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the Hon. Frank Murdoch acting as mustering
officer. There had been more or less talk of
forming such a company for a year or two
before, and E. R. Drake had circulated a paper
calling for its organization, which had received
several signatures. William Whiting was
colonel of the regiment, and O. L. Higgins
lieutenant colonel.

Early in the eighties, the Illinois militia was
reorganized, and this company became Com-
pany C, of the Sixth Infantry, I. N. G. The
officers, in order of service, have been as fol-
lows: Captains, E. F. Phelps, J. M. Martin,
Howard Reed, G. P. Hoover, W. S. Weeks, H. A.
Norton, A. W. Stickney, C. E. Fitch, E. C.
Elder and T. L. McGlrr; first lieutenants,
Charles Wells, E. R. Drake, Guy B. Dickson.



K N X C U N T Y.



(is:j



W. B. Weeks, H A. Norton, H. M. Tompkins,
A. W. Stickney, C. E. Fitch, Frank L. Andrews,
V. N. Ridgeley, Fred W. Porter and C. A. By-
lotf; second lieutenants, Fred Brooks, C. F.
Hamblin, Charles Waste, Frank Thulin, C. E.
Fitch, Robert Hillier, E. C. Elder, C. Hoffman,
F. S. Montgomery, V. N. Ridgeley, W. L.
Arkels, E. A. Johnson and Daniel K. Smyth.

Company C's first active service was in 1886,
during the labor troubles at East St. Louis.
On April 21, 1SS6, Captain Weeks received the
following order: "Report with your company
at Er.st St. Louis via Q. Road. J. W. Vance,
Adjutant General."

The company left at once, and rendered ex-
cellent service, being on duty for about three
weeks.

In 1894, it was twice called upon to preserve
order on occasion of disturbances by striking
miners. On June 10, the men were ordered to
Pekin, where for four days they guarded the
city, and especially the jail, where thirty-seven
prisoners were confined. Again, on July 8, they
were ordered to Spring Valley, to protect the
town from riot and the lawlessness attendant
upon the great coal miners' strike, then in pro-
gress, remaining there one week.

In September, 1898, the company was once
more called Into service. It was ordered to
report at Fulton, where there was some appre-
hension of trouble over the removal of the
headquarters of the Modern Woodmen. The
train was made up, but just as the men were
about to board it, the orders were counter-
manded.

The great opportunity in its history, how-
ever, came to Company C when war was
declared against Spain. It left Galesburg for
Springfield, April 26, was mustered Into the
Federal service May 11, and reached Camp
Alger nine days later. The men arrived at
Charleston, S. C, July 7, Siboney, Cuba. July
15, and Guanlca, Porto Rico, July 25. From
Guanica they marched to Yauca, Ponce. Ad-
Juntas and Utuado, and thence back to Ponce,
where they embarked for home on September
7, reaching New York on the thirteenth.
Springfield on the seventeenth, and Galesburg
on the twenty-first. Until November 20 they
■were on furlough, and on the twenty-fifth of
that month were mustered out. Every member
of the company returned home, a fact which
reflects great credit upon ifs officers. The com-
pany underwent its share of the hardships of
camp life and campaigning. It spent about



seven weeks in the island of Porto Rico, cheer-
fully undergoing hardships and privations
which greatly taxed their strength, and win-
ning respect and admiration for the manly and
Boldierly qualities which the men displayed.

On their return to Galesburg the men were
received with honor, and welcomed as heroes
of a war toward the successful issue of which
they had materially contributed. Their cap-
tain, T. L. McGirr, has recently received a
captain's commission in the United States pro-
visional army, and has left the company after
the longest term of service ever rendered by
any of its officers. He was elected Captain on
March 14, 1891, and served continuously from
that date until September, 1899.

