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After a forced march characterized by incredible
suffering, his ragged followers effected the cap-
ture of the post. His last important military
•service was against the savages on the Big
Miami, whose villages and fields he laid waste.
His last years were passed in sorrow and in com-
parative penury. He died at Louisville, Kj-.,
Feb. 18, 1818, and his remains, after reposing in a
private cemetery near that city for half a cen-
tury, were exhumed and removed to Cave Hill
Cemetery in 1869. The fullest history of General
Clark's expedition and his life will be found in
the "Conquest of the Country Northwest of tlie
Ohio River, 17741783, and Life of Gen. George
Rogers Clark" (3 volumes, 1896), by the late
William H. English, of Indianapolis.

CLARK, Horace S., lawyer and politician, was
born at Hun'tsburg, Ohio, 12, 1840. At



the age of 15, coming to Chicago, he found
employment in a livery stable ; later, worked on
a farm in Kane County, attending school in the
winter. After a year spent in Iowa City attend-
ing the Iowa State University, he returned to
Kane County and engaged in the dairy business,
later occupj'ing himself with various occupations
in Illinois and llissouri, but finally returning to
his Ohio home, where he began the study of law
at Circleville. In 18G1 he enlisted in an Ohio
regiment, rising from the ranks to a captaincy,
but was finally compelled to leave tlie service in
consequence of a wound received at Gettysbm-g.
In 1865 he settled at Mattoon, 111., where he was
admitted to the bar in 1868. In 1870 he was an
unsuccessful candidate for the Legislature on the
Eepublican ticket, but was elected State Senator
in 1880, serving four years and proving himself
one of the ablest speakers on the floor. In 1888
he was chosen a delegate-at-large to the National
Republican Convention, and has long been a con-
spicuous figure in State politics. In 1896 he was
a prominent candidate for the Republican nomi-
nation for Governor.

CLARK, John M., civil engineer and merchant,
was born at White Pigeon, Mich., August 1, 1836;
came to Chicago with his widowed mother in
1847, and, after five years in the Chicago schools,
served for a time (1852) as a rodman on the Illi-
nois Central Railroad. After a course in the
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy, N. Y. ,
where he graduated in 1856, he returned to the
service of the Illinois Central. In 1859 he went to
Colorado, where he was one of the original
founders of the city of Denver, and chief engi-
neer of its first water supply company. In 1862
lie started on a survej'ing expedition to Arizona,
but was in Santa Fe when that place was captured
by a rebel expedition from Texas; was also
present soon after at the battle of Apache Canon,
when the Confederates, being defeated, were
driven out of the Territory. Returning to Chi-
cago in 1864, he became a member of the whole-
sale leather firm of Gray, Clark & Co. The
official positions held by Mr. Clark include those
of Alderman (1879-81), Member of tlie Board of
Education, Collector of Customs, to which lie
was appointed by President Harrison, in 1889,
and President of the Chicago Civil" Service Board
l>y appointment of Mayor Swift, under an act
passed by the Legislature of 1895, retiring in 1897.
In 1881 he was tlie Republican candidate for Mayor
of Chicago, but was defeated by Carter H. Harri-
son. Mr. Clark is one of the Directors of the Crerar
Library, named in the wiU of Mr. Crerar.

CLARK COUNTY, one of the eastern counties
of the State, south of the middle line and front-
ing upon the Wabash River; area, 510 square
miles, and population (1890), 21,899; named for
Col. George Rogers Clark. Its organization was
effected in 1819. Among the earliest pioneers
were John Bartlett, Abraham Washburn, James
Whitlock, James B. Anderson, Stephen Archer
and Uri Manly. The county-seat is Marshall, the
site of which was purchased from the Govern-
ment in 1833 by Gov. Joseph Duncan and Col.
William B. Archer, the latter becoming sole pro-
prietor in 1835, in which year the first log cabin
was built. The original county-seat was Darwin,
and the change to Marshall (in 1849) was made
only after a hard struggle. The soil of the
county is rich, and its agricultural products
varied, embracing corn (the chief staple), oats,
potatoes, winter wheat, butter, sorghum, lioney,
maple sugar, wool and pork. Woolen, flouring
and lumber mills exist, but the manufacturing
interests are not extensive. Among the promi-
nent towns, besides Marshall and Darwin, are
Casey (population 844), Martinsville (779), West-
field (510), and York (294).

CLAY, Porter, clergyman and brother of the
celebrated Henry Clay, was born in Virginia,
March, 1779 ; in early life removed to Kentucky,
studied law, and was, for a time. Auditor of
Public Accounts in that State; in 1815, was con-
verted and gave himself to the Baptist ministry,
locating at Jacksonville, 111., where he spent
most of his life. Died, in 1850.

