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"nigger-stealer, " citing the case of "Old Mose."
Mr. Lovejoy replied in his usual fervid and
dramatic style, making a speech which ensured
his election to Congress for life — "Is it desired to
call attention to this fact of my assisting fugitive
slaves?" he said. "Owen Lovejoy lives at Prince-

ton, 111., three-quarters of a mile east of the
village, and he aids every slave that comes to his
door and asks it. Thou invisible Demon of
Slavery, dost thou think to cross my humble
threshold and forbid me to give bread to the
hungry and shelter to the homeless? I bid you
defiance, in the name of my God!"

With another incident of an amusing charac-
ter tliis article may be closed: Hon. J. Young
Scammon, of Chicago, being accused of conniving
at the escape of a slave from officers of the law,
was asked by the court what he would do if sum-
moned as one of a posse to pursue and capture a
fugitive. "I would certainly obey the summons, "
he replied, "but — I sliould probably stub my toe
and fall down before I reached him."

Note.— Those who wish to pursue the subject of the
'■Underground Kailroad " in lUinois further, are referred
to the work of Dr. Siebert, already mentioned, and to the
various County Histories which have been issued and may
be found in tlie public libraries; also for interestiuK inci-
dents, to " Keminiscences of Levi t'otiiu," Johnsons
" From Dixie to Canada," I'etit's Sketches, " .Still, Under-
ground Railroad, " and a pamphlet of the same title by
.lames H. Fairchild, e.x-President of Oberliu College.

UNDERWOOD, William H., lawyer legislator
and jurist, was born at Schoharie Court House,
N. Y., Feb. 21, 1818, and. after admission to the
bar, removed to Belleville, 111., where he began
practice in 1840 The following year he was
elected State's Attorney, and re-elected in 1843.
In 1846 he was chosen a member of the lower
house of the General Assembly, and, in 1848-54,
sat as Judge of the Second Circuit. During this
period he declined a nomination to Congress,
although equivalent to an election. In 1856 he
was elected State Senator, and re-elected in 180(1.
He was a member of the Constitutional Conven-
tion of 1869-70, and. in 1870, was again elected to
the Senate, retiring to private life in 1872. Died,
Sept. 23. 1875.

UXIOX COUNTY, one of the fifteen counties
into which Illinois was divided at the time of its
admission as a State — having been organized,
under the Territorial Government, in January,
1818. It is situated in the southern division of
the State. Ijounded on the west by the Mississippi
River, and has an area of 400 scpiare miles. The
eastern and interior jjortions are drained by the
Cache River and Clear Creek. The we.stem part
of the county comprises the broad, rich bottom
lands lying along the Mis.sisaippi, but is subject
to frequent overflow, while the eastern portion is
hilly, and most of its area originally heavilj- tim-
bered. The county is especially rich in minerals.
Iron-ore. lead, bituminous coal, chalk, alum and



potter's clay are found in considerable abun-
dance. Several lines of railway (the most impor-
tant being the Illinois Central) either cross or
tap the county. The chief occupation is agri-
culture, although manufacturing is carried on to
a limited e.xtent. Fruit is extensively cultivated.
Jonesboro is the county-seat, and Cobden and
Anna important shipping stations. The latter is
the location of the Southern Hospital for the
Insane. T)ie population of the county, in 1890,
was 31,529. Being next to St. Clair, Randolph
and Gallatin, one of the earliest settled counties
in the State, many prominent men fovmd their
first home, on coming into the State, at Jones-
lioro, and this region, for a time, exerted a strong
influence in public affairs.

UNIOX LEAGUE OF AMERICA, a secret polit-
ical and patriotic order which had its origin
early in the late Civil War, for the avowed pur-
pose of sustaining the cause of the Union and
counteracting the machinations of tlie secret
organizations designed to promote the success of
the Rebellion. The first regular Council of the
order was organized at Pekin, Tazewell County,
June 25, 1863, consisting of eleven members, as
follows: John W. Glasgow, Dr. D. A. Cheever,
Hart Montgomery, Maj. Richard N. Cullom
(fatlier of Senator Cullom), Alexander Small,
Rev. J. W. M. Vernon, George 11. Harlow (after-
ward Secretary of State), Charles Turner. Col.
Jonathan Merriani, Henry Pratt and L. F. Gar-
rett. One of the number was a Union refugee
from Tennessee, who dictated the first oath from
memory, as administered to members of a some-
what similar order which liad been organized
among the Unionists of his own State. It sol-
emnly pledged the taker, (1) to preserve invio-
late the secrets and business of the order ; (3) to
"support, maintain, protect and defend the civil
liberties of the Union of these United States
against all enemies, either domestic or foreign,
at all times and under all circumstances," even
"if necessary, to the sacrifice of life"; (3) to aid
in electing only true Union men to ofBces of
trust in the town, county. State and General
Government; (4) to assist, protect and defend
anj' member of the order who might be in peril
from his connection with the order, and (5) to
obey all laws, rules or regulations of any Council
to which the taker of the oath might be attached.
The oath was taken upon the Bible, the Decla-
ration of Independence and Constitution of the
United States, the taker pledging his sacred
honor to its fulfillment. A special reason for the
organization existed in the activity, about this

