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in 1862, and where he began practice. From 1863
to 1868 he was Circuit Clerk of Hamilton County,
and, from 1868 to 18T2, Prosecuting Attorney for
the Twelfth Judicial Circuit. In 1873 he removed
to Shawneetown, where he became an ofHcer of
tlie Gallatin National Bank. From 1!;64 to 1875
he was a member of the Democratic State Cen-
tral Committee, and a delegate to the National
Democratic Convention at Baltimore, in 1872.
For twelve years (1877 to 1889) he represented
his District in Congress; was re-elected in 1888,
but died, March 9, 1889, a few days after the
beginning of his seventh term.

TRACT, John M., artist, was born in Illinois
about 1843 ; served in an Illinois regiment dirring
the Civil War; studied painting in Paris in
1866-76 ; established himself as a portrait painter
in St. Louis and, later, won a high reputation as
a painter of animals, being regarded as an author-
ity on the anatomy of the horse and the dog.
Died, at Ocean Springs, Miss., March 20, 1893.

TREASURERS. (See State Treasurers.)

TREAT, Samuel Hubbel, lawyer and jurist,
was born at Plainfield, Otsego County, N. Y. ,
June 21, 1811, worked on his father's farm and
studied law at Eiohfield, where he was admitted
to practice. In 1834 he came to Springfield, 111. ,
traveling most of the way on foot. Here he
formed a partnership with George Forquer, who
had held the offices of Secretary of State and
Attorney-General. In 1839 he was appointed a
Circuit Judge, and, on the reorganization of the
Supreme Court in 1841, was elevated to the
Supreme bench, being acting Chief Justice at tlie
time of the adoption of the Constitution of 1848.
Having been elected to the Supreme bench under
the new Constitution, he remained in office until
March, 1855, when he resigned to take the posi-
tion of Judge of the United States District Court
for the Southern District of Illinois, to which he
had been appointed by President Pierce. This
position he continued to occupy \intil his death,
which occm-reil at Springfield, March 27, 1887.
Judge Treat's judicial career was one of the long-
est in the history of the State, covering a period
of forty-eight years, of which fourteen were
spent upon the Supreme bench, and thirty-two
in the position of Judge of the United States Dis-
trict Court.

TREATIES. (See Greenville, Treaty of; Indian
Treaties. )

TREE, Lambert, jurist, diplomat and ex-Con-
gressman, was born in Washington, D. C, Nov.
29, 1832, of an ancestry distinguished in the War
of the Revolution. He received a superior clas-

sical and professional education, and was admit-
ted to the bar, at Washington, in October, 1855.
Removing to Chicago soon afterward, his profes-
sional career has been chiefly connected with
that city. In 1864 he was chosen President of
the Law Institute, and served as Judge of the
Circuit Court of Cook County, from 1870 to 1875,
when he resigned. The three following years he
spent in foreign travel, returning to Chicago in
1878. In that year, and again in 1880, he was
the Democratic candidate for Congx-ess from the
Fourth Illinois District, but was defeated by his
Republican opponent. In 1885 he was the candi-
date of his party for United States Senator, but
was defeated by John A. Logan, by one vote. In
1884 he was a member of the National Democratic
Convention which first nominated Grover Cleve-
land, and, in July, 1885, President Cleveland
appointed him Minister to Belgium, conferring
the Russian mission upon him in September, 1888.
On March 3, 1889, he resigned this post and
returned home. In 1890 he was appointed by
President Harrison a Commissioner to the Inter-
national Monetary Conference at Washington.
The year before he had attended (although not as
a delegate) the International Conference, at Brus-
sels, looking to the suppression of the slave-trade,
where he exerted all his influence on the side of
hmnanity. In 1892 Belgium conferred upon him
the distinction of "Councillor of Honor" upon its
commission to the World's Columbian Exposi-
tion. In 1896 Judge Tree was one of the most
earnest opponents of the free-silver policy, and,
after the Spanish-American War, a zealous advo-
cate of the policy of retaining the territory
acquired from Spain.

TREMONT, a town of Tazewell County, on the
Peoria Division of the Cleveland, Cincinnati,
Chicago & St. Louis Railway, 9 miles southeast
of Pekin; has a bank and two newspapers.
Population, 508.

TRENTON, a town of Clinton County, on the
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railway, 31 miles
east of St. Louis; has six churches, a public
school and one newspaper. It is in an agricul-
tural district, though considerable coal is mined.
Population (1880), 1,188; (1890) 1,384.