CLAY CITY, a village of Clay County, on the
Baltimore & Oliio Southwestern Railroad, 12
miles west of Olney ; has two newspapers, a bank
and a plow factory; is in a grain and fruit-grow-
ing region. Population (1890), 612.

CLAY COUNTY, situated in the southeastern
quarter of the State ; has an area of 470 square
miles and a population (1890) of 16,772. It was
named for Henry Clay. The fii'st claim in the
county was entered by a Mr. Elliot, in 1818, and
soon after settlers began to locate homes in the
county, although it was not organized until 1824.
During the same year tlie pioneer settlement of
Maysville was made the county-seat, but immi-
gration continued inactive until 1837, when
many settlers arrived, headed bj' Judges Apper-
son and Hopkins and Messrs. Stanford and Lee,
who were soon followed by the families of Coch-
ran, McCullom and Tender. The Little Wabash
River and a number of small tributaries drain
the county. A light-colored sandy loam consti-
tutes the greater part of the soil, although "black



prairie loam" ajijiears here and there. Railroad
facilities are limited, but sufBcient to accommo-
date the county's requirements. Fruits,
especially apples, are successfully cultivated.
Educational advantages are fair, although largely
confined to district schools and academies in
larger towns. Louisville was made the county-
seat in 1843, and. in 1890, had a population of
637. Xenia and Flora are the most important

CLAYTON, a town in Adams County, on the
"Wabash Railway, 28 miles east-northeast of
Quincy. A branch of the Wabash Railway
extends from this point northwest to Carthage,
and Keokuk, Iowa. The mechanical industries
include slate works and establishments for the
manufacture of agricultural imjilements, grain
measures, etc. It has a bank, five churches, a
high school and a weekly newspaper. Population
(1880), 941; (1890), 1.038.

CLEAVER, William, pioneer, was born in Lon-
don, England, in 181.5; came to Canada with his
parents in 1831, and to Chicago in 18.34; engaged
in business as a chandler, later going into the
grocery trade; in 1849, joined the gold-seekers in
California, and, six years afterwards, established
himself in the southern part of the present city
of Chicago, then called Cleaverville, where he
served as Postmaster and managed a general
store. He was the owner of considerable real
estate at one time in what is now a densely
populated part of the city of Chicago. Died in
Chicago, Nov. 13, 1896.

CLEMENTS, Isaac, ex-Congressman and Gov-
ernor of Soldiers" and Sailors' Home at Danville,
111., was born in Franklin County, Ind., in 1837;
gi-aduated from Asbury University, at Green-
castle, in 1859, having supported himself during
his college course by teaching. After reading
law and being admitted to the bar at Greencastle,
he removed to Carbondale, 111., where he again
found it necessary to resort to teaching in order
to purchase law-books. In July, 1861, he enlisted
in the Ninth Illinois Infantry, and was commis-
sioned Second Lieutenant of Company G. He
was in the service for three years, was three
times wounded and twice promoted "for meri-
torious service." In June, 1867, he was ap-
pointed Register in Bankruptcy, and from 1873
to 1875 was a Republican Representative in the
Forty-third Congress from the (then) Eighteenth
District. He was also a member of the Repub-
lican State Convention of 1880. In 1889, he
liecame Pension Agent for the District of Illinois,
by appointment of President Harrison, serving

until 1893. In the latter part of 1898, he was
appointed Superintendent of the Soldiers'
Orphans" Home, at Normal, but served only a
few months, when he accepted the position of
Governor of the new Soldiers" and Sailors" Home,
at Danville.

LOUIS RAILWAY. The total length of this sys-
tem (1898) is 1,807.34 miles, of which 478.39 miles
are operated in Illinois. That portion of the main
line lying within the State extends from East St.
Louis, northeast to the Indiana State line, 181
miles. The Company is also the lessee of the
Peoria & Eastern Railroad (133 miles), and oper-
ates, in addition, other lines, as follows: The
Cairo Division, extending from Tilton, on the
line of the Wabash, 3 miles southwest of Dan-
ville, to Cairo (359 miles)- the Chicago Division,
extending from Kankakee southeast to the
Indiana State line (34 miles); the Alton Branch,
from Wann Junction, on the main line, to Alton
(4 miles). Besides these, it enjoys with the Chi
cago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, joint owner-
ship of tlie Kankakee & Seneca Railroad, which
it operates. The system is uniformly of standard
gauge, and about 280 miles are of double track.
It is laid with heavy steel rails (sixty-five, sixty-
seven and eighty pounds), laid on white oak ties,
and is amply ballasted with broken stone and
gravel. Extensive repair shops are located at
Mattoon. The total capital of the entire system
on June 30, 1898— including capital stock and
bonded and floating debt — was §97,149,361. The
total earnings in Illinois for the year were
§3,773,193, and the total expenditures in the State
§3,611,437. The taxes paid the same year were
§134,196. The history of this system, so far as
Illinois is concerned, begins with the consolida-
tion, in 1889, of the Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St.
Louis & Chicago, the Cleveland, Columbus, Cin-
cinnati & Indianapolis, and the Indianapolis &
St. Louis Railway Companies. In 1890, certain
leased lines in Illinois (elsewhere mentioned)
were merged into the system. (For history of
the several divisions of this system, see St. Loitia,
Alton & Terre Haute. Peoria d- Eastern. Cairo
& Vincennes, and Kankakee &• Seneca Railroach.)

