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which was organized March 7. 1884,

The only secret society for women students
is the Delta Delta Delta, Epsilon chapter, which
was established during the Fall term of 1888.

Besides the literary societies and the
fraternities, there are several organizations of
a more or less miscellaneous character.

The Inter-State Oratorical Association dates
from February 27, 1874, when, in response to an
invitation from the students of the college,
orators from six colleges in Illinois, Iowa, and



688



KNOX COUNTY,



Wisconsin contested at Galesburg. From this
Email beginning, grew tlie present association,
consisting of ten Intercollegiate Societies in as
many different States, and representing nearly-
one hundred colleges. Out of twenty-six con-
tests, Knox College has won Ave first and one
second prize.

The Contest Association is made up of the
members of the Adelphi and the Gnothautii. It
elects an orator and delegates to the Illinois
Inter-Collegiate Oratorical Society.

The Athletic Association has for its aim the
promotion and perfection of physical culture.

The Memorabilia Society, which was formed in
the Spring of 1890, seeks to preserve interesting
data in connection with the college.

The chief societies of a religious character are
as follows:

The Y. M. C. A., which was organized in 1S84.
It meets every Friday evening in Whiting Hall
chapel. The Knox Volunteer Band, which is
composed of those who have agreed to go as
foreign missionaries.

The first college publication was "The
Knoxiana." Its first issue appeared in August,
1850. It soon suspended, but was revived in
May, 1S51, by the "Knoxiana Publication Com-
pany," and was prosperous for five years. In
the Fall of 1856, the Gnothautii started a rival
paper, "The Oak Leaf." But two papers could
not be supported, and after one year's rivalry,
they were discontinued. In lSGO-61, Adelphi
published a quarterly, the last effort at journal-
Ism in the college until 1878. In the Spring of
that year the students, in mass meeting, de-
cided to have a paper, and that same Autumn
"The Knox Student" was started. It ran through
18S0-S1, when the "Knox Student Joint Stock
Company" was organized. It held a meeting,
September 15, 18S1, in which such a storm
arose that the "Coup d' Etat" was started, and
immediately supplanted the old paper. It re-
mained till June, 1898, the literary magazine of
the college, and was published monthly by the
"Coup d' Etat Joint Stock Company." The col-
lege newspaper during that time was "The Knox
Student," published weekly by the "Knox
Student Joint Stock Company," founded in June,
1894, in order to supply fresher news than could
appear in a monthly. But two papers were
more than the college could support, so in June,
1898, the "Student" and "Coup d' Etat" were
consolidated under the name of the former.
"The Knox Student" now appears weekly and
combines the literary and news features.



The college annuals have been "The Pan-
theon," for 1869-70; the "Mischmasch," for
1870-71; and "The Gale," published first for
1887-88. For four years the fraternities pub-
lished it. In 1891-92, a Knox Souvenir was
prepared by two students. In 1893, no annual
was published. In 1894, the Juniors, class of
1895, revived "The Gale," and in 1895, two
Juniors published it. It now seems established
as a Junior publication, after the fashion of
most other colleges.

LOMBARD UNIVERSITY.
By C. Ellwood Nash, D. D.

The motives which inspired the founding of
Lombard University may be learned from the
preamble and resolutions adopted, upon motion
of the Rev. C. P. West, by the Spoon River
Association of Universalists in session at Green-
bush, Illinois, May 19, 1850:

"WHEREAS, The intellectual and moral im-
provement of our youth is a subject of vital
importance not only to our denomination but to
the community at large; and

"WHEREAS, Most, if not all, of the literary
institutions of the State, higher than common
schools, established by law, have ever been and
still are in the hands and under the control of
our religious opponents; and

"WHEREAS, The sectarian influence of these
is detrimental to the cause of free inquiry after
religious truth, injurious to the spread of Unl-
versalism, and sometimes ruinous to the peace
and happiness of the students themselves; there-
fore

"RESOLVED, That the Universalists of this
State ought immediately to adopt measures for
the establishment of a seminary of learning
which shall be free from the above named ob-
jections.

"RESOLVED, That said institution should be
located in Galesburg, Knox County, Illinois."

A genuine love of learning, combined with
tenacious loyalty to religious conviction,
breathes in these resolutions; for they resulted
in the opening of the Illinois Liberal Institute
in September, 1852, Rev. P. R. Kendall being
the first Principal.