time, of the "Knights of the Golden Circle," a
disloyal organization which had been introduced
from the South, and which afterwards took the
name, in the North, of "American Knights" and
"Sons of Liberty. " " (See Seci-et Treasonable Soci-
eties.) Three months later, the organization had
extended to a number of other counties of the
State and, on the 35th of September following,
the first State Council met at Bloomington —
twelve counties lieing represented — and a State
organization was effected. At this meeting the
following general ofBcers were chosen: Grand
President — Judge Mark Bangs, of Marshall
County (now of Chicago); Grand Vice-President
— Prof. Daniel Wilkin, of McLean ; Grand Secre-
tary — (ieorge H. Harlow, of Tazewell; Grand
Treasm-er — H. S. Austin, of Peoria, Grand Mar-
shal— J. R. Gorin, of Macon; Grand Herald —
A. Gould, of Henry; Grand Sentinel — John E.
Rosette, of Sangamon. An Executive Committee
was also appointed, consisting of Joseph Medill
of "The Chicago Tribune"; Dr. A. J. McFar-
land, of Morgan County; J. K. Warren, of Macon;
Rev. J. C. Rybolt, of La Salle; the President,
Judge Bangs; Enoch Emery, of Peoria; and
John E, Rosette. Under the direction of this
Committee, with Mr. Medill as its Chairman,
the constitution and by-laws were thoroughly
revised and a new ritual adopted, which materi-
ally changed the phraseology and removed some
(if the crudities of the original obligation, as well
as increased the beauty and impressiveness of
tlie initiatory ceremonies. New signs, grips and
])ass-words were also adopted, which were finally
accepted by the various organizations of tlie
order throughout the Union, which, by this time,
included many soldiers in the army, as well as
civilians. The second Grand (or State) Council
was held at Springfield, January 14, 1863, with
only seven counties represented. The limited
representation was discouraging, but the mem-
bers took heart from the inspiring words of Gov-
ernor Yates, addressed to a committee of the
order who waited upon him. At a special ses-
sion of the Executive Committee, held at Peoria,
six days later, a vigorous campaign was
mapped out, under which agents were sent
into nearly every county in the State. In Oc-
tober, 1863, the strength of the order in Illi-
nois was estimated at three to five thousand;
a few months later, the number of enrolled
members had increased to 50,000 — so rapid
)iad been the gro-\\'th of the order. On March
35, 1863, a Grand Council met in Chicago —
404 Councils in Illinois being represented, with



a number from Oliio, lutliana, Jlicliigan, Wiscon-
sin, Iowa and Minnesota. At this meeting a
Committee was appointed to prepare a plan of
organization for a National Grand Council, which
was carried out at Cleveland, Ohio, on the 30th
of May following — the constitution, ritual and
signs of the Illinois organization being adopted
with slight modifications. The revised obligation
—taken upon the Bible, the Declaration of Inde-
pendence and the Constitution of the United
States — bound members of the League to "sup-
l)ort, protect and defend the Government of the
United States and tlie flag thereof, against all
enemies, foreign and domestic," and to" 'bear true
faith and allegiance to the same"; to "defend
the State against invasion or insurrection"; to
support only "true and reliable men" for offices
of trust and profit; to protect and defend
worthy members, and to preserve inviolate the
secrets of the order. Tlie address to new mem-
1 >ers was a model of impx-essiveness and a powerful
appeal to their patriotism. The organization
extended rapidly, not only throughout the North-
west, but in the South also, especially in the
armj-. In 1864 the number of Councils in IlUnois
was estimated at 1.300. with a membership of
17.5,000; and it is estimated that the total mem-
bership, throughout the Union, was 2,000,000.
The influence of the silent, but zealous and effect-
ive, operations of the organization, was shown,
not only in the stimulus given to enlistments and
support of the war policy of tlie Government,
but in the raising of supplies for the sick and
wounded soldiers in the field. Within a few
weeks before the fall of Vicksburg, over S3.'),000 in
cash, besides large quantities of stores, were sent
to Col. John Williams (then in charge of the
Sanitary Bureau at Springfield;, as the direct
result of appeals made through circulars sent out
by the officers of the "League." Large contri-
butions of money and supplies also reached the
sick and wounded in hospital through the medium
of the Sanitary CommLssion in Chicago. Zealous
efforts were made by the opposition to get at the
.secrets of the order, and, in one case, a complete
copy of the ritual was published by one of their
organs; but the effect was so far the reverse of
what was anticipated, that this line of attack was
not continued. During the stormy session of the
Legislature in 1863, the League is said to have
rendered effective seri-ice in protecting Gov-
ernor Yates from threatened assassination. It
continued its silent but effective operations until
the complete overthrow of the rebellion, when it
ceased to exist as a political organization.

