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Ireland, and who served two terms in Congress
from Vermont, four from Kentucky (1803-11),
and was elected the first Delegate in Congress
from Arkansas Territory, but died before taking
his seat in August, 1833. Lyon was also a resi-
dent for a time of St. Louis, and was a candidate
for Delegate to Congress from Missouri Territory,
but defeated by Edward Hempstead (see Hemp-
stead, Edward). Dr. Caldwell descended the
Ohio River in 1799 in company with Lyon's
family and his brother-in-law, John Messinger
(see Messinger, John), who afterwards became a
prominent citizen of St. Clair County, the party
locating at Eddyville, Ky. In 1802, Caldwell
and Messinger removed to Illinois, landing near
old Fort Chartres, and remained some time in
the American Bottom. The former finally
located on the banks of the Mississippi a few
miles above St. Louis, where he practiced his
profession and held various public offices, includ-
ing those of Justice of the Peace and County
Judge for St. Clair County, as also for Madison
County after the organization of the latter. He
served as State Senator from Madison County
in the First and Second General Assemblies
(1818-33), and, having removed in 1830 within the
limits of what is now Morgan County (but still
earlier embraced in Greene), in 1833 was elected
to the Senate for Greene and Pike Counties —
the latter at that time embracing all the northern
and northwestern part of the State, including
the county of Cook. During the following ses-
sion of the Legislature he was a sturdy opponent
of the scheme to make Illinois a slave State. His
home in Morgan County was in a locality known
as "Swinerton's Point," a few miles west of
Jacksonville, where he died, August 1, 1826.
(See Slavery and Slave Lairs. ) Dr. Caldwell (or
Cadwell, as he was widely known) commanded
a high degree of re.spect among early residents of
Illinois. Governor Reynolds, in his "Pioneer
History of Illinois," says of him: "He was
moral and correct in his public and private life,
. . . was a respectable physician, and always
maintained an unblemished character. "

CALHOUN, John, pioneer printer and editor,
was born at Watertown, N. Y., April 14, 1808;
learned the printing trade and practiced it in his
native town, also working iu a type-foundry in
Albany and as a compositor in Troy. In the fall
of 1833 he came to Chicago, bringing with him



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



73



an outfit for the publication of a weekly paper,
and, on Nov. 2G, began the issue of "The Chicago
Democrat" — the first paper ever published in that
city. Mr. Calhoun retained the management of
the paper three years, tran.sferring it in Novem-
ber, 1836, to John Wentworth, who conducted it
until its absorption by "The Tribune" in July,
1801. Mr. Calhoun afterwards served as County
Treasurer, still later as Collector, and, finally, as
agent of the Illinois Central Railroad in procur-
ing right of way for the construction of its lines.
Died in Chicago, Feb. 20, 1859.

CALHOUX, John, siu-veyor and politician, was
born in Boston, Mass., Oct. 14, 1806; removed to
Springfield. 111., in 1830, served in the Black
Hawk War and was soon after appointed County
Surveyor. It was under Mr. Calhoun, and by his
appointment, that Abraham Lincoln served for
some time as Deputy Surveyor of Sangamon
County. In 1838 Calhoun was chosen Represent-
ative in the General Assembly, but was defeated
in 1840, though elected Clerk of the House at the
following session. He was a Democratic Presi-
dential Elector in 1844, was an vmsuccessful
candidate for the nomination for Governor in
1846, and, for three terms (1849, '50 and '51),
served as Mayor of the city of Springfield. In
1852 he was defeated by Richard Yates (after-
wards Governor and United States Senator), as a
candidate for Congress, but two years later was
appointed by President Pierce Surveyor-General
of Kansas, where he became discreditably con-
spicuous by his zeal in attempting to carry out
the policy of the Buchanan administration for
making Kansas a slave State — especially in con-
nection with the Lecompton Constitutional Con-
vention, with the election of which he had much
to do, and over whicli he presided. Died at St.
Joseph, Mo., Oct 25, 1859.