That there were room and demand for the
new school was evidenced by the attendance
which, starting with sixty pupils, rapidly in-
creased, in 1856-7, to two hundred and forty-five.
With this growth in number, the ambitions of
the management grew also, and, in 1855, a new
charter was obtained which created the Lom-



K ^• ox CO U X T V.



689



tard University. The energy, the planning, the
sacrifices that made this enterprise successful
were great. In April, ISSo, the original insti-
tute building was burned. The school, without
a home and scattered about in various rooms,
continued to thrive and increase. The canvass
for a permanent endowment, which was begun
early in 1S54 under the leadership of President
Kendall, who was ably seconded by Rev. G. S.
Weaver, was pushed on with greater zeal. The
largest single contribution was made by Benja-
min Lombard, who, prompted by a "mingling of
civic and denominational pride, with an Interest
in educational matters directly inherited from
his Mayflower ancestry," gave to this cause
property the estimated value of which was
120.000. In his honor the university was named.
With a portion of the funds thus secured the
brick structure, which has since been the domi-
cile of the university, was erected. Mr. Kendall
remained President nominally until June, 1857,
although Professor J. V. N. Standish was Acting
President from October, 185-1, to June, 1857. He
was succeeded in that office by Dr. Otis A. Skin-
ner. On his resignation in 1859, Dr. J. P. Weston
was elected to the Presidency. Dr. Weston's
administration, which continued for thirteen
years, was signalized by the raising of a per-
manent fund of nearly $100,000, and by wise and
scholarly plans which gave the institution a
solid educational basis. After him. Professor
William Livingston served as Provisional Presi-
dent for three years: and in 1875, Dr. N. White
was installed in the presidential office, which he
filled with Christian dignity and a wealth of
erudition for seventeen years. Upon his resigna-
tion in 1892, he was put in charge of the Ryder
Divinity School (which was established in 1881,
as a department of the university, and named
for Dr. William H. Ryder, of Chicago, whose
will bequeathed about $46,000 to the institution,
of which he had long been a leading trustee),
and Dr. J. V. N. Standish was made President.
He retired in 1895, and the present incumbent,
Dr. C. Ellwood Nash, an alumnus of Lombard,
was called to the chair. It should be said of
Dr. Standish that, beginning his connection
with the school in 1854. he served it with dis-
tinguished credit for a period of forty-one years,
in almost every capacity. Not less earnest has
been the attachment to Lombard University of
Dr. Isaac A. Parker, who entered the profes-
sorial staff in 1858, and still continues to dis-
charge his duties as head of the department of
the classics, with unabated zeal and extraordi-



nary ability. The important services of Pro-
fessor William Livingston, who, from 1855 to
1873, was one of the guiding spirits of the in-
stitutioa, filling several different positions with
efficiency, must not pass unmentioned. It may
well be believed that the fortunes of the institu-
tion have been nobly supported during the
forty-seven years of its history, by a host of
devoted friends, whom it would be most fitting
to honor here by name. But they have their
monument and memorial in the things actually
achieved, and "their works do follow them."

As President Kendall's administration was
chiefly distinguished by the strong impulse he
gave the University; Dr. Watson's, by the rais-
ing of nearly $100,000 for an endowment; and
Dr. White's, by the founding of the Ryder Divin-
ity School; so Dr. Standish began the raising
of funds for a Woman's Building, and thus may
be said to have opened the way for further im-
provements. The amount secured by his canvass
was nominally about $40,000, which has since
been increased to about $51,000. With a por-
tion of this fund has been erected a substantial
and commodious Ladies' Hall, which was opened
in September, 1896. The Association of Grad-
uates undertook, in 1896, to build a Gymnasium,
which was completed in September, 1897. From
its beginning, the University has maintained
a steady growth, if not a rapid one. Its property
is now valued at about $250,000, of which $100,-
000 is the estimate for the campus and buildings,
and the remainder is the Invested Fund. It was
one of the first colleges in the country to open
its doors to women on equal terms with men,
and continues with unfaltering confidence its co-
educational plan. It is a school of progressive
ideas and methods, and aims to be thoroughly
up-to-date in its dealing with the educational
problem. Though the religious conditions, which
seemed to make its establishment a necessity,
have since been considerably modified, the need
of sound scholarship has suffered no abatement,
and Lombard University, true to its own ideals,
is abler than ever and equally resolute to do
its part in the common work of laying a foun-
dation for the future by the generous enlight-
enment of the rising generation.