TROT, a village of Madison County, on the
Terre Haute & Indianapolis Railroad, 31 miles
northeast of St. Louis ; has a bank and a news-
paper. Population (1880), 648; (1890), 826.

T'RUITT, James Madison, lawyer and soldier,
a native of Trimble County, Ky., was born Feb.
12, 1842, but lived in Illinois since 1843, his father
liaving settled near Carrollton that year; was



educated at Hillsboi-o and at McKendree College ;
enlisted in the One Hundred and Seventeenth
Illinois Volunteers in 1862, and was promoted
from the ranks to Lieutenant. After the war he
studied law with Jesse J. Phillips, now of the
Supreme Court, and, in 1872. was elected to the
Twenty-eighth General Assembly, and, in 1888, a
Presidential Elector on the Republican ticket.
Mr. Truitt has been twice a prominent but unsuc-
cessful candidate for the Republican nomination
for Attorney-General. His home is at Hillsboro,
where he is engaged in the practice of his profes-

TRUMBULL, Lyman, statesman, was born at
Colchester. Conn., Oct. 12, 1813, descended from
a historical family, being a grand-nephew of
Gov. Jonathan Trumbull, of Connecticut, from
whom the name "Brother Jonathan" was derived
as an appellation for Americans. Having received
an academic education in his native town, at the
age of 16 he began teaching a district school near
his home, went South four years later, and en-
gaged in teaching at Greenville, Ga. Here he
studied law with Judge Hiram Warner, after-
wards of the Supreme Court, and was admitted to
the bar in 1837. Leaving Georgia the same year, he
came to Illinois on horseback, visiting Vandalia.
Belleville, Jacksonville, Springfield, Tremont and
La Salle, and finally reaching Chicago, then a
village of four or live thousand inhabitants. At
Jacksonville he obtained a license to practice
from Judge Lockwood, and, after visiting Michi-
gan and his native State, he settled at Belleville,
which continued to be his home for twenty years.
His entrance into public life began with his elec-
tion as Representative in the General Assembly
in 1840. This was followed, in February, 1841.
by his appointment by Governor Carlin. Secre-
tary of State, as the successor of Stephen A.
Douglas, who, after holding the position only two
months, had resigned to accept a seat on the
Supreme bench. Here he remained two years,
when he was removed by Governor Ford, Slarch
4, 1843, but, five years later (1848), was elected a
Justice of the Supreme Court, was re-elected in
1853, but resigned in 18.53 on account of impaired
health. A year later (18.'54) he was elected to
Congress from the Belleville District as an anti-
Nebraska Democrat, but, before taking his seat,
was promoted to the United States Senate, as the
successor of General Shields in the memorable con-
test of 18.55, which resulted in the defeat of Abra-
ham Lincoln. Senator Trumbull's career of
eighteen years in the United States Senate (being
re-elected in 1861 and 1867) is one of the most

memorable in the history of that body, covering,
as it does, the whole history of the war for the
Union, and the period of reconstruction which
followed it. During this period, as Chairman of
the Senate Committee on Judiciary, he had more
to do in shaping legislation on war and recon-
struction measures than any other single member
of that body. While he disagreed with a large
majority of his Republican associates on the ques-
tion of Andrew Johnson's impeachment, he was
always found in sympathy with them on the vital
questions affecting the war and restoration of the
Union. The Civil Rights Bill and Freedmen's
Bureau Bills were shaped by his hand. In 1872
he joined in the "Liberal Republican" movement
and afterwards co-operated with the Democratic
party, being their candidate for Governor in
1880. From 1863 his home was in Chicago,
where, after retiring from the Senate, he con-
tinued in the practice of his profession until his
death, which occurred in that city, June 25, 1896.
TUG MILLS. These were a sort of primitive
machine used in grinding corn in Territorial and
early State days. The mechanism consisted of an
upright shaft, into the upper end of which were
fastened bars, resembling those in the capstan of
a ship. Into the outer end of each of these bars
was driven a pin. A belt, made of a broad strip
of ox-hide, twisted into a sort of rope, was
stretched around these pins and wrapped twice
around a circular piece of wood called a trundle
head, through which passed a perpendicular flat
bar of iron, which turned the millstone, usually
about eighteen inches in diameter. From the
upright shaft projected a beam, to which were
hitched one or two horses, wliicli furnished the
motive power. Oxen were sometimes employed
as motive power in lieu of horses. These rudi-
mentary contrivances were capable of grinding
about twelve bushels of corn, each, per day.

