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whites, and, in 1836, there began a new and large
influ.x of immigrants. Among other early set-
tlers were John H. and Arthur Bryant, brothers
of the poet, ^Villiam Cullen Brvant.

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS, estab-
lished in 1879, being an outgrowth of the agitation
and discontent among the laboring classes, which
culminated in 1877-78. The Board consists of
five Commissioners, who serve for a nominal
compensation, their term of office being two
years. They are nominated by the Executive
and confirmed by the Senate. The law requires
that three of them shall be manual laborers and
two employers of manual labor. The Bureau is
charged with the collection, compilation and
tabulation of statistics relative to labor in Illi-
nois, particularly in its relation to the commer-
cial, industrial, social, educational and sanitary
conditions of the working classes. The Com-
mission is required to submit biennial reports.
Those already published contain much informa-
tion of value concerning coal and lead mines,
convict labor, manufactures, strikes and lock-
outs, wages, rent, cost of living, mortgage
indebtedness, and kindred topics.

BURGESS, Alexander, Protestant Episcopal
Bishop of the diocese of Quincy, was born at
Providence, R. I., Oct. 31, 1819. He graduated



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



from Brown University in 1838 and from the
General Theological Seminary (New York) in
1841. He was made a Deacon, Nov. 3, 1843. and
ordained a priest, Nov. 1, 1843. Prior to his ele-
vation to the episcopate he was rector of various
parishes in Maine, at Brooklyn, N. Y., and at
Springfield, Mass. He represented the dioceses
of Maine, Long Island and Massachusetts in the
General Conventions of the Protestant Episcopal
Church from 1844 to 1877, and, in the latter year,
was President of the House of Deputies. Upon
the death of his brother George, Bishop of Maine,
he was chosen by the clergj- of the diocese to suc-
ceed him but declined When the diocese of
Quincy. 111. was created, he was elected its first
Bishop, and consecrated at Christ Church, Spring-
field, Mass . on May 15, 1878. Besides publishing
a memoir of his brother. Bishop Burgess is the
author of several Sunday-school question books,
carols and hymns, and has been a contributor to
periodical church literature. His residence is at



BURLET, Arthur Gilman, merchant, was born
at Exeter, N. H., Oct. 4, 1813, received his edu-
cation in the local schools, and, in 1835, came
West, locating in Chicago. For some two years
he served as clerk in the boot, shoe and clothing
store of John Holbrook, after which he accepted
a position with his half-brother, Stephen F. Gale,
the proprietor of the first book and stationery
store in Chicago. In 1838 he invested his savings
in a bankrupt stock of crockery, purchased from
the old State Bank, and entered upon a business
career which was continued uninterruptedly for
nearly sixty years. In that time Mr. Burley
built up a business which, for its extent and
success, was unsurpassed in its time in the West.
His brother in-law, Mr. John Tyrrell, became a
member of the firm in 1853, the business there-
after being conducted imder the name of Burley
& Tyrrell, with Mr. Burley as President of the
Company until his death, which occurred, August

37, 1897.— Augustus Harris (Burley), brother of
the preceding, was born at Exeter, N. H., March

38, 1819 ; was educated in the schools of his native
State, and, in his youth, was employed for a
time as a clerk in Boston. In 1837 he came to
Chicago and took a position as clerk or salesman
in the book and stationery store of his half-
brother, Stephen F. Gale, subsequently became a
partner, and, on the retirement of Jlr. Gale a
few years later, succeeded to the control of the
business. In 1857 he disposed of his book and
stationery business, and about the same time
became one of the founders of the Merchants'



Loan and Trust Company, with which he has
been connected as a Director ever since. Mr.
Burley was a member of the volunteer fire depart-
ment organized in Chicago in 1841 Among the
numerous public positions held by him may be
mentioned, member of the Board of Public Works
(1867-70), the first Superintendent of Lincoln Park
(1869). Representative from Cook County in the
Twenty-seventh General Assembly (1870-73), City
Comptroller during the administration of Mayor
Medill (1873-73), and again undar Mayor Roche
(1887), and member of the City Council (1881-83).
Politically, Mr Burley has been a zealous Repub-
lican and served on the Chicago Union Defense
Committee in the first year of the Civil War, and
was a delegate from the State-at-large to the
National Republican Convention at Baltimore in
1864, which nominated Abraham Lincoln for the
Presidency a second time.

