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Chester Academy, came to Illinois in 1836, and,
after teaching three years, entered a dry-goods
•store at Whitehall as clerk, later becoming a
partner. He was also engaged in various other
branches of business at different times, including
the drug, hardware, grocery, agricultural imple-
ment and lumber business. In 1843 he was
appointed Postmaster at Whitehall, serving
twelve years ; was a member of the Constitutional
Convention of 1847, served as Count j' Judge for
six years from 1853, and as Trustee of the Insti-
tution for the Deaf and Dumb, at Jacksonville,
from 1859, by successive reappointments, for
twelve years. In 1856 he was elected, as a Demo-
crat, to the State Senate, to succeed John M.
Palmer, resigned; was re-elected in 1860, and, at
the session of 1805, was one of the five Demo-
cratic members of that Ixidy who voted for the
ratification of the Emancipation Amendment of
the National Constitution. He was elected
Coimty Judge a second time, in 1803, and re-
elected in 1867, served as delegate to the Demo-
cratic National Convention of 1876, and, for more
than thirty years, was one of the Directors of the
Jacksonville branch of the Chica;;o & Alton


Railroad, serving from the organization of the
corporation until his death, which occurred Oct.
19, 1891.

WORDEN, a viUage of Madison County, on the
Wabash and the Jacksonville, Louisville & St.
Louis Railways, 33 miles northeast of St. Louis.
Population (1800), r,2i.

exhibition of the scientific, liberal and mechan-
ical arts of all nations, held at Chicago, between
May 1 and Oct. 31, 1893. The project had its
inception in November, 1885, in a resolution
adopted by the directorate of the Chicago Inter-
State Exposition Company. On July 6, 1888, the
first well defined action was taken, the Iroquois
Club, of Chicago, inviting the co-operation of six
other leading clubs of that city in ''securing the
location of an international celebration at Chi-
cago of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of
America by Columbus." In July, 1889, a decisive
step was taken in the appointment by Mayor
Cregier, under resolution of the City Council, of
a committee of 100 (afterwards increased to 356)
citizens, who were charged with the duty of
promoting the selection of Chicago as the site for
the Exposition. New York, Washington and St.
Louis were competing points, but the choice of
Congress fell upon Chicago, and the act establish-
ing the World's Fair at that city was signed by
President Harrison on April 25, 1890. Under the
requirements of the law, the President appointed
eight Commissioners-at-large, with two Commis-
sioners and two alternates from each State and
Territory and the District of Columbia. Col.
George R. Davis, of Chicago, was elected Direc-
tor-General by tlie body tlms constituted. Ex-
Senator Thomas M. Pahner, of Michigan, was
chosen President of the Commission and John T.
Dickinson, of Texas, Secretary. This Commis-
sion delegated much of its power to a Board of
Reference and Control, who were instructed to
act with a similar number appointed by the
World's Columbian Exposition. The latter
organization was an incorporation, with a direc-
torate of forty-five members, elected annually by
the stockholders. Lyman J. Gage, of Chicago,
was the first President of the corporation, and
was succeeded by W. T. Baker and Harlow N.

In addition to these bodies, certain powers were
vested in a Board of Lady Managers, composed
of two members, with alternates, from each
State and Territory, besides nine from the city
of Chicago. Mrs. Potter Palmer was chosen
President of the latter. This Board was particu-

larly charged with supervision of women's par-
ticipation in the Exposition, and of the exhibits
of women's work.

The supreme executive power was vested in
the Joint Board of Control. The site selected
was Jackson Park, in the South Division of Chi-
cago, with a strip connecting Jackson and
Washington Parks, known as the "Midway
Plaisance," which was sm-rendered to "conces-
sionaires" who purchased the privilege of giving
exhibitions, or conducting restaurants or selling-
booths thereon. The total area of the site was
633 acres, and that of the buildings — not reckon-
ing those erected by States other than Illinois,
and by foreign governments — was about 200
acres. When to this is added the acreage of the
foreign and State buildings, the total space
under roof approximated 350 acres. These fig-
ures do not include the buildings erected by
private exhibitors, caterers and venders, which
would add a small percentage to the grand total.
Forty-seven foreign Governments made appropri-
ations for the erection of their own buildings and
other expenses connected with oflScial represen-
tation, and there were exhibitors from eighty-six
nations. The United States Government erected
its own building, and appropriated $500,000 to
defray the expenses of a national exhibit, besides
82,500,000 toward the general cost of the Exposi-
tion. The appropriations by foreign Governments
aggregated about §6,500,000, and those by the
States and Territories, §6,120,000— that of Illinois
being §800,000. The entire outlay of the World's
Columbian Exposition Company, up to March 31,
1894, including the cost of preliminary organiza-
tion, construction, operating and post-Exposition
expenses, was §37,151,800. This is, of course,
exclusive of foreign and State expenditures,
which would swell the aggregate cost to nearly
§45,000,000. Citizens of Chicago subscribeA
§5,608,306 toward the capital stock of the Exposi-
tion Company, and the municipality, §5.000,000,
which was raised by the sale of bonds. (See
Thirtn-sixth General Assembly.)