Battery B, of Galesburg, enjoys a reputation
second to that of no other artillery company in
the State. It \\as organized in March, 1897, as
an Independent company, under the name of
the Galesburg Light Artillery. No one was
admitted to membership who had not had
experience in military affairs and who could
not show special qualification as a horseman,
sharpshooter, or in some kindred department
of athletic sport. The members were uniformed
and equipped at their own expense, and bought
their horses and part of their ordnance. The
Dattery was allowed the use of two field pieces
of the latest pattern, loaned by the government
to Knox College, and was materially assisted
at the beginning by Dr. J. II. Finley, president
of that institution, and by Lieutenant (now
Captain) W. A. Phillips, of the regular army,
military instructor at the college. The battery
took part in several competitive drills and mil-
itary tournaments, and, on request of the State
authorities, joined the National Guard, being
mustered into service as Battery B of the
Artillery Battalion, I. N. G., on July 7, 1897.
Captain C. C. Craig, its former commander,
was elected captain, and F. C. Henry, first lieu-
tenant. F. W. Wolf was chosen second lieuten-
ant. Lieutenant Wolf soon afterward resigned,
and J. F. Hamilton and W. W. Smith succeeded
him. Just prior to the Spanish war the com-
pany received from the State its full equipment
as a machine gun battery, and recruited
and drilled until its complement was filled and
it had reached a high degree of efllciency. The
members, to a man, volunteered for the war,
and were called out, but failed to see active
service.

In September, 1898, the battery was ordered
by telegram to proceed to Pana, to preserve



684



KNOX COUNTY.



order and protect lives and property, which
were endangered by riots resulting in conflicts
•between the striking miners of that vicinity
and the civil authorities. In two hours after
being notified, the company was on the way.
At Springfield rifles were issued, and only two
of the Gatling guns were retained. On arriving
at Pana, though numbering but seventy men,
the battery soon had the situation under con-
trol, and all disorder came to an end. While
in camp there, the command improved every
opportunity for instruction and drill, and be-
came very proficient, particularly in the use
of the Gatling arm

On Oct. 13, telegraphic orders were received
to proceed to Virden, where a serious confiict
had started between some two thousand strik-
ing miners and their sympathizers and about
two hundred Pinkerton guards and a force of
deputy sheriffs, employed to protect the mines
there. In forty minutes the command had
broken camp, packed its equipment and stores,
and was at the railway station, where an
engine and freight cars were in waiting, and
the men started for Virden. In the meantime,
fifteen men had been killed and thirty or more
wounded at that town. The strikers had driven
the deputies and guards inside a fortified stock-
ade surrounding the mines, which they were
preparing to blow up with dynamite. The
artillerymen landed from the train outside the
town shortly after dark, and. supported by the
Catlings, made a charge, separated the warring
factions, and occupied the points of vantage.
Before morning every non-combatant had been
disarmed, the ringleaders arrested, and all dis-
order quelled. Only one man was killed on
either side after the arrival of the battery.
For prompt and effective work at Pana and
Virden, Captain Craig and his men were
honored by a letter of thanks from the Gover-
nor.

The company has always maintained the
high standard of its personnel, and has been
especially well known for the character of its
members and the excellent discipline observed.

KNOX COLLEGE.
Knox College and Galesburg were the out-
growth of one plan — the unique conception of
a college growing up in the midst of. and sup-
ported by, a village, which was to exist solely
for the purpose of giving to the young people
of the West a college, where near at hand, with
but little expense, they could acquire a higher



education. [See "City of Galesburg" for a more
detailed account of its founding and early his-
tory.]

In January, 1S37, Nehemiah H. Losey, after-
ward Professor of Mathematics at Knox Col-
lege, assisted by Miss Lucy Gay, opened a
school at Log City for the especial benefit of
the families of the colony, who settled here in
1836. This school continued until the academy
was opened in 1838, when Professor Losey be-
came its Principal. With this small school,
Knox College, as a working institution, may
be said to have had a beginning.

In Whitesboro, New York, on January 7, 1836,
the subscribers to Rev. George W. Gale's plan
had voted to name their embryo Institution
"Prairie College," but in the act of incorpora-
tion the name "Knox Manual Labor College"
was substituted. The title at first selected, It
was thought, would seem less appropriate when
placed in a thriving town, surrounded by a
highly cultivated country. Knox, as a name,
might define the location, or it might call to
mind the founder of the British and American
Presbyterian churches. It will be borne in mind
that manual labor was to be a feature of the
institution. The fact that land, such as cost
the Oneida Institute in New York State one
hundred dollars per acre, could be had in Illi-
nois practically without cost, was a leading
consideration in the undertaking. But it soon
appeared that, while the town population
around the Oneida Institute furnished a market
for what could be produced by the manual labor
of men working a small part of each day with
inexpensive outfit, farming in Illinois, requiring
continuous work with team and implements,
was impracticable under college management.
Students were encouraged to take advantage of
opportunities for work in the shops, houses,
and grounds of citizens, and such as chose
generally found situations. Labor was always
honored in Knox College; it was the prevail-
ing sentiment with the founders that indolence
was disgraceful and idleness a crime.