CLIMATOLOGY. Extending, as it does, through
six degrees of latitude, Illinois affords a great
diversity of climate, as regards not only the
range of temperature, but also the amount of
rainfall. In both particulars it exhibits several
points of contrast to .States lying between the
same parallels of latitude, but nearer the Atlan-
tic. The same statement applies, as well, to all



the North Central and the "Western States.
Warm winds from the Gulf of Mexico come up
the Mississippi Valley, and impart to vegetation
in the southern portion of the State, a stimulat-
ing influence which is not felt upon the seaboard.
On the other hand, there is no great barrier to
the descent of the Arctic winds, which, in
winter, sweep down toward the Gulf, depressing
the temperature to a point lower than is custom-
ary nearer the seaboard on the same latitude.
Lake Michigan exerts no little influence upon the
climate of Chicago and other adjacent districts,
mitigating both summer heat and winter cold.
If a comparison be instituted between Ottawa
and Boston— the latter being one degree farther
north, but 570 feet nearer the sea-level — the
springs and summers are found to be about five
degrees warmer, and the winters three degrees
colder, at the former point. In comparing the
East and West in respect of rainfall, it is seen
that, in the former section, the same is pretty
equally distributed over the four seasons, while
in the latter, spring and summer may be called
the wet season, and autumn and winter the dry.
In the extreme West nearly three-fourths of the
yearly precipitation occurs during the growing
season. This is a climatic condition highly
favorable to the growth of gi-asses, etc., but
detrimental to the growth of trees. Hence we
find luxuriant forests near the seaboard, and, in
the interior, grassy plains. Illinois occupies a
geographical position where these great climatic
changes begin to manifest themselves, and where
the distinctive features of the prairie fu-st become
fully apparent. The annual precipitation of
rain is gi-eatest in the southern part of the State,
but, owing to the higher temperature of that
section, the evaporation is also more rapid. The
distribution of the rainfall in respect of seasons
is also more unequal toward the south, a fact
which may account, in part at least, for the
increased area of woodlands in that region.
While Illinois lies within the zone of southwest
winds, their flow is affected by conditions some-
what abnormal. The northeast trades, after
entering the Gulf, are deflected by the mountains
of Mexico, becoming inward breezes in Texas,
southerly winds in the Lower Mississippi Valley,
and southwesterly as they enter the Upper
Valley. It is to this aerial current that the liot,
moist summers are attributable. The north and
northwest winds, which set in with the change
of the season, depress the temperature to a point
below that of the Atlantic slope, and are
attended with a diminished precipitation.

CLIXTON, the county-seat of De Witt County,
situated 23 miles south of Bloomington; is a
station on the Illinois Central Railroad. It lies
in a productive agricultural region, but the city
has machine shops, flour and planing mills, brick
and tile- works, water- works and an electric
lighting plant. It also has banks, two news-
papers (one daily), six churches and two public
schools. Population (1880), 2,709; (1890), 2,598;
(1893) estimated, 3,000.

CLINTON COUNTY, organized in 1824, from
portions of Washington, Bond and Fayette Comi-
ties, and named in honor of De Witt Clinton. It
is situated directly east of St. Louis, has an area
of 494 square miles, and a population (1890) of
17,411. It is drained by the Kaskaskia River and
by Shoal, Crooked, Sugar and Beaver Creeks. Its
geological formation is similar to that of other
counties in the same section. Thick layers of
limestone lie near the surface, with coal seams
underlying the same at varying depths. Tlie
soil is varied, being at some points black and
loamy and at others (under timber) decidedly
clayey. The timber has been mainly out for fuel
because of the inherent "difficulties attending
coal-mining. Two i-ailroads cross the county
from east to west, but its trade is not important.
Agriculture is the chief occupation, corn, wheat
and oats being the staple products.

