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Arbor, Mich., where he served as Probate Judg*



and State Senator ; in 1850 came to Chicago, was
elected Judge of the Recorder's Court in lHo'3,
and re-elected in 1858, serving ten years, and
proving "a terror to evildoers. "' Died, at Law-
rence, Mich., Dec. 23, 1882.

WILSON, William, early jurist, was born in
Loudoun County, Va. , April 27, 1794; studied law
with Hon. John Cook, a distinguished lawj-er,
and minister to France in the early part of the
century; in 1817 removed to Kentucky, soon after
came to Illinois, two years later locating in White
County, near Carmi, which continued to be his
home during the remainder of his life. In 1819
he was appointed Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court as successor to William P.
Foster, who is described by Governor Ford as
"a great rascal and no lawyer," and who held
oflBce only about nine months. Judge Wilson
was re-elected to the Supreme bench, as Chief-
Justice, in 1825, being then only a little over 30
years old, and held office until the reorganization
of the Sui>reme Com-t under the Constitution of
1848 — a period of over twenty-nine years, and,
with the exception of Judge Browne's, the long-
est term of ser\ice in the liistory of the court.
He died at his home in White County, April 29,
1857. A Whig in early life, he allied himself
with the Democratic part}- on the dissolution of
the former. Hon. James C. Conkling, of Spring-
field, says of him. "as a writer, his style was clear
and distinct; as a lawyer, his judgment was
sound and discriminating."

WINCHESTER, a city and the county-seat of
Scott County, founded in 1839, situated on Big
Sandy Creek and on the line of the Chicago,
Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 29 miles south of
Beardstown and 84 miles north by west of St.
Louis. The surrounding region is agricultural
and largely devoted to wheat growing. Winches-
ter is an important shipping point, having three
grain elevators besides two flouring mills. The
city also has plow and furniture factories, a pack-
ing house and a saw-mill. There are four Prot-
estant and one Catholic church, a court house,
a high school, two banks and two weekly news-
papers. Population (1880), 1,626; (1890), 1,542;
(1899), estimated, 2,000.

WINDSOR, a city of Shelby County at the cross-
ing of the Cleveland. Cincinnati, Chicago & St.
Louis and the Wabash Railways, 11 miles north- of Shelby ville. Population (1880), 768;
(1890), 888.

WINES, Frederick Howard, clergyman and
sociologist, was born in Philadelphia. Pa.. April
9, 1838, graduated at Washington (Pa. ) College

in 1857, and, after serving as tutor there for a
short time, entered Princeton Theological Senii-
naiy, but was compelled temporarily to discon-
tiime his studies on account of a weakness of
the eyes. The Presbytery of St. Louis licensed
him to preach in 1860, and. in 1862, he was com-
missioned Hospital Chaplain in the Union army.
During 1862-64 he was stationed at Springfield,
Mo., participating in the battle of Springfield on
Jan. 8, 1863, and being personally mentioned for
bravery on the field in the otVicial report. Re-
entering the seminary at Princeton in 1864, he
graduated in 1865, and at once accepted a call to
the pulpit of the First Presbyterian Church of
Springfield, 111., which he filled for four years.
In 1869 he was appointed Secretary of the newly
created Board of Commissioners of Public Chari-
ties of Illinois, in which capacity he continued
until 1893, when he resigned. For the next four
years he was chief!}' engaged in literary work, in
lecturing before universities on topics connected
with social science, in aiding in the organization
of charitable work, and in the condut't of a
thorough investigation into the relations between
liquor legislation and crime. At an early period
he took a prominent part in organizing the
various Boards of Public Charities of the United
States into an organization known as the National
Conference of Charities and Corrections, and. at
the Louisville meeting (1883), was elected its
President. At the International Penitentiary
Congress at Stockholm (1878) he was the official
delegate from Illinois. On his return, as a result
of his observations while abroad, he submitted
to the Legislature a report strongly advocating
the construction of tlie Kankakee Hospital for
the Insane, then about to be built, upon the
"detached ward" or "village" plan, a departure
from then existing methods, which marks an era
in the treatment of insane in the United States.
Mr. Wines conducted the investigation into the
condition and number of tlie defective, depend-
ent and delinquent throughout the coun-
try, his report con.stituting a separate volume
under the "Tenth Census." and rendered a simi-
lar service in connection with the eleventh
census (1890). In 1887 he was elected Secretary
of the National Prison Association, succeeding to
the post formerly held by his father, Enoch Cobb
Wines, D.D., LL.D. After the inauguration of
Governor Tanner in 1897, he resumed his former
position of Secretary of the Board of Public
Charities, remaining until 1899, when he again
tendered his resignation, having received the
appointment to the position of Assistant Director



of the Twelfth Census, which he now holds. He
is the author of "Crime and Reformation"" (1895) ;
of a voluminous series of reports ; also of uumer-
oufi pamphlets and brochures, among which may
be mentioned "Tlie County Jail System; An
Argument for its Abolition" (1878) ; "The Kanka-
kee Hospital" (1882); "Provision for the Insane
in the United States" (1885); "Conditional
Liberation, or the Paroling of Prisoners" (1886),
and "American Prisons in the Tenth Census"

