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Historical encyclopedia of Illinois online

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ville Junction to Shelbyville. and from Sidell to
Rossville. The system in Illinois is of standard
gauge, about 108 miles being double track. The
right of way is 100 feet wide and well fenced.
The grades are light, and the construction
(including rails, ties, ballast and bridges), is
generally excellent. The capital stock outstand-
ing (1895) is $13, 594. 400; funded debt, $18,018,000;
floating debt, §916,381; total capital invested,
$32, .570, 781; total earnings in Illinois, $2,592,072;
expenditures in the State, $2,595,631. The com-
pany paid the same year a dividend of six per
cent on its common stock (S286.914), and reported
a surplus of .'51.484,762. The Chicago & Eastern
Illinois was originally chartered in 1865 as the
Chicago, Danville & Vincennes Railroad, its main
line being completed in 1872. In 1873, it defaulted
on interest, was sold under foreclosure in 1877,
and reorganized as the Chicago & Nashville, but
later in same year took its present name. In
1894 it was consolidated with the Chicago &
Indiana Coal Railway. Two spurs (5.27 miles in
length) were added to the line in 1895. Early in
1897 this line obtained control of the Chicago,
Paducah & Memphis Railroad, which is now
operated to Marion, in "Williamson County. (See
Chicago. Paducah d- Memphis Railroad.)

CHICAGO & GRASD TEUJiK RAILWAY. Of
the 335.27 miles of the Chicago & Cirand Trunk
Railroad, only 30.65 are in Illinois, and of the
latter 9.7 miles are operated under lease. That
portion of the line within the State extends from
Chicago easterly to the Indiana State line. The
Company is also lessee of the Grand Junction
Railroad, four miles in length. The Road is
capitalized at $6,600,000, has a bonded debt of
$12,000,000 and a floating debt (1895) of .$2,271,425,
making the total capital invested, $20,871,425.
The total earnings in Illinois for 1895 amounted
to $660,393; disbursements within the State for
the same period, $345,233. The Chicago & Grand
Trunk Railway, as now cv^nstituted, is a consoli-
dation of various lines between Port Huron,
Mich., and Chicago, operated in the interest of
the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada. The Illi-
nois section was built imder a charter granted in
1878 to the Chicago & State Line Railway Com-



pany, to form a connection with Valparaiso, Ind.
This corporation acquired tlie Chicago & South-
ern Railroad (from Chicago to Dolton), and the
Chicago & State Line Extension in Indiana, all
being consolidated under the name of the North-
western Grand Trunk Railroad. In 1880, a dnal
consolidation of these lines with the eastward
connections took place under the present name —
the Chicago & Grand Trunk Railway.

CHICAGO & GREAT EASTERN RAILWAY.
(See Pittsburg. Cincinnati, Cliicago &• St. Louis
Pailway.)

CHICAGO & GREAT SOUTHERN RAILROAD.
(See Peoria. Decatur d- Eransville Railway.)

CHICAGO & ILLINOIS SOI THERS RAIL-
WAY. (See Peoria. Decatur & Evansville Rail-
u-ay. )

CHICAGO & MISSISSIPPI RAILROAD. (See
Chicago d- Alton Railroad )

CHICAGO & NASHVILLE RAILROAD. (See
Chicago any, by whom it is operated as its St. Louis &
Cape Girardeau division.

CHICAGO & WESTERN INDIANA RAIL-
ROAD. The main line of this road extends from
Chicago to Dolton, 111. (17 miles), and affords ter-
minal facilities for all lines entering the Polk St.
Depot at Chicago. It has branches to Hammond.
Ind. (10.28 miles); to Cragin (15.9 miles), and to
South Chicago (5.41 miles); making the direct
mileage of its branches 48.59 miles. In addition,
its second, third and fourth tracks and sidings
increase the mileage to 204.79 miles. The com-
pany was organized June 9. 1879 ; the road opened
in 1880, and, on Jan. 26, 1882, consolidated with
the South Chicago & Western Indiana Railroad
Company, and the Chicago & Western Indiana
Belt Railway. It also owns some 850 acres in fee
in Chicago, including wharf property on the



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



103



Chicago River, right of way, switch and transfer
yards, depots, the Indiana grain elevator, etc.
Tlie elevator and the Belt Division are leased to
the Belt Railway Company of Chicago, and the
rest of the property is leased conjointly by the
Chicago & Eastern Illinois, the Chicago & Grand
Trunk, the Chicago & Erie, the Louisville. New
Albany & Chicago, and the Wabash Railways
(each of which owns $1,000,000 of the capital
stock), and by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe.
These companies pay the expense of operation
and maintenance on a mileage basis.