The site, while admirably adapted to the pur-
pose, was, when chosen, a marshy flat, crossed
by low sand ridges, upon which stood occasional
clumps of stunted scrub oaks. Before the gate.s-
of the great fair were opened to the public, the
entire area had been transformed into a dream of
beauty. Marshes had been drained, filled in and
sodded ; driveways and broad walks constructed ;
artificial ponds and lagoons dug and embanked,
and all the highest skill of the landscape garden-
er's art had been called into play to produce




Jackson Park

showing the General Arrangement


III "'

- .1 iiiiiltii ''



varied and striking effects. But the task liad
been a Herculean one. There were seventeen
principal (or, as they may be called, depart-
mental) buildings, all of beautiful and ornate
design, and all of vast size. They were known
as the Manufacturers' and Liberal Arts, the
Machinery. Electrical, Transportation, Woman's,
Horticultural, Mines and Mining, Anthropolog-
ical, Administration, Art Galleries, Agricultural,
Art Institute, Fisheries, Live Stock, Dairy and
Forestry buildings, and the Music Hall and Ca-
sino. Several of these had large annexes. The
Manufacturers' Building was the largest. It was
rectangular (1687x787 feet), having a ground
area of 31 acres and a floor and gallery area of
44 acres. Its central chamber was 1280x380
feet, with a nave 107 feet wide, both hall and
nave being surrounded by a gallery 50 feet wide.
It was four times as large as the Roman Coliseum
and three times as large as St. Peter's at Rome ;
17,000,000 feet of lumber, 13,000,000 pounds of
steel, and 2,000,000 pounds of iron had been used
in its construction, involving a cost of §1,800,000.

It was originally intended to open the Exposi-
tion, formally, on Oct. 21, 1892, the quadri-centen-
nial of Columbus" discovery of land on the
Western Hemisphere, but the magnitude of the
undertaking rendered this impracticable. Con-
sequently, while dedicatory ceremonies were held
on that day, preceded by a monster procession and
followed by elaborate pyrotechnic displays at
night, May 1, 1893, was fixed as the opening day
— the machinery and fountains being put in oper-
ation, at the touch of an electric button by Presi-
dent Cleveland, at the close of a short address.
The total number of admissions from that date
to Oct. 31, was 27,530,460— the largest for any
single day being on Oct. 9 (Chicago Day) amount-
ing to 761,944. The total receipts from all sources
(including National and State appropriations,
subscriptions, etc.), amounted to §28,151,168.75,
of which $10,626,330.76 was from the sale of tick
ets, and $3,699,581.43 from concessions. The
aggregate attendance fell short of that at the
Paris Exposition of 1889 by about 500,000, while
the receipts from the sale of tickets and con-
cessions exceeded the latter by nearly §5,800,000.
Subscribers to the Exposition stock received a
return of ten per cent on tlie same.

The Illinois building was the first of the State
buildings to be completed. It was also the
largest and most costly, but was severely criti-
cised from an architectm-al standpoint. The
exhibits showed the internal resources of the
State, as well as the development of its govern-

mental system, and its progress in civilization
from the days of the first pioneers. The entire
IlUnois exhibit in tlie State building was under
charge of the State Board of Agriculture, wlio
devoted one-tenth of the approi)riation, and a like
proportion of floor space, to the exhibition of the
work of Illinois women as scientists, authors,
artists, decorators, etc. Among special features
of the Illinois exhibit were : State trophies and
relics, kept in a lire-proof memorial hall ; the dis-
play of grains and minerals, and an immense
topographical map (prepared at a cost of §15,000),
drafted on a scale of two miles to the inch, show-
ing the character and resources of the State, and
correcting many serious cartographical errors
previously undiscovered.

WORTHEN, Amos Henry, scientist and State
Geologist, was born at Bradford, Vt., Oct. 31,
1813, emigrated to Kentucky in 1834, and, in 1836.
removed to Illinois, locating at Warsaw. Teach-
ing, surveying and mercantile business were his
pursuits until 1843, when he returned to the
East, spending two years in Boston, but return-
ing to Warsaw in 1844. His natural predilections
were toward the natural sciences, and, after
coming west, he devoted most of his leisure time
to the collection and study of specimens of
mineralogy, geology and conchology. On the
organization of the geological survey of Illinois
in 1851, he was appointed assistant to Dr. J. (J.
Norwood, then State Geologist, and, in 1858, suc-
ceeded to the office, having meanwhile spent
three years as Assistant Geologist in the first Iowa
survey. As State Geologist he published seven
volumes of reports, and was engaged upon the
eighth when overtaken by deatli, May 6, 1888.
These reports, which are as comprehensive as
they are voluminous, have been reviewed and
warmly commended by the leading scientific
periodicals of this cpuntry and Europe. In 1877
field work was discontinued, and the State His-
torical Library and Natural History Museum were
established. Professor Worthen being placed in
charge as curator. He was the author of various
valuable scientific i)apers and member of numer-
ous scientific .societies in this country and in