WINES, Walter B., lawyer (brother of Freder-
ick H. Wines), was born in Boston, Mass., Oct.
10, 1848, received his primary education at Willis-
ton Academy, East Hamn+on, Mass., after which
lie entered Middlebury College, Vt., taking a
classical course and graduating there. He after-
wards became a student in the law department
of Columbia College. N. Y. , graduating in 1871,
being admitted to the bar the same year and
commencing practice in New York City. In 1879
he came to Springfield, 111., and was, for a time,
identified with the bar of that city. Later, he
removed to Chicago, where he has been engaged
in literary and journalistic work.

WINNEBAGO COUNTY, situated in the
"northern tier," bordering on the Wisconsin
State line ; was organized, under an act passed in
1836, from La Salle and Jo Daviess Counties, and
has an area of 553 square miles. The county is
drained by the Rock and Pecatonica Rivers.
The surface is rolling prairie and the soil fertile.
The geology is simple, the quaternary deposits
being underlaid by the Galena blue and buff
limestone, adapted for building purposes. All
the cereals are raised in abundance, the chief
product being corn. The Winnebago Indians
(who gave name to the county) formerly lived
on the west side of the Rock River, and the Potta-
watomies on the east, but botli tribes removed
westward in 1835. (As to manufacturing inter-
ests, see Rockford.) Population (1880), 30, .505;
(1890), 39,938.

WINNEBAGO WAR. The name given to an
Indian disturbance which had its origin in 1837,
during the administration of Gov. Ninian
Edwards. The Indians had been quiet since the
conclusion of the War of 1813, but a few isolated
outrages were sufficient to start terrified "run-
ners" in all directions. In the northern portion
of the State, from Galena to Chicago (then Fort
Dearborn) the alarm was intense. The meagre
militia force of the State was summoned and
volunteers were called for. Meanwhile, 600
United States Regular Infantry, under command

of Gen. Henry Atkinson, put in an appearance.
Besides the infantry, Atkinson had at his disposal
some 130 mounted sharpshooters. The origin of
the disturbance was as follows: The Winne-
bagoes attacked a band of Chippewas, who were
(by treaty) under Government potection, several
of the latter being killed. For participation in
this offense, four Winnebago Indians were sum-
marily apprehended, surrendered to the Chippe-
was and shot. Meanwhile, some dispute had
arisen as to the title of the lands, claimed by the
Winnebagoes in the vicinity of Galena, which
had been occupied bj- white miners. Repeated
acts of hostility and of reprisal, along the Upper
Mississippi, intensified mutual distrust. A gather-
ing of the Indians around two keel-boats, laden
with supplies for Fort Snelling, which had
anchored near Prairie du Cliien and opposite a
Winnebago camp, was regarded by the whites as
a hostile act. Liquor was freely distributed, and
there is historical evidence that a half-dozen
drunken squaws were carried off and shamefully
maltreated. Several hundred warriors assembled
to avenge the deception which had been practiced
upon them. They laid in ambush for the boats
on their return trip. The first passed too rapidly
to be successfully assailed, but the second
grounded and was savagely, yet unsuccessfully,
attacked. The presence of General Atkinson's
forces prevented an actual outbreak, and, on his
demand, the great AVinnebago Chief, Red Bird,
with six other leading men of the tribe, sur-
rendered themselves as hostages to save their
nation from extermination. A majority of these
were, after trial, acquitted. Red Bird, however,
unable to endure confinement, literally pined to
death in prison, dying on Feb. 16, 1838. He is
described as liaving been a savage of superior
intelligence and noble character. A treaty of
peace was concluded with the Winnebagoes in a
council held at Prairie du Chien, a few months
later, but tlie affair seems to have produced as
much alarm among the Indians as it did among
the whites. (For Winnebago Indians see page 576. )

WINNETKA, a village of Cook County, on the
Chicago & Northwestern Railway, I6V2 miles
north of Chicago. It stands eighty feet above
the level of Lake Michigan, has good schools
(being the seat of the Winnetka Institute), sev-
eral churches, and is a popular residence town.
Population (1880), 584; (1890), 1,079.