GALESBURG PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
By F. D. Thomson.
For many years, the only public schools in
Galesburg were those maintained by the dis-
tricts. Elementary instruction was, for the
most part, obtained at private institutions and



690



KNOX COUNTY.



at Knox Academy. The school taught by Pro-
fessor Losey and Miss Gay, at Log City, was the
first of any kind. In November or December,
1838, the Academy was opened. It was a one-
story building, and stood on the northeast cor-
ner of Main and Cherry streets. A second story
was soon added, and William Van Meter was
employed by a few citizens, at their own ex-
pense, to teach here. In 1839, C. S. Colton built
a small school house on the northeast corner of
the public square, with inclined aisles, after the
fashion of modern audience rooms. It was soon
moved to the north side of Ferris street, between
Broad and Cherry streets. Eli Farnham was
the first teacher. There were two terms, of six
months each, in the school year. This was the
first public school building, properly so called,
and later a building] owned by Matthew Cham-
bers, at No. 1 Main street, on the northeast
corner of Henderson, was devoted to the same
purpose. The third building of this class was
constructed of brick, and stood on Pine street,
just south of Main. The fourth was situated on
Brooks street, near the Monmouth road. The
fifth was just north of the present Seventh
Ward school site. This was soon replaced by
a second building, erected on the same lot. The
sixth was on the north side of Simmons street,
a half block east of Hope Cemetery. The sev-
enth stood on the corner of Kellogg and Losey
streets. These were all the school houses, but
there were eight districts, each with its separate
Board of Directors. There was no co-operation,
and the teaching was poor; so poor, in fact,
that the best people sent their children to the
Academy or to private schools, the best patron-
ized among the latter being that of Miss Kitty
Watson. It stood In the middle of Block 12, and
the building which It occupied may still be
seen.

In 1855, George Churchill returned from Eu-
rope, where he had studied the Prussian school
system, which he greatly admired. Through the
columns of the "Galesburg Democrat" he urged
the importance of "graded union schools" for the
eight hundred school children then in Gales-
burg. Two years later, W. S. Baker, who en-
joyed a wide reputation 'as a successful school
organizer, was induced, in consideration of the
payment of one hundred dollars, to aid in or-
ganizing the public schools. Mr. Baker made
his home with Dr. Churchill, who, in addition to
this contribution to the cause, donated one-half
of the hundred dollars paid him. But the plan
was new and excited much opposition, even



among the trustees, some of whom feared that
better public scnools would ruin the Academy.
But the champions of reform won, by force of
argument, aided by persistence.

Late in 1858, the eight old districts were con-
solidated into one, and George Churchill, A.
B. Campbell and J. H. Knapp were elected di-
rectors, and given power to grade the schools.
For some time, they encountered no little oppo-
sition in their efforts to introduce a uniform
system of instruction. They rented from C.
S. Colton a building on the west side of the
public square, just north of Main street, and
also secured the old postoffice building on Broad
street and the square. Here was the first Gram-
mar school; where instruction was given in the
two highest grades of the five which were at
first established. Pupils in the three lower
grades attended the outlying schools. Mrs. G.
A. Tryon, who had taught in graded schools in
Ohio, was made the first Principal. She gave up
one of the best private schools in the city in or-
der to aid the Directors in their work. In
January, 1860, Mrs. Tryon was forced, by illness,
to resign, and was succeeded by J. H. Knapp
during the remainder of the year. He was fol-
lowed by R. B. Guild, who was Superintendent
for two years. J. B. Roberts, appointed in
September, 1862, remained till M. Andrews was
appointed in September, 1875. He held the of-
fice ten years, W. L. Steele, the present incum-
bent, being appointed in September, 1885.

In 1858, at a citizens' meeting held in the
First Congregational Church, a committee of
fifteen, of which George Churchill was chair-
man, was appointed to take some action looking
toward the establishment of a free graded school
system. They engaged Judge Lanphere and
O. S. Pitcher to draft an act for the accomplish-
ment of this end. It was passed by the Legis-
lature, February 18, 1859, but not accepted by
the city until 1861, when a Board of Education,
composed of one member from each ward, was
elected. Previous to that time, the three Di-
rectors had had executive control.