CALHOUN, William J., lawyer, was born in
Pittsburg, Pa., Oct. 5, 1847. After residing at
various points in that State, his family removed
to Ohio, where he worked on a farm until 1864,
when he enlisted as a private in the Nineteenth
Ohio Volunteer Infantry, serving to the end of
the war. He participated in a number of severe
battles while with Sherman on the march against
Atlanta, returning with General Thomas to Nash-
ville, Tenn. During the last few months of the
war he served in Texas, being mustered out at
San Antonio in that State, though receiving his
final discharge at Columbus, Ohio. After the
war he entered the Poland Union Seminary,
where he became the intimate personal friend of
Maj. William McKinley, who was elected to the



Presidency in 1890. Having graduated at the
seminary, he came to Areola, Douglas County,
111., and began the study of law, later taking a
course in a law school in Chicago, after which he
was admitted to the bar (1875) and established
himself in practice at Danville as the partner of
the Hon. Joseph B. Mann. In 1883 Mr. Calhoun
was elected as a Republican to the lower branch
of the Thirty-third General Assembly and, during
the following session, proved himself one of the
ablest members of that body. In May, 1897, Mr.
Calhoun was appointed by President McKinley a
special envoy to investigate the circumstances
attending the death of Dr. Ricardo Ruiz, a nat-
uralized citizen of the United States who had
died while a prisoner in the hands of the Spaniards
during the rebellion then in progress in Cuba.
In 1898 he was appointed a member of the Inter-
State Commerce Commission to succeed William
R. Morrison, whose term had expired.

CALHOUN COUNTY, situated between the
Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, just above their
junction. It has an area of 260 square miles,
with a population (1890) of ~,G'>'2; was organized
in 1825 and named for John C. Calhoun. Origi-
nally, the county was well timbered and the
early settlers were largely engaged in lumbering,
which tended to give the population more or less
of a migratory character. Mucli of the timber
has been cleared off, and the principal business
in later years has been agriculture, although coal
is found and mined in paying quantities along
Silver Creek. Tradition has it that the aborig-
ines found the precious metals in the bed of this
stream. It was originally included within the
limits of the Military Tract set apart for the
veterans of the War of 1812. The physical con-
formation of the county's surface exhibits some
peculiarities. Limestone bluffs, rising some-
times to the height of 200 feet, skirt the banks of
both rivers, while through the center of the
county runs a ridge dividing the two watersheds.
The side valleys and the top of the central ridge
are alike fertile. The bottom lands are very
rich, but are liable to inundation. The county-
seat and principal town is Hardin, with a popula-
tion (1890) of 311.

CVLLAH.VN, Ethelbert, lawyer and legislator,
was born near Newark, Ohio, Deo. 17, 1829;
came to Crawford County, 111., in 1849, where he
farmed, taught school and edited, at different
times, "The Wabash Sentinel" and "The Marshall
Telegraph." He early identified himself with
the Republican party, and, in 1804, was the
Republican candidate for Congress in his dis-



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HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



trict ; became a member of the first State Board
of Equalization by appointment of Governor
Oglesby in 1867; served in the lower house of the
General Assembly during tlie sessions of 1875, "91,
'93 and '95, and, in 1893-95, on a Joint Committee
to revise the State Revenue Laws. He was also
Presidential Elector in 1880, and again in 1888.
Mr. Callahan was admitted to the bar when past
30 years of age, and was President of the State
Bar Association in 1889. His home is at Robinson.
CALUMET RIVER, a short stream the main
body of which is formed by tlie union of two
branches which come togetlier at the southern
boundary of the city of Cliioago, and which flows
into Lake Michigan a short distance north of the
Indiana State line. The eastern branch, known
as the Grand Calumet, flows in a westerly direc-
tion from Northwestern Indiana and imites with
the Little Calumet from the west, Z;4 miles from
the mouth of the main stream. From the south-
ern limit of Chicago the general course of tlie
stream is north between Lake Calumet and Wolf
Lake, which it serves to drain. At its mouth,
Calumet Harbor has been constructed, wliich
admits of tlie entrance of vessels of heavj'
draught, and is a shipping and receiving
point of importance for heavy freight for
the Illinois Steel Works, the Pullman Palace
Car Works and other manufacturing establish-
ments in that vicinity. The river is regarded as
a navigable stream, and has been dredged by the
General Government to a depth of twenty feet
and 200 feet wide for a distance of two miles,
with a depth of sixteen feet for the remainder of
the distance to the forks. The Calumet feeder
for the Illinois and Michigan Canal extends from
the west branch (or Little Calumet) to the canal
in the vicinity of Willow Springs. The stream
was known to the early Frencli explorers as "tlie
Calimic," and was sometimes confounded by
them with the Chicago River.

CALUMET RIVER RAILROAD, a short line,
4.43 miles in length, lying wholly within Cook
County. The Pennsylvania Railroad Company
is the lessee, but the line is not operated at present
(1898). Its outstanding capital stock is §68,700.
It has no funded debt, but has a floating debt of
$110 357, making a total capitalization of §185, 087.
This road extends from One Hundredth Street in
Chicago to Hegevi-isch, and was chartered in 1883.
(See Pennsylvania Railroad.)