WINSTON, Frederick Hampton, lawyer, was
born in Liberty County, Ga., Nov. 20, 1830, was
brought to Woodford County, Ky., in 1835, left
an orphan at 12, and attended the common


schools until 18, wlien, retiuiiing to tSeor^iia, he
engaged in cotton manufacture. He finally
began the study of law with United States Sena-
tor W. C. Dawson, and graduated from Harvard
Law School in 1852; spent .some time in the office
of W. M. Evarts in New York, was admitted to
the bar and came to Chicago in 1853, where he
formed a partnership with Norman B. Judd,
afterwards being associated with Judge Henry
W, Blodgett; served as general solicitor of the
Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, the Chicago,
Rock Island & Pacific and the Pittsburgh, Fort
Wayne & Chicago Railways — remaining with the
latter twenty years. In 1885 he was appointed,
by President Cleveland, Minister to Persia, but
resigned the following year, and traveled exten-
sively in Russia, Scandinavia and other foreign
countries. Mr. Winston was a delegate to the
Democratic National Conventions of 1868. 'Tfi and
"84 ; first President of the Stock Yards at Jersey
City, for twelve years President of the Lincoln
Park Commission, and a Director of the Lincoln
National Bank.

sin Central Company was organized, June 17,
1887, and subsequentlj- acquired the Minnesota,
St. Croix & Wisconsin, the Wisconsin & Minne-
sota, the Chippewa Falls & Western, tlie St.
Paul & St. Croix Falls, the Wisconsin Central, the
Penokee, and the Packwaukee & Montebello Rail-
roads, and assumed the leases of the Milwaukee
& Lake Winnebago and the Wisconsin & Minne-
■ sota Roads. On July 1, 1888, the company began
to operate the entire Wisconsin Central sj'stem,
with the exception of the Wisconsin Central
Railroad and the leased Milwaukee & Lake Win-
nebago, which remained in charge of the Wis-
consin Central Railroad mortgage trustees until
Nov. 1, 1889, when these, too, passed under the
control of the Wisconsin Central Company. The
Wisconsin Central Railroad Company is a re-
organization (Oct. 1, 1879) of a company formed
Jan. 1, 1871. The Wisconsin Central and the
Wisconsin Central Railroad Companies, though
differing in name, are a financial unit: tlie
former holding most of the first mortgage bonds
of the latter, and substantially all its notes, stocks
and income bonds, but, for legal reasons (such as
the protection of land titles), it is necessary that
,separate corporations be maintained. On April
1, 1890, the Wisconsin Central Company executed
a lease to the Northern Pacific Railroad, but this
was set aside by the courts, on .Sept. 27, 1893, for
non-payment of rent, and was finally canceled.
On the same day receivers were appointed to

insure the protection of all interests. The total
mileage is 415.-1(> miles, of which tlie Companv
owns 258.90— only .10 of a mile in Illinois. A
line, 58.10 miles in length, with 8.44 miles of
.side-track (total, 6G..54 miles), lying wholly within
tlie State of Illinois, is operated by the Chicago &
Wisconsin and furnishes the allied line an en-
trance into Chicago.

WITHROW, Thoma.s F., lawyer, was born in
Virginia in March, 1.S33, removed with his parents
to Ohio in childhood, attended the Western
Reserve College, and, after the death of his
father, taught school and worked as a printer,
later, editing a paper at Mount Vernon. In 1855
he removed to Janesville, Wis., where he again
engaged in journalistic work, studied law, was
admitted to the bar in Iowa in 1857, settled at
Des Moines and served as private secretary of
Governors Lowe and Kirkwood. In 1800 he
became Supreme Court Reporter; served as
Chairman of the Republican State Central Com-
mittee in 1863 and, in 1866, became associated
with the Rock Island Railroad in the capacity of
local attorney, was made chief law officer of the
Comiiany in 1873. and removed to Chicago, and,
in 1890, was promoted to the po.sition of General
Coun.sel. Died, in Chicago, Feb. 3, 1893.

WOLCOTT, (l)r.) Alexander, early Indian
Agent, was bom at East Windsor, Conn., Feb.
14, 1790; graduated from Y^ale College in 1809,
and, after a course in medicine, was commis-
sioned, in 1812, Surgeon's Mate in the United
States Army. In 1820 he was appointed Indian
Agent at Fort Dearborn (now Chicago), as suc-
cessor to Charles Jouett— the first Agent— who
had been appointed a United States Judge in
Arkansas. The same year he nci'oinpanied Gen-
eral Lewis Cass and Henry Schoolcraft on their
tour among the Indians of the Northwest; was
married in 1823 to Ellen Marion Kinzie, a
daughter of Col. John Kinzie, the first perma-
nent settler of Chicago; in 1825 was appointed a
Justice of the Peace for Peoria County, which
then included Cook County ; was a Judge of
Election in 1830, and one of the purchasers of a
block of ground in the heart of the present city
of Chicago, at the first sale of lots, held Sept. 27,
1830. but died liefore the close of the year. Dr.
Wolcott appears to have been a high-minded and
honorable man, as well as far in advance of the
mass of pioneers in point of education and intel-

CA(iO. (See Northirestern Vniversity Woman's
Medical School.)