ing is a list of Unite'd States senators from Illinois,
from the date of the admission of the State into
the Union until 1899, with the date and duration
of the term of each: Ninian Edwards, 1818-24;
Jesse B. Thomas, Sr., 1818-39; John McLean,
1834-25 and 1839-30; Elias Kent Kane, 1835-35;
David Jewett Baker, Nov. 13 to Dec. 11, 1830;
John M. Robinson, 1830-41 ; William L. D. Ewing,
1835-37; Richard M. Young, 1837-4:^; Samuel Mc-
Roberts, 1841-43; Sidney Breese, 1843-49; James
Semple, 1843-47; Stephen A. Douglas, 1847-61;
James Shields, 1849-55; Lyinan Trumbull, 1855-73;
Orville H. Browning, 1861-63; William A. Rich-
ardson, 1863-65; Richard Yates, 1865-71; John A.
Logan, 1871-77 and 1879-86; Richard J. Oglesby,
1873-79; David Davis, 1877-83; Shelby M. Cullom,
first elected in 1883, and re-elected in '89 and '95,
his third term expiring in 1901 ; Charles B. Far-
well, 1887-91; John McAuley Palmer, 1891-97;
William E. Mason, elected in 1897, for the term
expiring, March 4, 1903.

of the leading educational institutions of the
country, located at Chicago. It is the outgrowth
of an attempt, put forth by the American Educa-
tional Society (organized at Washington in 1888),
to supply the place which the original institution
of the same name had been designed to fill. (See
University of Chicago— Tlie Old. ) The foUowing
year. Mr. John D, Rockefeller of New York ten-
ilered a contribution of S600, 000 toward tlie endow-
ment of the enterprise, conditioned upon securing
additional pledges to the amount of §400.000 by
June 1, 1890. The offer was accepted, and the
sum promptly raised. In addition, a site, covering
four blocks of land in the city of Chicago, was
secured — two and one-half blocks being acquired
by purchase for §382,500, and one and one-half
(valued at .§125,000) donated by Mr. Marshall
Field. A charter was secured and an organiza-
tion effected. Sept. 10, 1890. The Presidency of
the institution was tendered to, and accepted by.
Dr. William R. Harper. Since that time the
University has been the recipient of other gener-
ous benefactions by Mr. Rockefeller and others,
until the aggregate donations (1898) exceed §10,-
000,000. Of this amount over one-half has been
contributed by Mr. Rockefeller, while he has
pledged himself to make additional contributions
of §3,000.000, conditioned upon the raising of a
like sum, from other donors, by Jan. 1, 1900. The
buildings erected on the campus, prior to 1896,
include a chemical laboratory costing §182,000; a
lecture hall. §1.">0,000: a physical laborators-.



$150,000; a museum, §100,000; an academy dor-
mitory, §30,000; three dormitories for women.
§150,000; two dormitories for men, $100,000, to
which several important additions were made
during 1896 and 97. The faculty embraces over
150 instructors, selected with reference to tlieir
fitness for their respective departments from
among the most eminent scholai"s in America and
Europe. Women are admitted as students and
graduated upon an equality with men. The work
of practical instruction began in October, 1893,
with 589 registered students, coming from nearly
every Northern State, and including 250 gradu-
ates from other institutions, to %vhich accessions
were made, during the year, raising the aggregate
to over 900. The second year the number ex-
ceeded 1,100; the third, it rose to 1,750, and the
fourth (1895-96), to some 2,000, including repre-
sentatives from every State of the Union, besides
many from foreign countries. Special features
of the institution include the admission of gradu-
ates from other institutions to a post-graduate
course, and the University Extension Division,
which is conducted largely by means of lecture
courses, in other cities, or through lecture centers
in the vicinity of the University, non-resident
students having the privilege of written exami-
nations. The various libraries embrace over
300,000 volumes, of which nearly 60,000 belong
to what are called the "Departmental Libraries,"
besides a large and valuable collection of maps
and pamphlets.