WORTHIXJTOJf, Xicholas Ellsworth, ex-Con-
gressman, was born in Brooke County, W. Va.,
March 30, 1836. and completed his education at
Allegheny College, Pa., studied Law at Morgan-
town, Va., and was admitted to the bar in 1860.
He is a resident of Peoria, and, by profession, a
lawyer: was County Superintendent of Schools
of Peoria County from 1868 to 1872. and a mem-


ber of the State Board of Education from 1809 to
1872. In 1882 he was elected to Congress, as a
Democrat, from the Tenth Congressional District,
and re-elected in 1884. In 1886 he was again a
candidate, but was defeated by liis Republican
opponent. Philip Sidney Post. He was elected
Circuit Judge of the Tenth Judicial District in
1891, and re-elected in 1897. In 1894 he served
upon a commission appointed by President Cleve-
land, to investigate the labor strikes of that year
at Chicago.

WRIGHT, John Stephen, manufacturer, wa.s
born at Sheffield, Mass., July 16, 1815; came to
Chicago in 1832, with liis father, wlio opened a
store in that city; in 1837, at his own expense,
built the first school building in Chicago ; in 1840
established "The Prairie Farmer,'" which lie con-
ducted for many years in the interest of popular
education and progressive agriculture. In 1852
he engaged in the manufacture of Atkins" self-
raking reaper and mower, was one of the pro-
moters of the Galena & Chicago Union and the
Illinois Central Railways, and wrote a volume
entitled, "Chicago: Past, Present and Future,""
published in 1870. Died, in Chicago. Sept. 26, 1874.

WULFF, Henry, ex-State Treasurer, was born
in Meldorf, Germany, August 24, 1834; came to
Chicago in 1863, and began his political career as
a Trustee of the town of Jefferson. In 1866 he
was elected County Clerk of Cook County, and
re-elected in 1890 ; in 1894 became the Republican
nominee for State Treasurer, receiving, at the
November election of that year, the unprece-
dented plurality of 133,427 votes over his Demo-
cratic opponent.

WYANET, a town of Bureau County, at the
intersection of tlie Chicago, Burlington & Quincy
and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railways,
7 miles southwest of Princeton. Population
(1890), 670.

WTLIE, (Rev.) Samuel, domestic missionary,
born in Ireland and came to America in boyhood ;
was educated at the University of Pennsylvania
and the Theological Seminary of the Reformed"
Presbyterian Church, and ordained in 1818.
Soon after this he came west as a domestic mis-
sionary and, in 1820, became pastor of a church
at Sparta, 111., where he remained until his death,
March 20, 1872, after a pastorate of 52 years.
During his pastorate the church sent out a dozen
colonies to form new church organizations else-
where. He is described as able, eloquent and

WYMAX, (Col.) John B., soldier, was born in
Massachusetts, July 12, 1817, and educated in the

schools of that State until 14 years of age, when
he became a clerk in a clothing store in his native
town of Shrewsbury, later being associated with
mercantile establishments in Cincinnati, and
again in his native State. From 1846 to 1850 he
was employed successively as a clerk in the car
and machine shops at Springfield, Mass., then as
Superintendent of Construction, and, later, as con-
ductor on the New York & New Haven Railroad ,
finally, in 1850, becoming Superintendent of the .
Connecticut River Railroad. In 1852 he entered
the service of the Illinois Central Railroad Com-
pany, assisting in the survey and construction of
the line under Col. R. B. Mason, the Chief Engi-
neer, and finally becoming Assistant Superin-
tendent of the Northern Division. He was one
of the original proprietors of the town of Amboy,
in Lee County, and its first Mayor, also serving
a second term. Having a fondness for military
affairs, he was usually connected with some mili-
tary organization — while in Cincinnati being
attached to a company, of which Prof. O. M.
Mitchell, the celebrated astronomer (afterwards
Major-General Mitchell), was Captain. After
coming to Illinois he became Captain of the Chi-
cago Light Guards. Having left the employ of
the Railroad in 1858, he was in private business
at Amboy at the beginning of the Civil "War in
1861. As Assistant- Adjutant General, by appoint-
ment of Governor Yates, he rendered valuable
service in the early weeks of the war in securing
arms from Jefferson Barracks and in the organi-
zation of the three-months" regiments. Then,
having organized the Thirteenth Illinois "Volun-
teer Infantry — the first organized in the State
for the three years" service — he was commis-
sioned its Colonel, and, in July following, entered
upon the duty of guarding the railroad lines in
Southwest Missouri and Arkansas. The follow-
ing year his regiment was attached to General
Sherman's command in the first campaign
against Vicksburg. On the second day of the
Battle of Chickasaw Bayou, he fell mortally
wounded, dying on the field, Dec-. 28, 1862. Colo-
nel Wyman was one of the most accomplished
and promising of the volunteer soldiers sent to
the field from Illinois, of whom so many were
former employes of the Illinois Central Rail-