TULET, Murray Floyd, lawyer and jurist, was
born at Louisville, Ky., March 4, 1827, of English
extraction and descended from the early settlers
of Virginia. His father died in 1833, and, eleven
years later, his mother, having married Col.
Richard J. Hamilton, for many years a prominent
lawyer of Chicago, removed with her family to
that city. Young Tuley began reading law with
his step-father and completed his studies at the
Louisville Law Institute in 1847, the same year
being admitted to the bar in Cliicago. About the
.same time he enlisted in the Fifth Illinois Volun-
teers for service in tlie Mexican War, and was
commissioned First Lieutenant. The war having
ended, he .settled at Santa Fe, N. M., where he



practiced law, and was also appointed Attorney-
General and elected a member of the Territorial
Legislature. In 1865 he returned to Chicago
and, from 1869 to '73, was Corporation Counsel.
In 1878 he represented the First Ward in the City
Council, and, in 1879, was elected to the bench of
the Cook County Circuit Court, re-elected in 1885,
and again in 1891. Judge Tuley's professional
tastes inclined him toward chancery law, and a
majority of the oases coming up for hearing on
the equity side of the court were heard by him.
For many years he presided as Chief Justice.
Resigning his position upon the bench in 1893, he
has since been engaged in the practice of his

TUjVMCLIFFE, Damon U., lawyer and jurist,
was born in Herkimer County, N. Y., August 20,
1829; at the age of 20, emigrated to IlUnois, set-
tling in Vermont, Fulton County, where, for a
time, he was engaged in mercantile pursuits. He
subsequently studied law, and was admitted to
the bar in 1853. In 1854 he established himself
at Macomb, McDonough County, where he built
up a large and lucrative practice. In 1868 he
was chosen Presidential Elector on the Repub-
lican ticket, and, from February to June, 1885,
by appointment of Governor Oglesby, occupied a
seat on the bench of the Supreme Court, vice
Pinkney H. Walker, deceased, who had been one
of his lirst professional preceptors.

TURCHIN, John Basil (Ivan Vasilevitch Tur-
chinoff), soldier, engineer and author, was born
in Russia, Jan. 80, 1822. He graduated from the
artillery school at St. Petersburg, in 1841, apd
was commissioned ensign; participated in the
Hungarian campaign of 1849, and, in 1852, was
assigned to the staff of the Imperial Guards;
served through the Crimean War, rising to the
rank of Colonel, and being made senior staff
officer of the active corps. In 1856 he came to
this country, settling in Chicago, and, for five
years, was in the service of the Illinois Central
Railway Company as topographical engineer. In
1861 he was commissioned Colonel of the Nine-
teenth Illinois Volunteers, and. after leading his
regiment in Missouri, Kentucky and Alabama,
was, on July 7, 1862, promoted to a Brigadier-
Generalship, being attached to the Army of the
Cumberland until 1864, when he resigned. After
the war he was, for six years, solicitor of patents
at Chicago, but, in 1873, returned to engineering.
In 1879 he established a Polish colony at Radom,
in Washington County, in this State, and settled
as a farmer. He is an occasional contributor to
the press, writing usually on military or scientific

subjects, and is the author of the "Campaign and
Battle of Chickamauga" (Chicago, 1888).

TURNER, a town in Winfield Township, Du
Page County, 30 miles west of Chicago, at the
junction of two divisions of the Chicago, Bur-
lington & Quincy, and the Chicago & Northwest-
ern Railroads. Manufacturing is carried on to a
considerable extent, the town having a rolling
mill, manufactories of wagons and pumps, and
railroad repair shops. It also has four churches.
a graded school, and a weekly newspaper.
Population (1880), 1,001; (1890), 1,506.

TURNER, (Col.) Henry L., soldier and real-
estate operator, was born at Oberlin, Ohio,
August 26, 1845, and received a part of his edu-
cation in the college there. During the Civil
War he served as First Lieutenant In the One
Hundred and Fiftieth Ohio Volunteers, and
later, with the .same rank in a colored regiment,
taking part in the operations about Richmond,
the capture of Fort Fisher, of Wilmington and of
Gen. Joe Johnston's army. Coming to Chi-
cago after the close of the war, he became con-
nected with the business office of "The Advance, "
but later was employed in the banking house of
Jay Cooke & Co., in Philadelphia. On the failure
of that concern, in 1872, lie returned to Chicago
and bought "The Advance," which he conducted
some two years, when he sold out and engaged in
the real estate business, with which he has since
been identified — being President of the Chicago
Real Estate Board in 1888. He has also been
President of the We.stern Publishing Company
and a Trustee of Oberlin College. Colonel Turner
is an enthusiastic member of the Illinois National
Guard and, on the declaration of war between the
United States and Spain, in April, 1898, promptly
resumed his connection with the First Regiment
of the Guard, and finally led it to Santiago de
Cuba during the fighting there — his regiment
being the only one from Illinois to see actual serv-
ice in the field during the progress of the war.
Colonel Turner won the admiration of his com-
mand and the entire nation by the manner in
which he discharged his dut}^ Tlie regiment
was mustered out at Chicago, Nov, 17, 1898. when
he retired to private life.