BURNHAM, Daniel Hudson, architect, was
born at Henderson, N. Y., Sept. 4, 1846; came to
Chicago at 9 years of age; attended private
schools and the Chicago High School, after which
he spent two years at Waltham, Mass. . receiving
special instruction ; returning to Chicago in 1867,
he was afterwards associated with various firms.
About 1873 he formed a business connection with
J. W. Root, architect, which extended to the
death of the latter in 1891. The firm of Burnham
& Root furnished the plans of a large number of
the most conspicuous business buildings in Chi-
cago, but won their greatest distinction in con-
nection with the construction of buildings for the
World's Columbian Exposition, of which Mr.
Root was Supervising Architect previous to his
death, while Mr. Burnham was made Chief of
Construction and, later, Director of Works. In
this capacity his authority was almost absolute,
but was used with a discretion that contributed
greatly to the success of the enterprise.

BURR, Albert G., former Congressman, was
born in Genesee County, N. Y., Nov. 8, 1839:
came to Illinois about 1833 with his widowed
mother, who settled in Springfield. In early life
he became a citizen of Winchester, where he read
law and was admitted to the bar, also, for a time,
following the occupation of a printer. Here he
was twice elected to the lower house of the Gen-
eral Assembly (1860 and 1863), meanwhile serving
as a member of the State Constitutional Conven-
tion of 1863. Having removed to CarroUton.
Greene County, he was elected as a Democrat to
the Fortieth and Forty-first Congresses (1866 and
1868), serving until March 4, 1871. In August,
1877, he was elected Circuit Judge to fill a



IIISTOIUC'AL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



69



vacancy and was re-elected for the regular term
in June, 1879, but died in office, June 10, 18S3.

BURRELL, Orlando, member of Congress, was
born in Bradford County, Pa. ; removed with his
parents to White County, 111., in 183-1, growing
up on a farm near Carmi; received a conmion
school education; in 18.iO went to California,
driving an ox-team across the plains. Soon after
the beginning of the Civil War (1861) he raised a
company of cavalry, of which he was elected
Captain, and which became a part of the First
Regiment Illinois Cavahy ; served as County
Judge from 1873 to 1881, and was elected Sheriff
in 1886. In 1894 he was elected Representative
in Congress as a Republican from the Twentieth
District, composed of counties which formerly
constituted a large part of the old Nineteenth
District, and which had uniformly been repre-
sented by a Democrat. He suffered defeat as a
candidate for re-election in 1896.

BURROUGHS, John Curtis, clergyman and
educator, was born in Stamford, N. Y., Dec. 7,
1818; graduated at Yale College in 1842, and
Madison Theological Seminary in 1846. After
five years spent as pastor of Baptist churches at
Waterford and West Troy, N. Y., in 1852 he
assumed the pastorate of the First Baptist Church
of Chicago ; about 18.56 was elected to the presi-
dency of the Chicago University, then just
established, having previously declined the
presidency of Shurtleff College at Upper Alton.
Resigning his position in 1874, he soon aftei-
became a member of the Chicago Board of Edu-
cation, and. in 1884, was elected Assistant Super-
intendent of Public Schools of that city, serving
until his death, April 21, 1892.

BUSEY, Samuel T., banker and ex-Congre.ss-
man, was born at Greencastle, Ind., Nov. 10,
1835; in infancy was brought by his parents to
Urbana, 111., where he was educated and has
since resided. From 1857 to 1859 he was engaged
in mercantile pursuits, but during 1860-61
attended^ a commercial college and read law. In
1862 he was chosen Town Collector, but resigned
to enter the Union Army, being commissioned
Second Lieutenant by Governor Yates, and
assigned to recruiting service. Having aided in
the organization of the Seventy-sixth Illinois
Volunteers, he was commissioned its Lieutenant-
Colonel, August 12, 1862 ; was afterward promoted
to the colonelcy, and mustered out of service at
Chicago, AugVLst 6, 1865, with the rank of Brevet
Brigadier-General. In 1866 he was an unsucce.ss-
ful candidate for the General Asseml ly on the
Democratic ticket, and for Trustee (jf the State



University in 1888. From 1880 to is.so he was
JIayor and President of the Board of Education
of Urbana. In 1867 he opened a private bank,
which he conducted for twenty-one years. In
1890 he was elected to Congress from the Fif-
teenth Illinois District, defeating Joseph G. Can
non, Republican, by whom he was in turn
defeated for the same office in 1892.