It was during the superintendency of Mr.
Guild that the present general system of man-
agement was inaugurated, but the schools were
slow in reaching their present state of develop-
ment. The first Superintendent's report was
made for the year ending June, 1865. There
were then seven grades and a two-year High
School course. (At present there are eight
grades and a three-year High School course.)
In this report is a strong plea for a Teachers'




fj L^i^C^ -^



ctyi



c/jb



K N X C U N T Y



Training School, which followed just twenty-
three years later, Miss Lillian Taylor being the
instructor. Much good has been done, and more
is hoped for, from this systematic training. At
present, nearly all the teachers have received a
collegiate training; and the e.xercise of the ut-
most care in their selection has, more than
anything else, improved the schools.

The greatest advance in educational methods
has been made in the last ten years. In 1SS7,
manual training was introduced into the curric-
ulum, the shops being located in the basement
of the Churchill School, and the director of in-
struction being Earl Stilson. At present, Mr.
G. H. Bridge is the director and the instruction
is given in the basement of the High School
building. Many of the pupils become skilled me-
chanics. The study of music was introduced in
188S; of drawing, in 1S91: and of vertical waiting
in 1S96. Text-books have grown better from
year to year; kindergarten methods have been
adopted in all lines of work; and the teacher
has become not the terror, but the friend of the
pupil.

Prior to 1893, pupils in the five lower grades
received instruction in the ward schools, while
those in the three higher grades attended a
central "Grammar School." At first this was
necessary, in order to bind the separated dis-
trict schools in one homogeneous system. There
has been some disposition, however, to build
small school houses in the outlying wards; and
this has been fostered by owners of real estate
in those sections of the city, who see in their
erection the enhancement of the value of their
property. In these small schools, there are not
a sufficient number of pupils to permit each
teacher to instruct in one grade only; two, or
even three, being taught in a single room, to
the manifest disadvantage of the pupils. On
the other hand, the schools in the center of the
city have become congested. The present plan
is to build large ward schools, and in them pre-
pare the pupils for the High School. Only the
Hitchcock, the Weston, and the Bateman schools
are large enough for this, the first having been
enlarged in 1893, the second in 1895, and the
third in 1899. From other wards, the pupils
come to the Churchill school — the ward school
for the First and Second wards — for the three
highest grammar grades. The system of in-
struction in the High School, since the com-
pletion of the new building, has been depart-
mental, each teacher devoting himself or her-
self to a single branch. The result has been



more competent teaching and better progress
by the pupils.

The earlier school houses have been described.
The High School was first opened In 18C1, in
the "New Academy," where now is the Union
Hotel. In 1865, all the buildings on the public
square had to be vacated. Both the High and
Grammar schools were then removed to the old
Baptist Church, at the corner of Broad and
Tompkins streets, for which (both site and
building) the price paid was two thousand dol-
lars.

In 1865, the Churchill School was begun, and
finished in 1866, at a cost of sixty thousand dol-
lars. It was called "Grammar School" until 1896,
when the Board of Education changed the name
in honor of the man who made graded schools
in Galesburg an accomplished fact. It was also
used as a High School until 1888. when the new
High School building was completed nt an out-
lay of twenty-eight thousand dollars. In 1896,
an addition was made costing twenty thousand
dollars. Here each teacher has a recitation
room, and there is a large study hall for the
pupils. The Fourth Ward School, at the corner
of Mulberry street and Allen avenue, was erect-
ed in 1869. About 1882 it was partially burned,
ana in its rebuilding, was greatly improved, at a
cost of tweniy-flve thousand dollars. In 1895,
it was entirely remodeled with a view to per-
mitting pupils to be prepared there for the High
School. The Third Ward School was built in
1875, at the corner of Cherry and Selden streets;
and in 1893. at an expenditure of some ten thou-
sand dollars, ?n addition was made with the
same end in view. The Sixth Ward School, at
the corner of Clark and Losey streets, was
erected in 1877, and in 1899, fifteen thousand
dollars was spent in its enlargement, the object
being the same. The Seventh Ward School, at
the corner of Third and Seminary streets, was
built in 1876, and the Fifth Ward School, which
stands at the corner of Second and Academy
streets, at about the same time. Owing to the
growth of the Third and Fourth wards, Lincoln
School was built, on the corner of North and
Pearl streets, in 1890. All these buildings were
two story and basement structures, of red brick
with light stone trimmings. They had four
rooms on each Hoor. with ample hallways, and
cost from thirteen to sixteen thousand dollars
each. In 1891, the Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth,
and Seventh Ward schools were named, respec-
tively: Hitchcock, for the gentleman of that
name, who was Superintendent of the Chicago



KNOX COUNTY.