TURNER, John Bice, Railway President, was
born at Colchester, Delaware County, N. Y., Jan.
14, 1799; after a brief business career in his
native State, he became identified with the con-
struction and operation of railroads. Among the
works with which he was thus connected, were
the Delaware Division of the New York & Erie
and the Troy & Sclienectady Roads. In 1843 he



came to Chicago, having previously purchased a
large body of land at Blue Island. In 1847 he
joined with W. B. Ogden and others, in resusci-
tating the Galena & Chicago Union Railway,
which had been incorporated in 1836. He became
President of the Company in 1850, and assisted in
constructing various sections of road in Northern
Illinois and Wisconsin, which have since become
portions of the Chicago & Northwestern system.
He was also one of the original Directors of the
North Side Street Railway Company, organized
in 1859. Dieil, Feb. 26, 1871.

TURNER, Jonathan Baldwin, educator and
agriculturist, was born in Templeton, Mass., Dec.
7, 1805 ; grew up on a farm and, before reaching
his majority, began teaching in a country school.
After spending a short time in an academy at
Salem, in 1837 he entered the preparatory depart-
ment of Yale College, supporting himself, in part,
by manual labor and teaching in a gymnasium.
In 1829 he matriculated in the classical depart-
ment at Yale, graduated in 1833, and the same
year accepted a position as tutor in Illinois Col-
lege at Jacksonville, 111., which had been opened,
three years previous, by the late Dr. J. M. Sturte-
vant. In the next fourteen years he gave in-
struction in nearly every branch embraced in the
college curriculum, though holding, during most
of this period, the chair of Rhetoric and English
Literature. In 1847 he retired from college
duties to give attention to scientific agriculture,
in which he had always manifested a deep inter-
est. The cultivation and sale of the Osage orange
as a hedge-plant now occupied his attention for
many years, and its successful introduction in
Illinois and other Western States — where the
absence of timber rendered some substitute a
necessity for fencing purposes — was largely due
to his efforts. At the same time he took a deep
interest in the cause of practical scientific edu-
cation for the industrial classes, and, about 1850.
began formulating that system of industrial edu-
cation which, after twelve years of labor ami
agitation, he had the satisfaction of seeing
recognized in the act adopted by Congress, and
approved by President Lincoln, in July, 1862,
making liberal donations of public lands for the
establishment of "Industrial Colleges" in the
several States, out of which grew the University
of Illinois at Champaign. While Professor Tur-
ner had zealous colaborers in this field, in Illinois
and elsewhere, to him. more than to any other
single man in the Nation, belongs the credit for
this magnificent achievement. (See Education.
and University of Illinois.) He was also one of

the chief factors in founding and building up
the Illinois State Teachers" Association, and the
State Agricultural and Horticultural Societies.
His address on "The Millennium of Labor,"
delivered at the first State Agricultural Fair at
Springfield, in 1853, is still remembered as mark-
ing an era in industrial progress in Illinois. A
zealous champion of free thought, in both political
and religious affairs, he long bore the reproach
which attached to the radical Abolitionist, only
to enjoy, in later years, the respect universally
accorded to those who had the courage and
independence to avow their honest convictions.
Prof. Turner was twice an unsuccessful candidate
for Congress— once as a Republican and once as
an "Independent" — and wrote much on political,
religious and educational topics. The evening of
an honored and useful life was spent among
friends in Jacksonville, which was his home for
more than sixty years, his death taking place in
that city, Jan. 10, 1899, at the advanced age of
93 years.— Mrs. Mary Turner Carriel. at the pres-
ent time (1899) one of the Trustees of the Univer-
sity of Illinois, is Prof. Turner's only daughter.