Only about one hundred acres of the college
farm reservation was put under cultivation be-
fore the coming of the railroad, with depots,
shops and yards, located on the premises, made
its sale a source of wealth to the institution.
The name "Manual Labor," becoming inap-
propriate and misleading, was, on petition of the
trustees, stricken out by act of the Legislature.

As incorporators, were selected five of the
original colonists already on the ground, George



K N X IC U N T Y



G85



W. Gale, John Waters, Nehemiah West, Thomas
Simmons, and Nehemiah H. Losey. To them
were added Matthew Chambers and Erastus
Swift, of the Vermont accession to the colony,
Parnach Owen and John G. Sanburn, prom-
inent citizens of Knoxville, George H. Wright.
a Monmouth physician, and Ralph H. Hurl-
burt, a leading merchant, packer, produce
dealer, and land holder living at Mount Sterling
— Hurlburt and Wright being from Oneida
County, New Yorlc.

Tbe charter made the Board selt-perpetuat-
ing, with power to increase their number to
twenty-four, in addition to the College Presi-
dent, who was to be a member ex-officio. All
vacancies were to be filled by vote of the Board
Itself. The thirteen places not filled in the
charter were intended for colonists not yet ar-
rived, new-comers, or influential men in the
surrounding country from which patronage was
expected.

On August 9, 1837, the Board of Trustees held
Its first meeting at Knoxville, in the house of
Matthew Chambers, when it was voted to erect
an academy building as soon as possible. John
Waters was chosen President; N. H. Losey,
Clerk; and John G. Sanburn, Treasurer; the
term of office to be one year. William Holyoke,
Peter Butler, and Silvanus Ferris were at the
same time added to the Board. The building
was finished in the Fall of 183S, and opened for
students, with Professor N. H. Losey as Prin-
cipal and Hiram Marsh as assistant.

In 1S41, the college was fully organized, with
Rev. H. H. Kellogg as President (he was chosen
In 1838); Rev. George W. Gale, Professor of
Belles-Lettres and acting Professor of Ancient
Languages; and N. H. Losey, Professor of
Mathematics. The next year Innes Grant was
made Professor of Languages. In 1843, the
first catalogue was issued, showing an enroll-
ment of one hundred and seventy-five students.

In 1845, President Kellogg, who had been pas-
tor of the church and college agent as well as
president, resigned, and was succeeded by Rev.
Jonathan Blanchard, who filled these offices
until 1857. In 1846, the first class, nine in num-
ber, was graduated. In 1851, three young ladies
graduated from the seminary, Knox's first
alumnae. In all, one hundred and fifty-nine
stude.its graduated in the thirteen classes
which left the institution under the Rev.
Jonathan Blanchard's presidency.

In this period, occurred that bitter contro-
versy, which threatened at one time to disrupt



the college, sometimes called the "Blanchard
War." It was a struggle to place the govern-
ment of Knox College in the hands of the Con-
gregational Church. It was practically ter-
minated (though the existing bitterness re-
mained long after) April 30, 1858, when Rev. Dr.
Harvey Curtis was chosen President. Since
then the college, while non-sectarian in govern-
ment and instruction, has had a Presbyterian
President, except during the four years of Dr.
Gulliver's incumbency, and a larger number
of the trustees have belonged to that church
than to any other.

In May, 1859, the General Association of the
Congregational Church in Illinois adopted a
report reflecting severely on Knox College and
the opponents of Dr. Blanchard. But for many
years past Knox College has found its warmest
supporters in that as well as in the Presbyterian
church.

Dr. Harvey Curtis remained through June,
1863. It was a hard time for the infant college.
The war cut down the attendance so far that in
the five years of his presidency only seventy-
nine were graduated from both college and
seminary.

In 1863, Dr. William Stanton Curtis was
chosen President and remained in office five
years, during which period the college had only
sixty graduates.