WOMAN SUFFRAfiE. (See Suffrage.)

WOOD, Benson, lawyer and Congressman, was
born in Susquehanna County, Pa., in 1839; re-
ceived a common school and academic education ;
at the age of 30 came to Illinois, and, for two
years, taught school in Lee County. He then
enlisted as a soldier in an Illinois regiment,
attaining the rank of Captain of Infantry ; after
the war, graduated from the Law Department of
the old Chicago University, and has since been
engaged in the practice of his profession. He
was elected a member of the Twenty-eighth Gen-
eral Assembly (1872) and was a delegate to the
Republican National Conventions of 1876 and
1888 ; also served as Mayor of the city of Effing-
ham, where he now resides. In 1894 he was
elected to the Fifty-fourth Congress by the
Republicans of the Nineteenth District, which has
uniformly returned a Democrat, and, in office,
proved himself a most industrious and efficient
member. Mr. Wood was defeated as a candidate
for re-election in 1896.

WOOD, John, pioneer, Lieutenant-Governor
and Governor, was born at Moravia, N. Y., Dec.
30, 1798 — his father being a Revolutionary soldier
who had served as Surgeon and Captain in the
army. At the age of 21 years young "Wood re-
moved to Illinois, settling in what is now Adams
County, and building the first log-cabin on the site
of the present city of Quincy. He was a member
of the vipper house of the Seventeenth and Eight-
eenth General Assemblies, and was elected Lieu-
tenant-Governor in 1859 on the same ticket witli
Governor Bissell. and served out the unexpired
term of the latter, who died in office. (See Bis-
sell, William H. ) He was succeeded bj' Richard
Yates in 1861. In February of that year he was
appointed one of the five Commissioners from
Illinois to the "Peace Conference" at Wash-
ington, to consider methods for averting
civil war. The following May he was appointed
Quartermaster-General for the State by Governor
Yates, and assisted most efficiently in fitting out
the troops for the field. In June, 1864, he was
commissioned Colonel of the One Hundred and
Thirty-seventh Illinois Volunteers (100-days' men)
and mustered out of service the following Sep-
tember. Died, at Quincy, June 11, 1880. He
was liberal, patriotic and public-spirited. His
fellow-citizens of Quincj' erected a monument to
his memory, which was appropriately dedicated,
July 4. 188;i.

WOODFORD COUNTY, situated a little north
of the center of the State, bounded on the west
by the Illinois River ; organized in 1841 : area.

540 square miles. The surface is generally level,
except along the Illinois River, the soil fertile
and well watered. The county lies in the north-
ern section of the great coal field of the State.
Eureka is the county-seat. Other thriving cities
and towns are Metamora, Minonk, El Paso and
Roanoke. Corn, oats, wheat, potatoes and barley
are the principal crops. The chief mechanical
industries are flour manufacture, carriage and
wagon-making, and saddlery and harness work.
Population (1880), 21,620; (1890), 21,439.

WOODHULl, a village of Henry County, on
the New Boston branch of the Chicago, Burling-
ton & Quincj' Railroad, 15 miles west of Galva;
the district is agricultural ; the town has a bank
and a weekly newspaper. Population (1890), 608.

WOODMAN, Charles W., lawyer and Congress-
man, was born in Aalborg, Denmark, March 11,
1844; received his early education in the schools
of his native country, but took to the sea in I860,
following the life of a sailor until 1863, when,
coming to Philadelphia, he enlisted in the Gulf
Squadron of the United States. After the war.
he came to Chicago, and, after reading law for
some time in the office of James L. High, gradu-
ated from the Law Department of the Chicagi ^
University in 1871. Some years later he wa-s
appointed Prosecuting Attorney for some of the
lower courts, and, in 1881, was nominated by the
Judges of Cook County as one of the Justices of
the Peace for the city of Chicago. In 1894 he
became the Republican candidate for Congress
from the Fourth District and was elected, but
failed to secure a renomination in 1896. Died, in
Elgin Asylum for the Insane, March 18, 1898.

