Newton Bateman.

Historical encyclopedia of Illinois online

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was educated at Harvard College, and at Dane
Law School, Cambridge, Mass. , graduating at the
former in 1860. Early in life he settled in Chi-
cago, where, after some time spent as a teacher
in the Chicago High School, he engaged in the
practice of his profession. His first post of pub-
lic responsibility was that of State Senator, to
which he was elected in 1880. In 1883 he was
chosen, as a Republican, to represent the Fourth
Illinois District in Congress, and re-elected in
1884, "86 and '88. In 1890 he was again a candi-
date, but was defeated by Walter C. Newberry.
He is one of the Trustees of the Newberry
Library.

ADAMS, James, pioneer lawyer, was born in
Hartford, Conn., Jan. 26, 1803; taken to Oswego
County, N. Y.. in 1809, and, in 1821, removed to
Springfield, 111., being the first lawyer to locate
in the future State capital. He enjoyed an ex-
tensive practice for the time ; in 1823 was elected
a Justice of the Peace, took part in the Winne-



TIIST()1!R;AL encyclopedia of ILLINOIS.



11



bago and Black Hawk wars, was elected Probate
Judge in 1841. and died in office, August 11. 1843.

.VDAMS COU>'TY, an extreme westerly county
of tlie State, situated about midway between its
northern and southern extremities, and bounded
on the west by the Mississippi River. It was
organized in 1825 and named in honor of John
Quincy Adams, the name of Quincy being given
to the county seat. The United States Census of
1890 places its area at 830 sq. m. and its popula-
tion at 61.888. The soil of the county is fertile
and well watered, the surface diversified and
hilly, especially along the Mississippi bluffs, and
its climate e(iuable. The wealth of the county is
largely derived from agriculture, although a
large amount of manufacturing is carried on in
Quincy. (See also Qiiinq^.)

ADDAMS, Joliii Hiiy, legislator, was born at
Sinking Springs, Berks Coimty, Pa.. July V2.
ISi'i; educated at Trappeand Upper Dublin, Pa.,
and learned the trade of a miller in his youth,
which he followed in later life. In 1844, Mr.
Addanis came to Illinois, settling at Cedarville,
Stephenson County, purchased a tract of land
and built a saw and grist mill on Cedar Creek.
In 1854 he was elected to the State Senate from
Stephenson Coimty, serving continuously in that
body by successive re-elections until ISTO^first as
a Whig and afterwai'ds as a Republican. In 1865
he established the Second National Bank of Free-
port, of which he continued to be the president
until his death, Augu.st 17. 1881. — Miss Jane
( Aildams). philanthropist, the fomider of the "Hull
House," Chicago, is a daughter of Mr. Addams.

ADDISOX, a village of Du Page County, 24
Tuiles west-northwest from Chicago. It is the
seat of an Evangelical Lutheran School. Popu-
lation (1890), 485.

ADJUTAATS-GEXERAL. The ofHce of Adju-
tant-General for tlie State of Illinois was first
9.
taking into consideration that all the Illinois
volunteers had been mustered out, and that the
duties of the Adjutant-General had been materi-
ally lessened, reduced the proportions of the
department and curtailed the appropriation for
its support. Since the adoption of the military
code of 1877, the Adjutant-General's office has
occupied a moi'e important and conspicuous posi-
tion among the departments of the State govern
ment. The following is a list of those who have
held office since General Haynie, with the date
and duration of their respective terms of office :
Hubert Dilger. 1869-73; Edwin L. Higgins,
1873-75; Hiram Hilliard, 1875-81; Isaac H. Elliot,
1881-84; Joseph W. Vance, 1884-93; Albert Oren-
dorflf, 1893-96; C. C. Hilton, 1896-97; Jasper N.
Reece, 1897 — .

AGRICULTURE. Illinois ranks high as an
agricultural State. A large area in the eastern
portion of the State, because of the absence of
timber, was called by the early settlers "the
Grand Prairie." Upon and along a low ridge
beginning in Jackson County and limning across
the .State is the prolific fruit-growing district of
Southern Illinois. The bottom lands extending
from Cairo to the moutli of the Illinois River are
of a fertility seemingly inexhaustible. The cen-
tral portion of the State is best adapted to corn,
and tlie southern and southwestern to the culti-
vation of winter wheat. Nearly three-fourths of
the entire State — some 42,000 square miles — is up-
land prairie, well suited to the raising of cereals.
In the value of its oat crop Illinois leads all the
States, that for 1891 being §31,106,674, with 3,068,-
930 acres under cultivation. In the production
of corn it ranks next to Iowa, the last census
(1890) showing 7.014,336 acres under cultivation,
and the value of the crop being estimated at
.?86,905,510. In wheat-raising it ranked seventh,
although the annual average value of the crop
from 1880 to 1890 was a little le.ss than §29.000.-
000. As a live-stock State it leads in the value of
horses (§83,000.000), ranks second in the produc-
tion of swine (.§30,000,000), third in cattle-growing
(§32,000.000), and fourth in dairy products, the
value of milch cows being estimated at $24,000,-
000. (See also Frtrmpr.s' Tnstitute.)