CHICAGO & WISCONSIN RAILROAD. (See
IViscOHsin Central Lines.)

CHILDS, Robert A., was born at Malone,
Franklin County, N. Y., March 33, 1845, the son
of an itinerant Methodist preacher, who settled
near Belvidere, Boone County, 111., in 1853. His
home having been broken up by the death of his
mother, in 1854. he went to live upon a farm. In
April. 1861, at the age of 16 years, he enlisted in
the company of Captain (afterwards General)
Stephen A. Hurlbut, which was later attached to
the Fifteenth Illinois Volunteers. After being
mustered out at the close of the war, he entered
school, and graduated from the Illinois State
Normal University in 1870. For the following three
years he was Principal and Superintendent of
public schools at Amboy, Lee County, meanwhile
studying law, and being admitted to the bar. In
1873. he began tlie practice of his profession at
Chicago, making his home at Hinsdale. After
filling various local offices, in 1884 he was
chosen Presidential Elector on the Republican
ticket, and, in 1893. was elected by the narrow
majority of thirty seven votes to represent the
Eighth Illinois District in the Fifty-third Con-
gress, as a Republican.

CHILLICOTHE, a city in Peoria County, situ-
ated on the Illinois River, at the head of Peoria
Lake; is 19 miles north-northeast of Peoria.on the
Peoria Branch of the Chicago, Rock Island &
Pacific Railroad. It is an important shipping
point for grain. %vhich is extensively raised in the
surrounding region. Flour and carriages are the
principal manufactures. It has a bank, three
churches, a high school and two weekly news-
papers. Population (1880), 836; (1890), 1,633.

CHINIQUT, (Rev.) Charles, clergyman and
reformer, was born in Canada, July 30, 1809, of
mixed French and Spanish blood, and educated
for the Romish priesthood at the Seminary of St.
Nicholet. where he remained ten years, gaining a
reputation among his fellow stuilents for extraor-
dinary zeal and piety. Having been ordained



to the priesthood in 1833, he labored in various
churches in Canada until 1851, when he accepted
an invitation to IlUnois with a view to building
up the church in the Mississippi Valley. Locat-
ing at tlie junction of the Kankakee and Iroquois
Rivers, in Kankakee County, he was the means
of bringing to that vicinity a colony of some
5,000 French Canadians, followed by colonists
from France, Belgium and other European
countries. It has been estimated that over
50.000 of this class of emigrants were settled in
Illinois within a few years. Tlie colony em-
braced a territory of some 40 square miles, with
the village of St. Ann's as the center. Here
Father Chiniquy began his labors by erecting
churches and schools for the colonists. He soon
became dissatisfied with what he believed to be
the exercise of arbitrary authority by the ruling
Bishop, then began to have doubts on the question
of papal infallibility, the final result being a
determination to separate himself from the
Mother Church. In this step he appears to have
been followed by a large proportion of the colo-
nists who had accompanied him from Canada, but
the result was a feeling of intense bitterness
between the opposing factions, leading to much
litigation and many criminal prosecutions, of
which Father Chiniquy was the subject, though
never convicted. In one of these suits, in which
the Father was accused of an infamous crime,
Abraham Lincoln was counsel for the defense,
the charge being proven to be the outgrowth of
a conspiracy. Having finally determined to
espouse the cause of Protestantism, Father
Chiniquy allied himself with the Canadian Pres-
bytery, and for many years of his active clerical
life, divided his time between Canada and the
United States, having supervision of churches in
Montreal and Ottawa, as well as in this country.
He also more than once visited Europe by special
invitation to address important religious bodies
in that country. He died at Montreal. Canada,
Jan. 16. 1899, in the 90tli year of his age.