CAMBRIDGE, the county-seat of Henry
County, about 160 miles southwest of Chicago,
on the Rock Island & Peoria Railroad. It is
situated in a fertile region chiefly devoted to



agriculture and stock-raising. The city is a
considerable grain market and has some manu-
factories. Some coal is also mined. It has a
public library, two newspapers, banks, good
schools, and handsome public (county) buildings.
Population (1880), 1,203; (1890), United States
census report, 940; local census, 1,284.

CAMERON, James, Cumberland Presbyterian
minister and pioneer, was born in Kentucky in
1791,;came to Illinois in 1815, and, in 1818, settled
in Sangamon County. In 1829 he is said to have
located where the town of New Salem (after-
wards associated with the earlj' history of Abra-
ham Lincoln) was built, and of which he and
James Rutledge were the founders. He is also
said to have officiated at the funeral of Ann
Rutledge, with whose memory Mr. Lincoln's
name has been tenderly a.ssociated by his biog-
raphers. Mr. Cameron subsequently removed
successively to Fulton County, 111., to Iowa and
to California, dying at a ripe old age, in the latter
State, about 1878.

CAMP DOUGLAS, a Federal military camp
established at Chicago early in the War of the
Rebellion, located betvs'een Thirty -first Street and
College Place, and Cottage Grove and Forest
Avenues. It was [originally designed and solely
used as a camp of instruction for new recruits.
Afterwards it was utilized as a place of confine-
ment for Confederate prisoners of war. (For
plot to liberate the latter, together with other
similar prisoners in Illinois, see Camp Douglas
Conspiracy. )

CAMP DOUGLAS CONSPIRACY, a plot formed
in 1864 for the liberation of the Confederate
prisoners of war at Chicago (in Camp Douglas),
Rock Island, Alton and Springfield. It was to be
but a preliminary step in the execution of a
design long cherished by the Confederate Gov-
ernment, viz., the seizing of the organized gov-
ernments of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and the
formation of a Northwestern Confederacy,
through the cooperation of the "Sons of Lib-
erty." (See Secret Treasonable Societies.) Three
peace commissioners (Jacob Thompson, C. C.
Clay and J. P. Holcomb), who had been sent
from Richmond to Canada, held frequent
conferences with leaders of the treasonable
organizations in the North, including Clement L.
Vallandigham, Bowles, of Indiana, and one
Charles Walsh, who was head of the movement
in Chicago, vi-ith a large number of allies in that
city and scattered throughout the States. The
general management of the affair was entrusted
to Capt. Thomas H. Hines. who had been second



IILSTOKICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OK ILLIXOI?



in oominancl to the rebel (ren. Joliii Morgan dur-
ing his raid north of the Ohio River, while Col.
Vincent Jlarmaduke. of Missouri, and G. St. Leger
Grenfell (an Englishman) were selected to
carry out the militarj- program. Hines followed
out his instructions with great zeal and labored
indefatigably. Thompson's duty was to dis-
seminate incendiary treasonable literature, and
strengthen the timorous "Sons of Liberty" by
the use of argument and money, both he and his
agents being lavishly supplied with the latter.
There was to be a draft in July, 1864. and it was
determined to arm the ""Sons of Liberty" for
resistance, the date of uprising being fixed for
July 20. This part of the scheme, however, was
finally abandoned. Captain Hines located him-
self at Chicago, and personally attended to the
distribution of funds and the purchase of arms.
The date finally fixed for the attempt to liberate
the Southern prisoners was August 29, 1864, when
the National Democratic Convention was to
assemble at Chicago. On that date it was
expected the city would be so crowded that the
presence of the promised force of "Sons" would
not excite comment. Tlie progi-am also included
an attack on the city by water, for which pur-
pose reliance was placed upon a horde of Cana-
dian refugees, under Capt. John B. Castleman.
There were some 26,500 Southern prisoners in the
State at this time, of whom about 8,000 were at
Chicago, 6,000 at Rock Island, 7,500 at Spring-
field, and 5,000 at Alton. It was estimated that
there were 4,000 "Sons of Liberty" in Chicago,
who would be largely reenforced. With these
and the Canadian refugees the prisoners at Camp
Douglas were to be liberated, and the army thus
formed was to march upon Rock Island, Spring-
field and Alton. But suspicions were aroused,
and the Camp was reenforced by a regiment of
infantry and a battery. The organization of the
proposed assailing force was very imperfect, and
the great majority of those who were to compose
it were lacking in courage. Not enough of the
latter reported for service to justify an attack,
and the project was postponed. In the meantime
a preliminary part of the plot, at least indirectly
connected with the Camp Douglas Cf)nspiracy,
and which contemplated the release of the rebel
officers confined on Johnson's Island in Lake
Erie, had been "nipjied in tlie bud" by the arrest
of Capt. C. H. Cole, a Confederate officer in dis-
guise, on the 19th of September, just as he was
on the point of putting in execution a scheme for
seizing the United States steamer Michigan at
Sandusky, and putting on board of it a Confeder-