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



AGRICULTURE, DEPARTMEIVT OF. A

department of the State administration wliich
grew out of the organization of the Illinois Agri-
cultural Society, incorporated by Act of the
Legislature in 1853. The first appropriation from
the State treasury for its maintenance was SI, 000
per annum, "to be expended in the promotion of
mechanical and agricultural arts." The first
President was James N. Brown, of Sangamon
County. Simeon Francis, also of Sangamon, was
the first Recording Secretary ; John A. Keunicott
of Cook, first Corresponding Secretary ; and John
Williams of Sangamon, first Treasurer. Some
thirty volmnes of reports have been issued, cover-
ing a variety of topics of vital interest to agri-
culturists. The department ha,s well equipped
ofiices in the State House, and is charged with
the conduct of State Fairs and the management
of annual exhibitions of fat stock, besides the
collection and dissemination of statistical and
other information relative to the State's agri-
cultural interests. It receives annual reports
from all County Agricultm-al Societies. The
State Board consists of three general officers
(President, Secretary and Treasurer^ and one
representative from each Congressional district.
The State appropriates some .530,000 annually for
the prosecution of its work, besides which there
is a considerable income from receipts at State
Fairs and fat stock shows. Between §20,000 and
.$2.5,000 per annum is disbursed in premiums to
competing exhibitors at the State Fairs, and some
810,000 divided among County Agricultural
Societies holding fairs.

AKERS, Peter, D. D., Methodist EpiSscopal
clergyman, born of Presbyterian parentage, in
Campbell County, Va., Sept. 1, 1790; was edu-
cated in the common schools, and, at the age
of 16, began teaching, later pursuing a classical
course in institutions of Virginia and North
Carolina. Having removed to Kentucky, after a
brief season spent in teaching at Mount Sterling
in that State, he began the study of law and was
admitted to the bar in 1817. Two years later he
began the publication of a paper called "The
Star," which was continued for a short time. In
1831 lie was converted and joined the Methodist
church, and a few months later began i)reaching.
In 1833 he removed to Illinois, and, after a year
spent in work as an evangelist, he assumed the
Presidency of McKendree College at Lebanon,
remaining during 1833 34; then established a
"manual labor school" near Jacksonville, which
he maintained for a few years. From 1837 to
18.53 was spent as stationed minister or Presiding



Elder at Springfield. Quinoy and Jacksonville. In
the latter year he was again appointed to the
Presidency of McKendree College, where lie
remained five years. He was then (1857) trans-
ferred to the Minnesota Conference, but a year
later was compelled by declining health to assume
a superannuated relation. Returning to Illinois
about 1865, he served as Presiding Elder of tlie
Jacksonville and Pleasant Plains Districts, but
was again compelled to accept a superannuated
relation, making Jacksonville his home, where
he died, Feb. 21, 1886. While President of Mc-
Kendree College, he published his work on "Bib-
lical Chronology," to which he had devoted many
previous years of his life, and which gave evi-
dence of great learning and vast research. Dr.
Akers was a man of profound convictions, exten-
sive learning and great eloquence. As a pulpit
orator and logician he probably had no superior
in the State during the time of his most active
service in the denomination to which he belonged.

AKIN, Edward C, lawyer and Attorney-Gen-
eral, was born in Will County, 111. , in 1853, and
educated in the public schools of Joliet and at Ann
Arbor, Mich. For four years he was jja^'ing and
receiving teller in the First National Bank of
Joliet, but was admitted to the bar in 1878 and
has continued in active practice since. In 1887 lie
entered upon his political career as the Republi-
can candidate for City Attorney of Joliet, and was
elected by a majority of over 700 votes, although
the city was visually Democratic. The follow-
ing year he was the candidate of his party for
State's Attorney of Will County, and was again
elected, leading the State and county ticket bj-
800 votes — being re-elected to the same office in
1893. In 1895 he was the Republican nominee
for Mayor of Joliet, and, although opposed bj- a
citizen's ticket headed by a Republican, was
elected over his Democratic competitor by a deci-
sive majority. His greatest popular triumph was
in 1896, when he was elected Attorney-General
on the Republican State ticket by a plurality
over his Democratic opponent of 132,248 and a
majority over all comjietitors of 111,355. His
legal abilities are recognized as of a very high
order, while his personal pojjularity is indicated
by his uniform success as a candidate, in the
face, at times, of strong political majorities.