WOODS, Robert Mann, was born at Greenville,
Pa., April 17, 1840; came with his parents to Illi-
nois in 1842, the family settling at Barry, Pike
County, but subsequently residing at Pittsfield,
Canton and Galesburg. He was educated at
Knox College in the latter place, which was his
home from 1849 to "58; later, taught school in
Iowa and Missouri until 1861, when he went to
Springfield and began the study of law with
Milton Hay and Shelby M. CuUom. His law
studies having been interrupted by the Civil
War, after spending some time in the mustering
and disbursing office, he was promoted by Gov-
ernor Yates to a place in the executive office,
from which he went to the field as Adjutant of
the Sixty-fourth Illinois Infantry, known as the
"Yates Sharp-shooters." After participating,
with the Armj' of the Tennessee, in the Atlanta
campaign, he took part in the "March to the
Sea," and the campaign in the Carolinas, includ-


ing the siege of Savannah and the forcing of tlie
Salliahatchie, where lie Jistinguislieii himself, as
also in the taking of Columbia. Fayetteville,
( heraw, Raleigh and Bentonville. At the latter
place he had a horse shot under him and won the
brevet rank of Major for gallantry in the held,
having previously been commissioned Captiiin of
Company A of his regiment. He also served on
the staffs of Gens. Giles A. Smith, Benjamin F.
Potts, and William W. Belknap, and was the last
mustering officer in General Sherman's army.
In 1867 Major Woods removed to Chicago, where
he was in business for a number of years, serving
as chief clerk of Custom House construction
from 1873 to 1877. In 1879 he purchased "The
Daily Republican" at Joliet, which he conducted
successfully for fifteen years. While connected
with "The Republican, " he served as Secretary of
the Illinois Republican Press Association and in
various other positions.

Major Woods was one of the founders of the
Grand Army of the Republic, whose birth-place
was in Illinois. (See Grand Army of the Repub-
lic: also Stephen sun. I>r. B. F.) When Dr.
Stephenson (who had been Surgeon of the Four-
teenth Illinois Infantry), conceived the idea of
founding such an order, he called to his assist-
ance Major Woods, who was then engaged in
vrriting the histories of Illinois regiments for the
Adjutant-General's Report. The Major wrote
the Constitution and By-laws of the Order, the
charter blanks for all the reports, etc. The first
official order bears his name as the first Adjutant-
General of the Order, as follows :

HBAnmiARTEB."! dk




No. 1. ( TUe following named offlcera are herebj

appointed and assigned to duty at these headquarters. They
will be obeyed and respected accordingly:

Colonel Jules C. Webber. A.D.f. and Chief of Staff.

Colonel John SI. Snyder. Quartermaster-General.

Major RohiTt M. Woods. .WJutant-General.

Captain John A. Ligbtfoot. Assistant Adjutant-Uenerul.

Captain John S. Phelps, Ald-de-Camp.

By order of B. F. Stephenson, Department Commander.

RiiBERT M. Woons,

Major Woods afterwards organized the various
Departments in the West, and it has been con-
ceded that he furnished the money necessary to
carry on the work during the first six months of
the existence of the Order. He has never
accepted a nomination or run for any political
office, but is now engaged in financial business in
Joliet and Chicago, with his residence in the
former place.

WOODSON, David Meade, lawyer and jurist,
was born in Jessamine County, Ky., May 18,
1800; was educated in private schools and at
Transylvania University, and retid law with lii.^
father. He served a term in the Kentucky Legis-
lature in 1832, and, in 1834, removed to Illinois,
settling at Carrollton, Greene County. In 1839
lie was elected State's Attorney and, in 1840, a
member of the lower house of the Legislature,
being elected a second time in 18f)8. In 1843 he
was the Whig candidate for Congress in the
Fifth District, but was defeated by Stephen A.
Douglas. He was a member of the Constitutional
Conventions of 1847 and 1869-70. In 1848 he was
elected a Judge of the First Judicial Circuit,
remaining in office until 1867. Died, in 1877.

WOODSTOCK, the county-seat of McHenry
County, situated on the Chicago & Northwestern
Railway, about 51 miles northwest of Chicago
and 32 miles east of Rockford. It contains a
court house, six churches, two banks (one
National), three newspaper offices, foundry anil
machine shops, feed ami planing mills, canning
works, pickle, cheese and butter factories.
Besides possessing excellent public schools, it is
the seat of the Todd Seminary for boys. Popula-
tion (1880), 1.475; (1890), 1,683.

WORCESTER, Linus E., State Senator, was
born in Windsor, Vt., Dec. a, 1811, was educated
in the common schools of liis native State and at

Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 125 of 207)