At the close of his administration, the condi-
tion of the Institution's finances had become
alarming. At the beginning of its history, the
net proceeds from the sale of lands, after meet-
ing expenses attending establishment of the
colony, fell below expectations, and failed to
provide an endowment sufficient for the support
of the college, even in those times of low sal-
aries, when the requirements were so much less
than now. An unfortunate liberality, allowing
more than one student to receive free tuition
on a single scholarship at the same time, caused
the attendance to be almost entirely on scholar-
ships, thus cutting off revenue from tuition.
But the gradual sale of town lots, on which
little calculation seems to have been made, sup-
plied sufficient income to meet expenses, until
the location of the railroad on college land
brought its reserve property into market and
largely advanced the value of all its unsold
holdings.

The sudden and great Increase in the wealth
of the institution was followed by liberal ex-
penditures, extensive building, an enlarged
faculty, increased salaries, and the organization



68f)



KNOX COUNTY.



of the Female Seminary on a more expensive
scale. The panic of 1857 dissipated much of
this apparent wealth, but the sales had been
large, and the full effect of the revulsion was
not felt for some years.

While in 1868, the college still had a large
property, the difference between current ex-
penses and income made the necessity of aid
from the public soon apparent. Dr. John P.
Gulliver, at that time a trustee, the pastor of a
large Congregational church in Chicago, and
well known as an effective speaker in pulpit and
on platform, was proposed for President. It
was urged that his talents and reputation would
attract and hold students, and, with the public,
secure recognition and pecuniary aid. The
Presbyterian trustees waived objection on de-
nominational grounds, and he was unanimously
elected. His administration was brilliant; he
brought strong additions to the faculty; the
number of students increased; and through his
four years, from 1868 to 1872, there were sev-
enty-two graduates. But expenses increased,
little tuition was collected, the scholarships were
still alive, and there was no considerable addi-
tion to the endowment by donation. At the end
of four years, so great was the reduction in the
income-bearing property that the trustees
deemed large reductions in expenses imperative.
The President insisted on an increase both in
teaching force and equipment, and resigned, sev-
eral members of the faculty going at the same
time. For three years the presidency remained
unfilled, most of the duties of that position
being filled by Dr. Albert Hurd. In 1875, Dr.
Newton Bateman, who had then just retired
from the State superintendency of Public In-
struction, where his marvelous record had made
him famous, was induced to accept the vacant
place. During Dr. Bateman's administration
the college grew largely. His character admir-
ably fitted him for just this work. He gradually
smoothed over the difficulties still surviving
from the Blanchard controversy. His first
graduating class numbered sixteen; his last,
forty-nine. It was while he was President that
Knox, in 1887, celebrated its semi-centennial.
The gymnasium, the Alumni Hall, and the addi-
tions to Whiting Hall were built, and the stand-
ard of the curriculum was very materially
raised. In 1884, the cadet corps was started,
a law being enacted authorizing the Government
to detail a special officer here for the work. In
1883, under Miss Lepha A. Kelsey, the Con-
servatory of Music was started. Under her suc-



cessor, W. F. Bentley, the school has grown till
over two hundred and fifty pupils are now en-
rolled. An Art School has also been established.

In 1892, Dr. John H. Finley, a Knox graduate
of 1887, was elected President, Dr. Bateman
continuing to act, however, for one year, and
remaining with the institution which he had
so greatly benefited and on which he had shed
such honor, as President Emeritus, until his
death, in 1897. In 1892-3, the college extension
courses were organized, and are now conducted
by the Professors, to the great good of the
places visited by them and the consequent favor-
able advertising of the college. Extension lec-
turers from other schools are also brought here.
In 1894, the Summer School was established.
Many more elective courses than formerly are
now offered; the library has been greatly en-
larged; the scientific equipment is much im-
proved; and the education here obtainable is
much more thorough than ever before.

Including the class of 1899, the total number
of Knox graduates is twelve hundred and fifty-
nine.

In June, 1899, President Finley resigned, to
engage in magazine work in New York, and the
college is as yet without a President. In the
interim, the trustees elected Professor T. R.
Millard Dean of the Faculty, and the present
outlook for the institution is very bright.

In what has been already said, no special ref-
erence has been made to the gradual multiplica-
tion and improvement of the college buildings.
The original structure was long known as the
"old academy." It stood on the northeast cor-
ner of Main and Cherry streets, and is now a
dwelling house. Next came a Female Seminary,
built in 1841 at a cost of five thousand dollars,
and burned in 1843. In 1844, the "East Bricks,"
which is still standing, and the "West Bricks,"
torn down to make room for Alumni Hall, were
built. In 1S46, the "new academy" was erected,
and used as an academy for about twelve years,
after which it was utilized for a High School,
until it was finally demolished, to give place
to the Union Hall. In 1855, the trustees found
Knox College so much enriched by the rise of
its real property, induced by the opening of the
railroad, that they erected the main building
and the principal portion of the Whiting Hall
at a cost of nearly $100,000.

