, in 1816 there being scarcely
twenty-five log cabins in the county. The
county-seat is Greenville, where the first cabin
was erected in 1815 by George Davidson. The
county w^s organized in 1818, and named in
honor of Gov. Shadrach Bond. Its original
limits included the present counties of Clinton,
Fayette and Slontgomery: The first court was
held at Perryville, and, in May, 1817, Judge
Jesse B. Thomas presided over the first Circuit
Court at Hill's Station. The first court house-
was erected at Greenville in 1832. The county
contains good timber and farming lands, and at
some points, coal is found near the surface.

BONNET, Charles Carroll, lawyer and re-
former, was born in Hamilton. N. Y., Sept. 4,
1831 ; educated at Hamilton Academy and settled
in Peoria, 111., in 1850, where he pursued the
avocation of a teacher while studying law ; was
admitted to the bar in 1852, but removed to Chi-
cago in 1860, where he has since been engaged in
practice; served as President of the National
Law and Order League in New York in 1885,
being repeatedly re-elected, and has also been
President of the Illinois State Bar Association, as
well as a member of the American Bar Associa-
tion. Among the reforms which he has advo-
cated are constitutional prohibition of special
legislation; an extension of equity practice to
bankruptcy and other law proceedings ; civil serv-
ice pensions ; State Boards of labor and capital,
etc. He has also published some treatises in book
form, chiefly on legal questions, besides editing-
a volume of "Poems bj^ Alfred W. Arrington,
with a sketch of his Character" (1869.) As Presi-
dent of the World's Congresses Auxiliary, in 1893,
Mr. Bonney contributed largely to the success of
that very interesting and important feature of
the great Columbian Exposition in Chicago.

BOONE, LcTi D., M. D., early physician, was
born near Lexington, Ky., December, 1808 — a
descendant of the celebrated Daniel Boone; re-
ceived the degree of M. D. from Transylvania
University and came to Edwardsville, 111., at an



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



or



early day, afterwards locating at Hillsboro ami
taking part in the Black Hawk War as Captain of
a cavalry company ; came to Chicago in 1836 and
engaged in the insurance business, later resuming
the practice of his profession; served several
terms as Alderman and was elected Mayor in
1855 by a combination of temperance men and
Know-Nothings ; acquired a large property by
operations in real estate. Died, February,
1882

BOOXE COUNTY, the smallest of the "north-
ern tier" of counties, having an area of only 290
square miles, and a population (1890) of 12,203.
Its surface is chiefly rolling prairie, and the
principal products are oats and corn. The earli-
est settlers came from New York and New Eng-
land, and among them were included Medkiff,
Dunham, Caswell, Cline, Towner, Doty and
Whitney. Later (after the Pottawattomies had
evacuated the country), came the Sliattuck
brothers, Maria HoUenbeck and Mrs. BuUard,
Oliver Hale, Nathaniel Crosby, Dr. Whiting, H.
C. Walker, and the Neeley and Mahoney families.
Boone County was cut o£f from Winnebago, and
organized in 1837, being named in honor of Ken-
tucky's pioneer. The first frame house in the
county was erected by S. F. Doty and stood for
fifty years in the village of Belvidere on the north
side of the Kishwaukee River. The county-seat
(Belvidere) was platted in 1837, arid an academy
built soon after. The first Protestant church
was a Baptist society under the pastorate of Rev.
Dr. King.

BOURBOXX AIS, a village of Kankakee County,
on the Illinois Central Railroad, 5 miles north of
Kankakee. Population (1890), 510.