BUSHNELL, a flourishing town inMcDonough
County, 10 miles by rail northeast of Macomb,
the county- seat. It is a railway junction, and
has important manufacturing interests. Wooden
pumps, metal wheels, flour, agricultural imple-
ments, wagons and carriages are among the
manufactm-es. Beds of excellent clay are found
in the neighborhood, and paving, common and
fancy brick are made in large quantities. It has
two banks, two newspajjer offices, a public library,
seven or eight churches, graded public and high
schools, and is the seat of the Western Normal
College. Population (1880), 2,316; (1890), 2, 314.

BUSHNELL, Xeheniiah, lawyer, was born in
the town of Westbrook, Conn., Oct. 9, 1813;
graduated at Yale College iu 1835, studied law
and was admitted to the bar in 1837, coming in
December of the same year to Quincy, 111., where,
for a time, he assi.sted in editing "The Whig"
of that city, later forming a partnership with
O. H. Browning, which was never fully broken
until his death. In his practice he gave nuich
attention to land titles in the "Military Tract" ;
in 1851 was President of the portion of the North-
ern Cross Railroad between Quincy and Gales-
burg (now a part of the Chicago, Burlington &
Quincy) , and later of the Quincy Bridge Company
and the Quincy & Palmyra (Mo.) Railroad. In
1872 he was elected by the Republicans tlio
"minority"" Representative from Adams County
in the Twenty-eighth General Assembly, but
died during the succeeding session, Jan. 31, 1873.
He was able, high minded and honorable in public
and private life.

BUSHNELL, Wasliington, lawyer and Attor-
ney-General, was born in Madison County, N. Y.,
Sept. 30, 1825; in 1837 came with his father to
Lisbon, Kendall County, 111., where he worked on
a farm and taught at times ; studied law at Pough-
keepsie, X. Y., was admitted to the bar and
established himself in practice at Ottawa, III.
The public positions held by him were those of
State Senator for La Salle County (1861-69) and
Attorney General (1869-73); was also a member
of the Republican National Convention of 1804.
besides being identified with various business
enterprises at Ottawa. Died, Jime 30, 1885.



70



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



BUTLER, William, State Treasurer, was born
in Adair County, Ky., Dec. 15, 1797; during the
war of 1812, at the age of 16 years, served as the
messenger of the Governor of Kentucky, carrying
dispatches to Gen. William Henry Harrison in
the field; removed to Sangamon County. 111., in
1838, and, in 1836, was appointed Clerk of the
Circuit Court by Judge Stephen T. Logan. In
1859 he served as foreman of the Grand Jury
which investigated the "canal scrip frauds"
charged against ex-Governor Matteson. and it
was largely through his influence tliat the pro-
ceedings of that body were subsequently pub-
lished in an official form. During the same year
Governor Bissell appointed liim State Treasurer
to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of
James Miller, and he was elected to the same
office in 1860. Mr. Butler was an ardent sup-
porter of Abraham Lincoln, whom he efficiently
befriended in the early struggles of the latter
in Springfield. He died in Springfield. Jan. 11.
1876.

BUTTERFIELD, Justin, early lawyer, was
born at Keene, N. II., in 1790. He studied at
Williams College, and was admitted to the bar
at Watertown, X. Y., in 1812. After some years
devoted to practice at Adams and at Sacketfs
Harbor, N. Y., he removed to New Orleans, where
he attained a high rank at the bar. In 1835 he
settled in Chicago and soon became a leader in
his profession there also. In 1841 he was appointed
by President Harrison United States District At-
torney for the District of Illinois, and, in 1849, by
President Taylor Commissioner of the General
Land Office, one of his chief competitors for the
latter place being Abraham Lincoln. This dis-
tinction he probably owed to the personal influ-
ence of Daniel Webster, then Secretary of State,
of whom Mr. Butterfield was a per.sonal friend
and warm admirer. While Commissioner, he
rendered valuable service to the State in securing
the canal land grant. As a lawyer he was logical
and resourceful, as well as witty and quick at
repartee, yet his chief strength lay before the
Court rather than the jury. Numerous stories
are told of his brilliant sallies at the bar and
elsewhere. One of the former relates to his
address before Judge Nathaniel Pope, of the
United States Court at Springfield, in a habeas-
corpus case to secure the release of Joseph Smith,
the Jlormon prophet, who was under arrest under
the charge of complicity in an attempt to assassin-
ate Governor Boggs of Missouri. Rising to begin
his argiunent. Mr. Butterfield said: "I am to
address the Pope" (bowing to the Court), "sur-



rounded by angels" (bowing still lower to a party
of ladies in the audience), "in the presence of
the holy apostles, in behalf of the prophet of
the Lord. " On another occasion, being asked if
he was opposed to the war with Mexico, he
replied, "I opposed one war" — meaning his
opposition as a Federalist to the War of 1812 —
"but learned the folly of it. Henceforth I am for
war, pestilence and famine." He died, Oct. 25,
185.5.