educational institution at Chicago, under the
care of the Baptist denomination, for some years
known as the Douglas University. Senator
Stephen A. Douglas offered, in 1854, to donate ten
acres of land, in what was then near the southern
border of the city of Chicago,' as a site for an
institution of learning, provided buildings cost-
ing §100,000, be erected thereon within a stipu-
lated time. The corner-stone of the main building
was laid, July 4, 1857, but the financial panic of
that year prevented its completion, and Mr. Doug-
las extended the time, and finally deeded the
land to tlie trustees without reserve. For eighteen
years the institution led a precarious existence,
struggling under a heavy debt. By 1885, mort-
gages to the amount of §320,000 having accumu-
lated, the trustees abandoned further effort, and
acquiesced in the sale of the property under fore-
closure proceedings. The original plan of the
institution contemplated preparatory and col-
legiate departments, together with a college of
law and a theological school.

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, the leading edu-
cational institution under the control of the
State, located at Champaign and Urbana. It
was founded in 1867, although, as early as 1863,
the Legislature had accepted an act of Congress
of July 2, 1862, whicli provided for the granting
of large tracts of public lands to States which
should undertake to found colleges, where agri-
culture and the mechanic arts should be taught,
though not to the exclusion of classical and scien-
tific studies. Under this act Illinois was entitled
to 480,000 acres,— 30,000 acres for each Sena-
tor and Representative in Congress — and land-
scrip therefor was issued and placed in the hands
of Governor Yates. Under the State law, a Board
, of Trustees was appointed and or,ganized in March,
1867 — the institution being formally located tlie
same year. Departments and courses of study
were decided upon, and Dr. John M. Gregory of
Michigan, chosen Regent. Of the land granted
by Congress, 25,000 acres were reserved, and
455,000 sold for §319,178. Subsequently, some
9,000 acres more were sold for §121,640, and the
land imdisposed of will, it is thought, ultimately
swell the endowment fund to §600,000. The
mechanical building was begun and completed
in 1871, and it is claimed that this was the first
machine shop erected in America, for strictly
educational purposes. The main building was
formally opened in December, 1873. Various
other buildings were erected later, as necessity
required. The various com-ses of study open to
matriculates include agriculture, chemistry,
polytechnics, military tactics, natural and gen-
eral science, literature, and trade and commerce,
to which medicine was added, by the affiliation
of the Chicago College of Physicians and Sur-
geons, in 1897. Since 1871 tlie in.stitution has
been open to women. The State laboratory is
located there and an experiment station was
established in 1887. Quarterly bulletins, showing
the results obtained at tiie latter, are sent to all
farmers throughout tlie State who may desire
them. The University's revenues were still
further increased, in 1890, by a Congressional
donation of §15,000 per annum to each institution
organized under the act of 1862, the same to be
increased §1,000 anually, until the amount
should reach §25,000. A new engineering liall
was dedicated in 1894, and a library building iu
1895. The value of property aggregates nearly
§1,500,000. The first name of the institution was
the Illinois Industrial University, but, in 1885,
this was changed to the "University of Illinois."
In 1887 the Trustees (of whom there are nine)




were made elective by popular vote — three being
elective every two years. Dr. Gregory resigned
the office of Regent in 1880. and was succeeded
bj' Dr. Selini H. Peabody, who had theretofore
tilled the chair of mechanical engineering and
physics. Dr. Peabody having resignetl in 1891,
the duties of Regent were discharged by Prof.
Thomas J. Burrill. ufitil August. 1894. when Dr.
Andrew Sloan Draper, former State Superintend-
ent of Public Instr\iction for the State of New
York, was installed as President. The corps of
instruction includes some thirty Profes.sors, with
an equal mrmber of Assistant Professors, and
over forty Instructors and Assistants, besides a
number of special lecturers, demonstrators and
teachers in the Preparatory Department, not in-
cluding the Medical Department located in Chi-
cago. The total number of students during the
year 1898-99 was 1,834, of whom 1,492 were men
and 332 women. Of these, 807 were connected
with the Literary Department (or college proper),
26 with the Winter School of Agriculture, 71
with the Law School, 514 with the School of
Medicine, l.'iS with the School of Pharmacy and
179 with the Preparatory Department. The
total appropriations made by the State to the
University, up to the beginning of the year 189G,
amounted to §1,303,000. During the year 189,5 a
new Macliinery Building (50x250 feet) was com-
pleted and dedicated. The other buildings com-
])rise a Chemical Laboratory, Wood and Metal
Shops, Engineering Hall. Mechanical and Elec-
trical Laboratory, Military Hall, Natural History
Hall, Astronomical Observatory, University Hall
and Art Gallery. A Library Building, 167 by
113 feet, and capable of accommodating a library
of 150,000 volumes, is one of the latest structures
erected, having been dedicated, with appropriate

Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 113 of 207)