The first Gymnasium, a wooden building still
standing on the east side of the campus, was
erected by the students.

In 1885, the east wing of Whiting Hall waa




^^^►5^^/ ^...^l^^^i^^ fc^^^^^



KNOX COUNTY



087



built, and in 1S92. the west wing, each costing
about ten thousand dollars. In ISSS, the Ob-
servatory was erected.

On October S, 1S90, President Harrison laid the
corner stone of Alumni Hall, a handsome build-
ing, erected by the gifts of old students. It con-
tains a chapel, seating nearly one thousand,
with Adelphi and Gnothautii Halls in eithei
wing. Its cost approximated fifty thousand dol-
lars.

Among the student organizations, the literary
societies are the oldest and best known. Their
work has been a distinguishing featvire of the
college for many years. The training there
given in the facile use of language and in oratory
has put the college at the head of all in the
West in prize winning. Her orators have won
the inter-state oratorical contest six times, tak-
ing .iVe first prizes and once being awarded sec-
ond place. The drill in debate, in impromptu
speaking and in parliamentary law, obtained in
these societies, has also proved of incalculable
value to their members in after life, as many
graduates can testify.

In the order of their founding, these societies
are:

The Adelphi, which was organized in the
Spring of 1846 and chartered in May, 1847. About
one thousand members have been connected
with it since its organization. It owns the
west wing of Alumni Hall. Until that was
built, its meeting place was in the second
Btory of the old "West Bricks." The society
awards a prize of thirty-five dollars every year
to the member who wins the Adelphi Debate,
which takes place in the Spring term, between
four contestants chosen by the society.

The Gnothautii, which was organized Novem-
ber 1. 1S49. by Adelphians, who felt aggrieved
at the position taken by the parent society in
the "Blanchard War." It also has a prize de-
bating contest, known as the Colton Debate,
because General D. D. Colton gave the fund, the
income from which has been used since 1877 for
this prize. The society used to meet in the
"East Bricks." but now owns the east wing of
Alumni Hall, leasing the first story to the col-
lege.

Both these societies are open to all male
students of the academic department. Recently
Mr. George A. Lawrence established two prizes
for extempore debate, to be competed for by
two members from each society. The first con-
test was held in 1S96. Mr. E. A. Bancroft has
also offered two prizes for oratory, the contest-



ants to be members of these societies, the first
competitive exhibition being given in 1S97.

The L. M. I., which was organized November
20. ISGl. It seeks to afford the female students
the same advantages that the two societies men-
tioned above give the men. The meetings are
held every Wednesday afternoon in the large,
nicely furnished hall on the third floor of Whit-
ing Hall, owned by the society and fitted with
a stage, where most enjoyable entertainments
are frequently given.

The Zetetici (Seek to know) and E. O. D. (To
be. not seem> are the young men's societies of
the preparatory department. Zetetici was or-
ganized in the Fall of 18G5 and E. O. D. in
December. 1873.

The Oneota. the young ladies' society of the
academy, was organized in October. 1889. The
name is an Indian word, meaning "the pursuit
of fine arts." Meetings are held every Frid.ay
afternoon.

The Greek letter fraternities supply most of
the social life for the college at the present
time. As in other schools, in late years, their
growth has been marvelous, and in numbers
and influence, they are now far stronger than
ever before. At present there are five chapters
in the school.

Those to which men only are admitted are:

The Phi Delta Theta. Illinois Delta chapter,
which was organized l\Iarch 16, 1871; reor-
ganized in ISSO. The fraternity hall is on the
third floor of the new Tunnicliff Building.

The Beta Theta Pi, Xi chapter, which was
organized in 1853; reorganized as Alpha Xt
chapter in ISSS. A chapter house is rented on
the corner of Cedar and South streets.

The Phi Gamma Delta. Gamma Deuteron
chapter, which was organized in 1867; reor-
ganized in December, 188.';. Their hall is on the
third floor of the building on the southeast
corner of Main and Cherry streets.

The societies for ladies are:

The Phi Beta Phi, Illinois Delta chapter,



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