BYFORD, William H., physician and author,
was born at Eaton, Ohio, March 20, 1817; in 1830
came with his widowed mother to Crawford
County, III., and began learning the tailor's
trade at Palestine; later studied medicine at
Vincennes and practiced at different points in
Indiana. Meanwhile, having graduated at the
Ohio Medical College. Cincinnati, in 1850, he
assumed a professorship in a Medical College at
Evansville, Ind., also editing a medical journal.
In 1857 he removed to Chicago, where he ac-
cepted a chair in Rush Medical College, but two
years later became one of the founders of the
Chicago Medical College, where he remained
twenty years. He then (1879) returned to Rush,
assuming the chair of Gynecology. In 1870 he
assisted in founding the Woman's Medical Col-
lege of Chicago, remaining President of the
Faculty and Board of Trustees until his death,
May 21, 1890. He published a number of medical
works which are regarded as standard by the
profession, besides acting as associate of Dr. N. S.
Davis in the editorship of "The Chicago Medical
Journal" and as editor-in-chief of "The Medical
Journal and Examiner," the successor of the
former. Dr. Byford was held in the highest
esteem as a physician and a man, both by the
general public and his professional associates.

BYRON, a village of Ogle County, on Rock
River, at the intersection of the Chicago & Great
Western and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul
Railways, 83 miles west-northwest from Chicago.
It is the center of a farming and dairying dis-
trict; has banks and a newspaper. Population
(1890), 698.

CABLE, a town in Mercer County, on the Rock
Island & Peoria Railroad, 26 miles south by east
from Rock Island. Coal-mining is the principal
industry, but there are also tile works, a good
quality of clay for manufacturing purposes being
found in abundance. Population (1880), 573;
(1890), 1,270.

CABLE, Benjamin T., capitalist and politician,
was born in Georgetown, Scott County, Ky..



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



71



August 11, 1853. When he was three years old
his father's family removed to Rock Island, 111.,
where he has since resided. After passing
through the Rock Island public schools, he matric-
ulated at the University of Michigan, graduating
in June, 1876. He owns extensive ranch and
manufacturing property, and is reputed wealthy ;
is also an active Democratic politician, and influ-
ential in his party, having been a member of both
the National and State Central Committees. In
1890 he was elected to Congress from the Eleventh
Illinois District, but since 1893 has held no public
office.

CABLE, Ransom E., railway manager, was
Viorn in Athens County, Ohio, Sept. 23, 1834.
His early training was mainly of the practical
sort, and by the time he was 17 years old he was
actively employed as a lumberman. In 18.57 he
removed to Illinois, first devoting his attention
to coal mining in the neighborhood of Rock
Island. Later he became interested in the pro-
jection and management of railroads, being in
turn Superintendent, Vice-President and Presi-
dent of the Rock Island & Peoria Railroad. His
next position was that of General Manager of the
Rockford, Rock Island & .St. Louis Railroad. His
experience in these positions rendered him famil-
iar with both the scope and the details of railroad
management, while his success brought him to
the favorable notice of those who controlled rail-
way interests all over the country. In 1876 he
was elected a Director of the Chicago, Rock
Island & Pacific Railway. In connection with
this company he has held, successively, the
offices of Vice-President, Assistant to the Presi-
dent, General Manager and President, being chief
executive officer since 1880. (See Chicago. Rock
Island & Pacific Railicay.)

CAHOKIA, the first permanent white settle-
ment in Illinois, and, in French colonial times,
one of its principal towns. French Jesuit mis-
sionaries established the mission of the Tamaroas
here in 1700, to which they gave the name of
"Sainte Famille de Caoquias," antedating the
settlement at Kaskaskia of the same year by a
few months. Cahokia and Kaskaskia were
jointlj' made the county -seats of St. Clair County,
when that county was organized by Governor St.
Clair in 1790. Five years later, when Randolph
County was set oflf from St. Clair, Cahokia was
continued as the county-seat of the parent
county, so remaining until the removal of the
seat of justice to Belleville in 1814. Like its
early rival, Kaskaskia, it has dwindled in impor-
tance mitil, in 1890, its population was estimated



at 100. Descendants of the early French settlers
make up a considerable portion of the present
population. The site of the old town is on the
line of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Rail-
road, about four miles from East St. Louis.
Some of the most remarkable Indian mounds in
the Mississippi Valley, known as "the Cahokia
Mounds, " are located in the vicinity. (See Mound-
Buihhrs. Works of the.)