tURXER, Thomas J,, lawyer "and Congress-
man, born in Trumbull County, Ohio, April 5,
1815. Leaving home at the age of 18, he spent
three years in Indiana and in the mining dis-
tricts about Galena and in Southern Wisconsin,
locating in Stephenson County, in 183(i, where he
was admitted to the bar in 1S40, and electeil
Probate Judge in 1841. Soon afterwards Gov-
ernor Ford appointed him Prosecuting Attorney,
in which capacity he secured the conviction and
punishment of the murderers of Colonel Daven-
port. In 1846 he was elected to Congress as a
Democrat, and. the following year, founded "The
Prairie Democrat" (afterward "The Freeport
Bulletin"), the first newspaper published in the
county. Elected to the Legislature in 1854, he
was chosen Speaker of the House, the next year
becoming the first Mayor of Freeport. He was a
member of the Peace Conference of 1861, and, in
May of that year, was commissioned, by Governor
Yates, Colonel of the Fifteenth Illinois Volun-
teers, but resigned in 1862. He served as a mem-
ber of the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70.
and, in 1871, was again elected to the Legisla-
ture, where he received the Democratic caucus
nomination for United States Senator against
General Logan. In 1871 he removed to Chicago,
and was twice an unsuccessful candidate for the
office of State's Attorney. In February, 1874, hn
went to Hot Springs, Ark. , for medical treatment,
and died there, April 3 following.



TUSCOLA, a city and the county-seat of Doug-
las County, located at the intersection of the Illi-
nois Central and the Indiana, Decatur & Western
Railways, 23 miles south of Champaign, and 36
miles east of Decatur. Besides a brick court-
house, it has five churches, a graded school, a
national bank, three weekly newspapers and two
establishments for the manufacture of carriages
and wagons. Population (1880), 1,457; (1890),

RAILROAD. (See Toledo, St. Louis & Kansas
City Railroad. )

TUTHILL, Richard Stanley, jmist, was born
at Vergennes, Jackson County, 111., Nov. 10, 1841.
After passing through the common schools of his
native county, he took a preparatory course in a
high school at St. Louis and in Illinois College,
Jacksonville, when he entered Middleburj' Col-
lege, Vt., graduating there in 1863. Immediately
thereafter he joined the Federal army at Vicks-
burg, and, after serving for some time in a com-
pany of scouts attached to General Logan's
command, was commissioned a Lieutenant in the
First Michigan Light Artillery, with which he
served until the close of the war, meanwhile
being twice promoted. During this time he was
with Geneial Sherman in the march to Meridian,
and in the Atlanta campaign, also took part with
General Thomas in the operations against the
rebel General Hood in Tennessee, and in the
battle of Nashville. Having resigned his com-
mission in May, 186.5, he took up the study of
law, which he had prosecuted as he had opportu-
nity while in the army, and was admitted to the
bar at Nashville in 1866, afterwards serving for
a time as Prosecuting Attorney on the Nashville
circuit. In 1873 he removed to Chicago, two
years later was elected City Attorney and re-
elected in 1877 ; was a delegate to the RepubUoan
National Convention of 1880 and, in 1884, was
appointed United States District Attorney for
the Northern District, serving until 1886. In
1887 he was elected Judge of the Circuit Court of
Cook County to fill the vacancy caused by the
death of Judge Rogers, was re-elected for a full
term in 1801, and again in 1897.

TTNDALE, Sharon, Secretary of State, born in
Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 19, 1816; at the age of 17
came to BelleviUe, 111., and was engaged for a
time in mercantile business, later being employed
in a surveyor's corps imder the internal improve-
ment system of 1837. Having married in 1839,
he returned soon after to Philadelphia, where he
engaged in mercantile business with his father;

then came to Illinois, a second time, in 1845, spend-
ing a year or two in business at Peoria. About
1847 he returned to Belleville and entered upon a
course of mathematical study, with a view to
fitting himself more thoroughly for the profession
of a civil engineer. In 1851 he graduated in
engineering at Cambridge, Mass. . after which lie
was employed for a time on the Sunbury & Erie
Railroad, and later on certain Illinois railroads.
In 1857 he was elected County Surveyor of St.
Clair County, and, in 1861, by appointment of
President Lincoln, became Postmaster of the city
of Belleville. He held this position until 1864,
when he received the Republican nomination for
Secretary of State and was elected, remaining in
office four years. He was an earnest advocate,
and virtually author, of the first act for the regis-
tration of voters in Illinois, passed at the session
of 1865. After retiring from office in 1869, he
continued to reside in Springfield, and was em-
ployed for a time in the survey of the Oilman,
Clinton & Springfield Railway — now the Spring-
field Division of the Illinois Central. At an early
hour on tlie morning of April 29, 1871, while

Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 111 of 207)