ate crew. November 8 was the date next selected
to carry out the Chicago scheme — the day of Presi-
dent Lincoln's second election. The s;ime pre-
liminaries were arranged, except that no water
attack was to be made. But Chicago was to be
burned and flooded, and its banks pillaged.
Detachments were designated to apply the torch,
to open fire plugs, to le%-y arms, and to attack
banks. But representatives of the United States
Secret Service had been initiated into the "Sons
of Liberty," and the plans of Captain Hines and
his associates were well known to the authori-
ties. An efficient body of detectives was put
upon their track bj' Gen. B. J. Sweet, the com-
mandant at Camp Douglas, although some of the
most valuable service in running down the con-
spiracy and capturing its agents, was rendered
by Dr. T. Winslow Ayer of Chicago, a Colonel
Langhorne (an ex-Confederate who had taken
the oath of allegiance witliout the knowledge of
some of the parties to the plot), and Col. J. T.
Shanks, a Confederate prisoner who was known
as "The Texan." Both Langhorne and Shanks
were appalled at the horrible nature of the plot
as it was unfolded to them, and entered with
zeal into the effort to defeat it. Shanks was
permitted to escape from Camp Douglas, thereby
getting in communication with the leaders of the
plot who assisted to conceal him, while he faith-
fully apprised General Sweet of their plans. On
the night of Nov. 6 — or rather after midnight on
the morning of the 7th — General Sweet caused
simultaneous arrests of the leaders to be made at
their hiding-places. Captain Hines was not
captured, but the folU>wing conspirators were
taken into custody : CaiJtains Cantrill and Trav-
erse; Charles Walsh, the Brigadier-General of
the "Sons of Liberty, ' who was sheltering them,
and in whose barn and house was found a large
quantity of arms and military stores: Cols. St.
Leger Grenfell, W. R. Anderson and J. T.
Shanks; R. T. Semmes, Vincent Marmaduke,
Charles T. Daniel and Buckner S. Morris, the
Treasurer of the order. They were tried by
Military Commission at Cincinnati for conspir-
acj'. Marmaduke and Morris were acquitted;
Anderson committed suicide during the trial;
Walsh, Semmes and Daniels were sentenced to
the penitentiary, and Grenfell was sentenced to
be hung, although his sentence was afterward
commuted to life imprisonment at the Dry Tortu-
gas, where he mysteriously disappeared some
years afterward, but whether he escaped or was
drowned in the attempt to do so has never been
known. The British Government had made



76



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



repeated attempts to secure his release, a brotlier
of liis being a General in the British Army.
Daniels managed to escape, and was never recap-
tured, while Walsh and Semmes, after under-
going brief terms of imprisonment, were
pardoned by President Johnson. The subsequent
history of Shanks, who played so prominent a
part in defeating the scheme of wholesale arson,
pillage and assassination, is interesting. While
in prison he had been detailed for service as a
clerk in one of the offices under the direction of
General Sweet, and, while thus employed, made
the acquaintance of a young lady member of a
loyal family, whom he afterwards married.
After tlie exposure of the contemplated uprising,
the rebel agents in Canada offered a reward of
$1,000 in gold for the taking of his life, and he
was bitterly persecuted. The attention o-f Presi-
dent Lincoln was called to the service rendered
by him, and sometime during 1865 he received a
commission as Captain and engaged in fighting
the Indians upon the Plains. The efficiency
shown by Colonel Sweet in ferreting out the con-
spiracy and defeating its consummation won for
him the gratitude of the people of Chicago and
the whole nation, and was recognized by the
Government in awarding him a commission as
Brigadier-General. (See Benjamin J. Sweet,
Camp Douglas and Secret Treasonable Societies. )