CAIRXES, Abraham, a native of Kentucky, in
1816 settled in that part of Crawford County, 111.,
which was embraced in Lawrence County on the
organization of the latter in 1821. Mr. Cairnes
was a member of the House for Crawford County
in the Second General Assembly (1820-23), and
for Lawrence County in the Third (1822-24), in
the latter voting against the pro-slavery Conven-
tion scheme. He removed from Lawrence
County to some point on the Mississippi River in
1826, but further details of his history are un-
known.

CAIRO, the county-seat of Alexander Coimty,
and the most important river point between St.
Louis and Memphis. Its first charter was ob-
tained from the Territorial Legislature by Shad-
rach Bond (afterwards Governor of Illinois) , John
G. Comyges and others, who incorporated the
"City and Bank of Cairo. " The company entered
about 1,800 aeres, but upon the death of Mr. Comy-
ges, the land reverted to tlie Government. The
forfeited tract was re-enttred in 183.5 by Sidney
Breese and others, who later transferred it to the
"Cairo City and Canal Company," a corporation
chartered in 1837, which, by purcliase, increased
its holdings to 10,000 acres. Peter Stapleton is
said to have erected the first house, and John
Hawley the second, within the town limits. In
consideration of certain privileges, the Illinois
Central Railroad has erected around the water
front a substantial levee, eighty feet wide. Dur-
ing the Civil War Cairo was an important base
for military operations. Its population, according
to the census of 1890, was 10,324. (See also Alex-
ander County.)

CAIRO BRIDGE, THE, one of the triumphs of
modern engineering, erected by the Illinois Cen-
tral Railroad Company across the Oliio River,
opposite the city of Cairo. It is the longest
metallic bridge across a river in the world, being
thirty three feet longer than the Tay Bridge, in
Scotland. The %vork of construction was begun,
July 1, 1887, and uninteiTuptedly jirosecuted for
twenty-seven months, being completed, Oct. 29,
1889. The first train to cross it was made up of
ten locomotives coupled together. The ap-



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



preaches from both the Illinois and Kentucky
shores consist of iron viaducts and well-braced
timber trestles. The Illinois viaduct approach
consists of seventeen spans of 150 feet each, and
one span of 106 '4 feet. All these rest on cylin-
der piers filled with concrete, and are additionally
supported by piles driven within the cylinders.
The viaduct on the Kentucky shore is of similar
general construction. The total number of spans
is twenty -two — twenty -one being of 150 feet each,
and one of 106>4 feet. The total length of the
metal work, from end to end, is 10,650 feet,
including that of the bridge proper, which is
4.644 feet. The latter consists of nine through
spans and three deck spans. The through spans
rest on ten first-class masonry piers on pneumatic
foundations. The total length of the bridge,
including the timber trestles, is 20,461 feet — about
Sys miles. Four-fifths of the Illinois trestle
work has been filled in with earth, while that on
the southern shore has been virtually replaced by
an embankment since the completion of the
bridge. The bridge proper stands 104.43 feet in
the clear above low water, and from the deepest
foundation to the top of the highest iron work is
348.94 feet. The total cost of the work, including
the filling and embankment of the trestles, has
been (1895) between .$3,350,000 and $3,500,000.

CAIRO, VINCENNES & CHICAGO RAIL-
ROAD, a division of the Cleveland, Cincinnati,
Chicago & St. Louis Railway, extending from
Danville to Cairo (361 miles), with a branch nine
miles in length from St. Francisville, 111., to Vin-
cennes, Ind. It was chartered as the Cairo &
Vincennes Railroad in 1867, completed in 1872,
placed in the hands of a receiver in 1874, sold
under foreclosm-e in January, 1880, and for some
time operated as the Cairo Division of the
Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway. In 1889,
liaving been surrendered by the Wabash, St.
Louis & Pacific Railway, it was united with the
Danville & Southwestern Railroad, reorganized as
the Cairo, Vincennes & Chicago Railroad, and,
in 1890, leased to the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chi-
cago & St. Louis Railway, of which it is known
as the "Cairo Division." (See Cleveland, Cincin-
nati, Chicago & St. Louis Railivay.)

CAIRO & ST. LOUIS RAILROAD. (See St.
Louis & Cairo Railroad and Mobile & Ohio Rail-
way. )

CAIRO & VINCENNES RAILROAD. (See
Cairo, Vincennes



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