BOUTELL, Henry Sherman, lawyer and Con-
gressman, was born in Boston. Mass., March 14,
1856, gi-aduated from the Northwestern Univer-
sity at Evanston, 111., in 1874, and from Harvard
in 1876; was admitted to the bar in Illinois in
1879, and to that of the Sujireme Court of the
United States in 1885. In 1884 Mr. Boutell was
elected to the lower branch of the Thirty-fourth
General Assembly and was one of the "103" who,
in the long struggle during the following session,
participated in the election of Gen. John A.
Logan to the United States Senate for the last
time. At a special election held in the Sixth
Illinois District in November, 1897, lie was
elected Representative in Congress to fill the
vacancy caused by the sudden death of his pred-
ecessor, Congressman Edward D. Cooke, and at
the regular election of 1898 was re-elected to the
same position, receiving a plurality of 1,116 over



his Democratic competitor and a majority of 719
over all.

BOUTOiX, Nathaniel S., manufacturer, was
born in Concord, N. H., May 14, 1828; in his
youth farmed and taught school in Connecticut,
but in 1852 came to Chicago and was employed
in a foundry firm, of which he soon afterwards
became a partner, in the manufacture of car-
wheels and railway castings. Later he became
associated with the American Bridge Company's
works, which was sold to the Illinois Central
Railroad Company in 1857, when he bought the
Union Car Works, which he operated until 1863.
He then became the head of the Union Foundry
Works, which having been consolidated with
the Pullman Car Works in 1886, lie retired,
organizing the Bouton Foundry Company. Mr.
Bouton is a Republican, was Commissioner of
Public Works for the city of Chicago two terms
before the Civil War, and served as Assistant
Quartermaster in the Eighty-eighth Illinois
Infantry (Second Board of Trade Regiment)
from 1862 until after the battle of Chickamauga.

BOYD, Thomas A., was born in Adams County,
Pa., June 25. 1830, and graduated at Marshall
College, Mercersburg, Pa., at the age of 18;
studied law at Chamber.sburg and was admitted
to the bar at Bedford in his native State, where
he practiced until 1856, when he removed to Illi-
nois. In 1861 he abandoned his practice to enlist
in the Seventeenth Illinois Infantry, in which lie
held the position of Captain. At the close of the
war he returned to his lionie at Lewistown, and,
in 1866, was elected State Senator and re-elected
at the expiration of his term in 1870, serving in
the Twenty-fifth, Twenty-sixth and Twenty-
seventh General Assemblies. He was also a
Republican Representative from his District in
the Forty-fifth and Forty-sixth Congresses
( 1S77-S1 ). Died, at Lewistown, May 28, 1897.

BRACEVILLE, a town in Grundy County, 61
miles by rail soutiiwest of Chicago. Coal mining
is the princi|)al industry. The town has two
banks, four churches and two weekly newspapers.
Population (1880), 278; (1890), 2,1.50.

BRADFORD, a village of Stark County, on the
Buda and Rushville branch of tlie Chicago, Bur-
lington & Quincy Railwaj', 11 miles south of
Buda; has a grain and live-stock trade ; one news-
paper is published here. Population (1880), 506 ;
(IH'.IIII. (1(14.

BRADSBY, William H., pioneer and Jud^e,
was born in Bedford County, Va., July 13, 1787.
He removed to Illinois early in life, and was the
first postmaster in Washington County (at Cov-



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



ington), the first school-teacher and tlie first
Circuit and County Clerk and Recorder At the
time of his death he was Probate and County
Judge. Besides being Clerk of all the courts, he
was virtually County Treasurer, as he had cus-
tody of all the county's money. For several
years he was also Deputy United States Surveyor,
and in that capacity surveyed much of the south
part of the State, as far east as Wayne and Clay
Counties. Died at Nashville. Ill , August 21,
1839.

BRADWELL, James Bolesworth, lawyer and
editor, was born at Loughborough, England, April
16, 1828, and brought to America in infancy, his
parents locating in 1829 or '30 at Utica, N. Y. In
1833 they emigrated to Jacksonville, 111., but the
following year removed to Wheeling, Cook
County, settling on a farm, where the younger
Bradwell received his first lessons in breaking
prairie, splitting rails and tilling the soil. His
first schooling was obtained in a country log-
school-house, but, later, he attended the Wilson
Academy in Chicago, where he had Judge Lo-
renzo Sa\vyer for an instructor. He also took a



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