WYOMING, a town of Stark County, 31 miles
north-northwest from Peoria, at the junction of
the Rock Island & Peoria and the Buda and Rush-
ville branch of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy
Railway; has a high school, several churches;
two banks, flour mills, machine shop, and two



weekly newspapers. Coal .is also mined here.
Population (1880), 1,086; (1890), 1,116.

XEMA, a village of Clay County, on the Balti-
more & Ohio Southwestern Railroad. 87 miles
east of St. Louis. Population (1890), 878.

Y.VTES CITY, a village of Knox County, at
the junction of the Peoria Division of the Chi-
cago. Burlington & Quincy Railroad, with the
Rusliville branch, 23 miles soutlieast of Gales-
burg. The district is agricultural, and the
town has banks and a newspaper. Population
(1890), 687.

YATES, Henry, pioneer, was born in Caroline
County, Va.. Oct, 29, 1786 — being a grand-nephew
of Chief Justice John Marshall; removed to Fa-
yette County, Ky., where he located and laid out
the town of Warsaw, which afterwards became
the county-seat of Gallatin County. In 1831 he
removed to Sangamon County, 111., and, in 1832,
settled at the site of the present town of Berlin,
which he laid out the following year, also laying
out the town of New Berlin, a few j^ears later, on
the line of the Wabasli Railway. He was father
of Gov. Richard Yates. Died, Sept. 13, 1865. -
Henry (Yates), Jr., son of the preceding, was born
at Berlin, 111. , March 7, IX'drt ; engaged in merchan-
dising at New Berlin; in 1862, raised a company
of volunteers for the One Hundred and Sixth
Regiment Illinois Infantry, was appointed Lieu-
tenant-Colonel and brevetted Colonel and Briga-
dier-General, lie was accidentally sliot in 1863,
and suffered sun-stroke at Little Rock, from
which he never fully recovered. Died, .Vugust

YATES, Richard, former Governor and United
States Senator, was born at Warsaw, Ky., Jan.
18, 1815, of English descent. In 1831 he accom-
panied his father to Illinois, the family settling
first at Springfield and later at Berlin, Sangamon
County. He soon after entered Illinois College,
from which he graduated in 1835. and .subse-
quently read law with Col. John J. Hardin, at
Jacksonville, whicli tliereafter Ijecame liis home.
In 1842 he was elected Representative in the Gen-
eral Assembly from Morgan County, and was
re-elected in 1H44, ami again in 1848. In 1850 he
was a candidate for Congi-ess from the Seventh
District and elected over MaJ. Thomas L. Harris,
the previous incumbent, being the only Whig
Representative in tlie Tliirty-second Congress
from Illinois. Two years later he was re-elected
over John Calhoun, but was defeated, in 1854,
by his old opponent, Harris. He was one of the

most vigorous opponents of tlie Kansas- Nebraska
Bill in the Thirty-third Congress, and an early
participant in the movement for the organization
of the Republican party to resist the furtlier
extension of slavery, being a prominent speaker,
on the .same platform with Lincoln, before the
first Republican State Convention held at Blooni-
ington, in May. 1856, and serving as one of tlie
Vice-Presidents of that body. In 1860 lie was
elected to the executive chair on the ticket
headed by Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency-,
and, by his energetic support of the National
administration in its measures for tlie suppression
of the Rebellion, won the sobriquet of "the Illi-
nois War-Governor." In 1865 he was elected
United States Senator, serving until 1871. He
died suddenly, at St. Louis. Nov. 27, 1873, while
returning from Arkansas, whitlier he had gone,
as a United States Commissioner, by appointment
of President Grant, to inspect a land -subsidy
railroad. He was a man of rare ability, earnest-
ness of purpose and extraordinary personal mag-
netism, as well as of a lofty order of patriotism.
His faults were those of a nature generous,
impulsive and warm-hearted.

YORKYILLE, the county-seat of Kendall
Countj-. situated on the south brancli of Fox
River and on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy
Railroad, some 12 miles southwest of Aurora. It
has a bfmk, a church and a weekly newspaper.
Population (1880), 365; (1890), 375.


Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 126 of 207)