CHOUART, Medard, (known also as Sieur des
Groseilliers). an early French explorer, supposed
to have been born at Touraine, France, about
1631. Coming to New France in early youth, he
made a voyage of discoverj' with his brother-in-
law, Radisson, westward from Quebec, about
1654-56, these two being believed to have been
the first white men to reach Lake Superior.
After .spending the winter of 16.58-.59 at La
Pointe, near where Ashland, Wis., now stands,
they are believed by some to have discovered the
Upper Mississippi and to have descended that



104



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



stream a long distance towards its moutli, as
they claimed to have reached a much milder
climate and heard of Spanish ships on tlie salt
water (Gulf of Mexico). Some antiquarians
credit them, about this time (1659), with having
visited the present site of the city of Chicago.
They were the first explorers of Northwestern
Wisconsin and Minnesota, and are also credited
with having been the first to discover an inland
route to Hudson's Bay, and with being the
founders of the original Hudson's Bay Company.
Groseillier's later history is imknown, but he
ranks among the most intrepid explorers of the
"New "World" about the middle of the seventh
century.

CHRISM AN, a village of Edgar County, at the
intersection of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chi-
cago & St. Louis and the Indiana, Decatur &
Western Railways, 24 miles south of Danville.
It has flour and saw mills. Population (1880),
541; (1890), 820.

CHRISTIAN COUNTY, a rich agricultural
county, lying in the "central belt," and organized
in 1839 from parts of Macon, Montgomery,
Sangamon and Shelby Counties. The name first
given to it was Dane, in honor of Nathan Dane,
one of the framers of the Ordinance of 1787, but
a political prejudice led to a change. A pre-
ponderance of early settlers having come from
Christian County, Ky., this name was finally
adopted. Tlie surface is level and the soil fertile,
the northern half of the county being best
adapted to corn and the southern to wheat. Its
area is about 710 square miles, and its population
(1890) was 30,531. The life of the early settlers
was exceedingly primitive. Game was abun-
dant; wild honey was used as a substitute for
sugar; wolves were troublesome; prairie fires
were frequent; the first mill (on Bear Creek)
could not grind more than ten bushels of grain
per day, by horse-power. The people hauled their
corn to St. Louis to exchange for groceries. The
first store was opened at Robertson's Point, but
the county-seat was establislied at Taylorville. A
great change was wrought in local conditions by
the advent of the Illinois Central Railway, which
passes through the eastern part of tlie county.
Two other railroads now pass centrally through
the county— the "Wabash" and the Baltimore &
Ohio Southwestern. The principal towns are
Taylorville (a railroad center and thriving town
of 3,829 inhabitants), Pana, Mori-isonville, Edin-
burg, and Assumption.

CHURCH, Lawrence S., lawyer and legislator,
was born at Xunda, N. Y., in 1820; passed his



youth on a farm, but having a fondness for study,
at an early age began teaching in winter with a
view to earning means to prosecute his studies in
law. In 1843 he arrived at McHenry, then the
coimty-seat of McHenry County, 111., having
walked a part of the way from New York, paying
a portion of liis expenses by the delivery of lec-
tures. He soon after visited Springfield, and
having been examined before Judge S. H. Treat,
was admitted to the bar. On the removal of the
county-seat from McHenry to Woodstock, he
removed to the latter place, where he continued
to reside to tlie end of his life. A member of the
Whig party up to 1856, he was that year elected
as a Republican Representative in the Twentieth
General Assembly, serving by re-election in the
Twenty -first and Twenty-second ; in 1860, was
supported for the nomination for Congress in the
Northwestern District, but was defeated by Hon.
E. B. Washburne ; in 1862, aided in the organiza-
tion of the Ninety-fifth Illinois Volunteers, and
was commissioned its Colonel, but was compelled
to resign before reaching the field on account of
failing health. In 1866 he was elected County
Judge of McHenry County, to fill a \'acancy, and,
in 1869 to the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70.
Died, July 23, 1870. Judge Churcli was a man of
high principle and a speaker of decided ability.

CHURCH, Selden Marvin, capitalist, was born
at East Haddam, Conn., March 4, 1804; taken by
his father to Monroe Count}', N. Y., in boyhood,
and grew up on a farm there, but at the age of
21, went to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he engaged
in teaching-, being one of tlie earliest teachers in
the public schools of that city. Then, having
spent some time in mercantile pursuits in Roches-
ter, N. Y., in 1835 he removed to Illinois, first
locating at Geneva, but the following year
removed to Rockford, where he continued to
reside for the remainder of his life. In 1841. he
was appointed Postmaster of the city of Rock-
ford by the first President Harrison, remaining
in office three years. Other offices held by him
were those of County Clerk '(1843-47), Delegate to
the Second Constitutional Convention (1847),
Judge of Probate (1849-57), Representative in
the Twenty-third General Assembly (1863-65),
and member of the first Board of Public Charities
by appointment of Governor Palmer, in 1869,
being re-appointed by Governor Beveridge, in
1873, and, for a part of the time, serving as Presi-
dent of the Board. He also served, by appoint-
ment of the Secretary of War, as one of the
Commissioners to assess damages for the Govern-
ment improvements at Rock Island and to locate