Burlington and Quincy Railroad, and who was
always much interested in public affairs; Wes-
ton, for one of the early Lombard Presidents;
Cooke, for M. D. Cooke, who for thirteen years
was a member of the Board of Education; Bate-
man, for Dr. Newton Bateman; and Douglas, in
honor of the "Little Giant." There is a pri-
mary school for the children of the First and
the Second Ward— a small frame building be-
tween the Churchill and High schools. All these
school houses are heated by steam and have
modern improvements in ventilating devices;
while those recently erected have the best pos-
sible system of lighting.

In the early sixties, there was a separate
school for negroes established, at their own re-
quest. They preferred their children not to at-
tend with those of the whites, who were much
younger and smaller than theirs in the same
grades.

Funds for the support of the schools are de-
rived from the State (from the proceeds of
school lands) and from taxation. A comparison
of the year just past (1897-8) and the year for
which the first report was made (1864-5) fol-
lows:

RECEIPTS.

1865. 1898.

State fund $ 1,498.98 $ 3,337.09

Tuition 68.95 270.00

Tax, interest, etc 5,898.66 75,519.01

Total $ 7,466.59 $79,126.10

EXPENDITURES.

1865. 1898.

Salaries $ 6.965.50 $38,894.50

School grounds 2.000.00 600.00

Janitor, repairs, etc 2,696.89 29,110.28

Total $11,662.39 $68,604.78

Deficit $ 4,195.80

Surplus $10,521.32

ATTENDANCE.

1865. 1896. 1898.

Enrollment 878 2,896 3,396

Average attendance 790 2,417 2,730

Colored 117 154 149

High School 47 293 423

Teachers 22 72 77

The school property is now worth about two
hundred thousand dollars.

CATHOLIC SCHOOLS.

There are in Galesburg three Catholic schools,
St. Joseph's Academy, St. Mary's Primary and
Corpus Christi Lyceum and University.

St. Joseph's Academy and Convent, at the cor-



ner of Knox and Academy streets, was erected
in 1878-9 at a cost of about thirty thousand
dollars. In September, 1879, it was opened, with
a staff of ten teachers, and about four hun-
dred pupils of both sexes. It has been con-
ducted from the beginning by the Sisters of
Providence, from St. Mary's of the Woods, Indi-
ana. The Sisters have hitherto been very suc-
cessful in their work, as is evidenced by the
large number of accomplished young ladies who
have graduated from the academy. The loca-
tion of the building is healthy and the surround-
ings pleasant. The course of study embraces
four years.

St. Mary's Primary School stands on the cor-
ner of Fourth and Seminary streets, in the
Seventh Ward. It is an elementary school for
boys and girls from six to twelve years of age,
and serves as a preparatory department for St.
Joseph's Academy. The school, with its accom-
panying playground, was purchased with the
view of obviating the danger of accidents occur-
ring to such small children as might be obliged
to cross the railroad tracks in going to and from
the academy. Besides, the walk would be rather
long, and the weather often too inclement for
the little ones. Two Sisters from the academy
attend St. Mary's daily and the school has
proved a great benefit.

The Corpus Christi Lyceum and University
was opened in September, 1895, for the educa-
tion of young men in the higher branches of
learning, including a classical and commer-
cial course, as well as a course in music. The
building is an ornate and solid structure, and
well supplied with all that is necessary to con-
stitute a modern outfit. Since its first open-
ing, in 1895, a notable feature has been added to
its status. This occurred in 1897, when the
Lyceum was raised to the rank of a university.
At present, therefore, this institution com-
prises two departments, Lyceum and Univer-
sity. The curriculum of the Lyceum department
embraces the subjects usually covered by the
average High School course. The University
course requires four years for its completion,
and on graduation the degree of B. A. is con-
ferred.

The Corpus Christi Lyceum and University is
conducted by the Fathers of the Order of Char-
ity, who never weary in their endeavors to in-
culcate sound moral and religious principles.



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