ALBANY, a village of Whiteside County, lo-
cated on the Mississippi River and the Chicago,
Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway (Rock Island
branch). Population (1880), 623; (1890), 611.

ALBION, the county seat of Edwards County.
Dairying is a leading industry in the surrounding





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he; VINEYARD), UNIVERSITY OK II,L,INOIS.




EXPERIMENT FARM (ORCHARD CUI,TIVATION), UNIVERSITY OF II^I^INOIS



HISTORICAL ENrYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



country, and the village has a well-managed
creamery. It has a bank, five churclies, an acad-
emy, wagon and plow works, flour mills, an ice
factory, and a weekly newspaper. Coal is also
mined in the vicinity. It is situated aViout 'iQ
miles by rail northwest of Evansville. lud. Popu-
lation (1880), 87.5; (1890), 937.

ALCORN, James Liisk, was born near Gol-
conda. 111., Nov. 4, 1816; early went South and
held various oftices in Kentucky and Mississippi,
including member of the Legislature in each;
was a member of the Mississippi State Conven-
tions of 1851 and 1861. and by the latter appointed
a Brigadier-General in tlie Confederate service,
but refused a commission by Jefferson Davis
because liis fidelity to the rebel cause was
doubted. At the close of the war he was one of
the first to accept the reconstruction policy ; was
elected United States Senator from Mississippi in
1865, but not admitted to his seat. In 1869 he
was chosen Governor as a Republican, and two
years later elected United States Senator, serving
until 1877. Died, Dec. 20, 1894.

ALDRICH, J. Frailk, Congressman, was born
at Two Rivers, Wis., April 6, 1853, the son of
William Aldrich, who afterwards became Con-
gressman from Chicago ; was brought to Chicago
in 1861, attended the public schools and the Chi-
cago University, and graduated from the Rensse-
laer Poh'technic Institute, Troy, N. Y., in 1877,
receiving the degree of Civil Engineer. Later he
engaged in the linseed oil business in Chicago.
Becoming interested in politics, he was elected a
member of the Board of County Commissioners
of Cook County, serving as President of that body
during the reform period of 1887; was also a
member of the County Board of Education and
Chairman of the Chicago Citizens' Committee,
appointed from tlie various clubs and commer-
cial organizations of the city, to promote the for-
mation of the Chicago Sanitary District. From
May 1, 1891, to Jan. 1, 1893, he was Commissioner
of Public Works for Chicago, when he resigned
his office, having been elected (Nov., 1893) a
member of the Fifty-third Congi-ess, on the
Republican ticket, from the First Congressional
District ; was re-elected in 1894, retiring at the
dose of the Fifty-fourth Congress. In 1898 he
was appointed to a position in connection with
the office of Comptroller of the Currency at
Wa'iliiugton.

ALDRICH, William, merchant an.l Ccngress-
man. was born at Greenfield, N. Y., Jan. 20. 1820.
His early common school training was supple-
mented by private tuition in higher branches of



mathematics and m surveying, and l>y a term in
an academy. Until he had reached the age of 26
j-ears he was engaged in farming and teadiing.
but. in 1846, turned his attention to mercantile
pursuits. In 1851 he removed to Wisconsin.
where, in addition to merchandising, lie engaged
in the manufacture of furniture and woodenware.
and where lie also lield several important oftices.
being Sui)erinteiuleiit of Schools for three years.
Chairman of the County Board of Supervisors
one year. l)esides serving one term in the Legisla-
ture. In 1860 he removed' to Chicago, wliere he
embarked in the wholesale grocery business. In
1875 he was elected to the City Council, and, in
1876, cliosen to represent his district (tlie First) in
Congress, as a Republican, being re-elected in 1878,
and again in 1880. Died in Fond du Lac, Wis..
Dec. 3. 1885.

ALEDO, the county-seat of Mercer County.
Th© surrounding country is rich in bituminous
coal, and fruit-growing and stock-raising are ex-
tensively carried on. For these commodities it is a
shipping point of considerable importance. Three
weekly papers are published here. Population
(1880)! 1,493; (1890), 1.601.

ALEXANDER, John T., agricultm-ist and
stock-grower, was born in Western Virginia.
Sept. 15. 1830; removed with his father, at six
years of age. to Ohio, and to Illinois in 1848.
Here he bought a trat;t of several thousand acres
of land on the Wabash Railroad, 10 miles east of
Jacksonville. wlii



Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 2 of 207)