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



the Government bridge between Rock Island and
Davenport. Diu-iug the latter years of his life he
was President for some time of the Rockford
Insurance Company ; was also one of the origina-
tors, and, for many years. Managing Director of
the Rockford Water Power Company, which has
done so much to promote the prosperity of that
city, and, at the time of liis death, was one of the
Directors of the Winnebago National Bank. Died
at Rockford, June 23, 1892.

CHURCHILL, George, early printer and legis-
lator, was born at Hubbardtown, Rutland
County, Vt., Oct. 11, 1789; received a good edu-
cation in his 3'outh, thus imbibing a taste for
literature which led to his learning the printer's
trade. In 1806 he became an apprentice in the
office of the Albany (N. Y.) "Sentinel," and,
after serving his time, worked as a journeyman
printer, thereby accumulating means to purchase
a half-interest in a small printing office. Selling
this out at a loss, a year or two later, he went to
New York, and, after working at the case some
five months, started for the West, stopping en
route at Philadelphia, Pittsbm-g and Louisville.
In the latter place he worked for a time in the
office of "The Courier," and still later in that of
"The Correspondent," then owned by Col. Elijah
C. Berry, who subsequently came to Illinois and
served as Auditor of Public Accounts. In 1817
he arrived in St. Louis, but, attracted by the fer-
tile soil of Illinois, determined to engage in agri-
cultural pursuits, finally purchasing land some
six miles southeast of Edwardsville, in Madison
County, where he continued to reside the re-
mainder of his life. In order to raise means to
improve his farm, in the spring of 1819 he
worked as a compositor in the office of "The
Missoiu-i Gazette" — the predecessor of "The St.
Louis Republic." While there he wrote a series
of articles over the signature of "A Farmer of St.
Charles County," advocating the admission of
the State of Missouri into the Union without
slavery, which caused considerable excitement
among the friends of that institution. During
the same year he aided Hooper Warren in
establishing his paper, "The Spectator," at
Edwardsville, and, still later, became a frequent
contributor to its columns, especially during the
campaign of 1822-24, wliich resulted, in the latter
year, in the defeat of the attempt to plant slavery
in Illinois. In 1822 he was elected Represent-
ative in the Tliird General Assembly, serving in
that body by successive re-elections until 1832.
His re-election for a second term, in 1824, demon-
strated that his vote at the preceding i



opposition to the scheme for a State Convention
to revise the State Constitution in the interest of
slavery, was approved by his constituents. In
1838, he was elected to the State Senate, serving
four years, and, in 1844, was again elected to the
House — in all serving a period in both Houses of
sixteen years. Mr. Churchill was never married.
He was an industrious and systematic collector of
historical records, and, at the time of his death in
the summer of 1872, left a mass of dotuiments and
other historical material of great \alue. (See
Slavery and Slave Lairs; ]\'anen, Hooper, and
Coles, Edward.)

CLARK ((Jen.) George Rogers, soldier, was
born near Monticello, Albemarle Count5", Va.,
Nov, 19, 17.52. In his younger life he was a
farmer and surveyor on the upper Ohio. His
first experience in Indian fighting was under
Governor Dunmore, against the Shawnees (1774).
In 177.5 he went as a surveyor to Kentucky, and
the British having incited the Indians against
the Americans in the following year, he was
commissioned a Major of militia. He soon rose
to a Colonelcy, and attained marked distinction.
Later he was commissioned Brigadier-General,
and planned an expedition against the British
fort at Detroit, which was not successful. In
the latter part of 1777, in consultation with Go\-.
Patrick Henry, of Virginia, he planned an expe-
dition against Illinois, which was carried out
the following year. On July 4, 1778, he captured
Kaskaskia without firing a gun, and other
Freucli villages surrendered at discretion. The
following February he set out from Kaskaskia to
cross the "Illinois Country" for the purpose of
recapturing Vincennes, which had been taken and
was garrisoned by the British under Hamilton.



Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 21 of 207)