CAMPBELL, Alexander, legislator and Con-
gressman, was born at Concord, Pa. , Oct. 4, 1814.
After obtaining a limited education in the com-
mon schools, at an early age he secured employ-
ment as a clerk in an iron manufactory. He soon
rose to the position of superintendent, managing
iron-works in Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Mis-
souri, until 1850, when he removed to Illinois,
settling at La Salle. He was twice (1852 and
1853) elected Mayor of that city, and represented
his county in the Twenty-first General Assembly
(1859). He was also a member of the State
Constitutional Convention of 1862, and served
one term (1875-7T) as Repi'esentative in Congress,
being elected as an Independent, but, in 1878, was
defeated for re-election bj- Philip C. Hayes,
Reijublican. Mr. Campbell was a zealous friend
of Abraham Lincoln, and, in 1858, contributed
liberally to the expenses of the latter in making
the tour of the State during the debate with
Douglas. He broke with the Republican party
in 1874 on the greenback issue, which won for
him the title of "Father of the Greenback." His
death occurred at La Salle, August 9, 1898.

CAMPBELL, Antrim, early lawyer, was born
in New Jersey in 1814; came to Springfield, 111.,



in 1838; was appointed Master in Chancery for
Sangamon County in 1849, and, in 1861, to a
similar position by the United States District
Court for that district. Died, August 11, 1868.

CAMPBELL, James R., Congressman and sol-
dier, was born in Hamilton County, 111., May 4.
1853, his ancestors being among the first settlers
in that section of the State; was educated at
Notre Dame University, Ind., read law and was
admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court in 1877 ;
in 1878 purchased "The McLeansboro Times,"
which he has since conducted ; was elected to the
lower house of the General Assembly in 1884, and
again in '86, advanced to the Senate in 1888, and
re-elected in '92. During his twelve years'
experience in the Legislature he participated, as
a Democrat, in the celebrated Logan-Morrison
contest for the United States Senate, in 1885, and
assisted in the election of Gen. John M. Palmer
to the Senate in 1891. At the close of his last
term in the Senate (1896) he was elected to Con-
gress from the Twentieth District, receiving a
plurality of 2,851 over Orlando Burrell, Repub-
lican, who had been elected in 1894. On the
second call for troops issued by the President
during the Spanish-American War, Mr. Camp-
bell organized a regiment which was mustered in
as the Ninth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, of
which he was commissioned Colonel and assigned
to the corps of Gen. Fitzhugh Lee at Jackson-
ville, Fla. Although his regiment saw no active
service during the war, it was held in readiness
for that purpose, and, on the occupation of Cuba
in December, 1898, it became a part of the army
of occupation. As Colonel Campbell remained
with his regiment, he took no part in the pro-
ceedings of the last term of the Fifty-fifth Con-
gress, and was not a candidate for re-election in
1898.

CAMPBELL, Thompson, Secretary of State
and Congressman, was born in Chester County,
Pa., in 1811 ; removed in childhood to the western
part of the State and was educated at Jefferson
College, afterwards reading law at Pittsburg.
Soon after being admitted to the bar he removed
to Galena, 111., where he had acquired some min-
ing interests, and, in 1843, was appointed Secre-
tary of State by Governor Ford, but resigned in
1846, and became a Delegate to the Constitutional
Convention of 1847; in 1850 was elected as a
Democrat to Congress from the Galena District,
but defeated for re-election in 1852 by E. B.
Washburne. He was then appointed by President
Pierce Commissioner to look after certain land
grants by the Mexican Government in California,



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



77



removing to that State in 1853, but resigned this
position about 1855 to engage in general practice.
In 1859 he made an extended visit to Europe
with his family, and, on his return, located in
Chicago, the following year becoming a candidate
for Presidential Elector-at-large on tlie Breckin-
ridge ticket; in 1861 returned to California, and,
on the breaking out of the Civil War, became a
zealous champion of the Union cause, by his
speeches exerting a powerful influence upon the
destiny of the State. He also served in the Cali-
fornia Legislature during the war, and, in 1864,
was a member of the Baltimore Convention
which nominated Mr. Lincoln for the Presidency
a second time, assisting most ably in the subse-
quent campaign to carry the State for the Repub-
lican ticket. Died in San Francisco, Dec. 6, 1868.

CAMPBELL, WiUiani J., la^vyer and politi-
cian, was born in Philadelphia in 1850. When
he was two years old his father removed to
Illinois, settling in Cook County. After passing
through the Chicago public schools. Mr. Camp-
bell attended the University of Pennsylvania, for
two years, after which he studied law, and was
admitted to the bar in 1875. From that date he
was in active practice and attained prominence
at the Clricago bar. In 1878 he was elected State
Senator, and was re-elected in 1883, serving in all
eight years. At the sessions of 1881, '83 and '85
he was chosen President pro tempore of the



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