CLOUD, Newton, clergj'man and legislator,
was born in North Carolina, in 1805, and, in 1827,
settled in the vicinity of Waverly, Morgan
County, 111., where he pursued the vocation of a
farmer, as well as a preacher of the Methodist
Church. He also became prominent as a Demo-
cratic politician, and served in no less than nine
sessions of the General Assembly, besides the
Constitutional Convention of 1847, of which he
was chosen President. He was first elected
Representative in the Seventh Assembly (1830),
and afterwards served in the House during the
sessions of the Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, Thir-
teenth, Fifteenth and Twenty-seventh, and as
Senator in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth. He
was also Clerk of the House in 1844-45, and,
having been elected Representative two years
later, was chosen Speaker at the succeeding ses-
sion. Although not noted for any specially
aggressive qualities, his consistency of character
won for him general respect, while his frequent
elections to the Legislature prove liim to have
been a man of large influence.

CLOWRY, Robert C, Telegraph Manager, was
born in 1838; entered the service of the Illinois &
Mississippi Telegraph Company as a messenger



boy at JolLet in 1852, became manager of the
office at Lockport six months later, at Springfield
in 1853, and chief operator at St. Louis in 1854.
Between 1859 and '63, he held highly responsible
positions on various Western lines, but the latter
year was commissioned bj- President Lincoln
Captain and Assistant Quartermaster, and placed
in charge of United States military lines with
lieadquarters at Little Rock, Ark. ; was mustered
out in May, 1866, and immediately appointed
District Superintendent of Western Union lines
in the Southwest. From that time his promotion
was steady and rapid. In 18T5 he became
Assistant General Superintendent ; in 1878, Assist-
ant Greneral Superintendent of the Central Divi-
sion at Chicago: in 1880, succeeded General
Stager as General Superintendent, and, in 1885,
was elected Director, member of the Execu-
tive Committee and Vice-President, liis terri-
tory extending from the Atlantic to the

COAL AND COAL-MINIXG. Illinois contains
much the larger portion of what is known as the
central coal field, covering an area of about
37,000 square miles, and underlying sixty coun-
ties, in but forty-five of which, however, opera-
tions are conducted on a commercial scale. The
Illinois field contains fifteen distinct seams.
Those available for commercial mining generally
lie at considerable depth and are reached by
shafts. The coals are all bituminous, and furnish
an excellent steam-making fuel. Coke is manu-
factured to a limited extent in La Salle and some
of the southern counties, but elsewhere in the
State the coal does not yield a good marketable
coke. Neither is it in any degree a good gas
coal, although used in some localities for that
purpose, rather because of its abundance than on
account of its adaptability. It is thought that,
with the increase of cheap transportation facili-
ties, Pittsburg coal will be brought into the State
in such quantities as eventually to exclude local
coal from the manufacture of gas. In the report
of the Eleventh United States Census, the total
product of the Illinois coal mines was given as
12,104,273 tons, as against 6,115,377 tons reported
by the Tenth Census. The value of the output
was estimated at §11,735,203, or .§0.97 per ton at
the mines. The total number of mines was
stated to be 1,073, and the number of tons mined
was nearly equal to the combined yield of the
mines of Ohio and Indiana. Tlie mines are
divided into two classes, technically known as
"regular" and "local." Of the former, there
were 358, and of the latter, 714 These 358 regular

mines employed 23,934 men and boys, of whom
31,350 worked below ground, besides an office
force of 389, and paid, in wages, $8,694,397. Tlie
total capital invested in these 358 mines was
$17,630,351. According to the report of tlie State
Bureau of Labor Statistics for 1898, 881 mines
were operated during the year, employing 35,036
men and producing 18,599,399 tons of coal, which
was 1,473,459 tons less than the preceding year —
the reduction being due to the strike of 1897.
Five counties of the State produced more than
1,000,000 tons each, standing in the following
order: Sangamon, 1,763,863; St. Clair, 1,000,7.53;
Vermilion, 1,520,099; Macoupin, 1,264,926; La
Salle, 1,165,490.

COAL CITY, a town in Grundy County, on the
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway, 29 miles
by rail south-southwest of Joliet. Large coal
mines are operated here, and the town is an
important shipping point for their product. It
has a bank, a weekly newspaper and five
churches. Population (1890), 1,672.

COBB, Emery, capitalist, was born at Dryden,
Tompkins County, N. Y., August 30, 1831; at 16,
began the study of telegraphy at Ithaca, later
acted as operator on Western New York lines,
but, in 1853, became manager of the office at
Chicago, continuing until 1865, tJie various com-
panies having meanwhile been consolidated into
the Western Union. He then made an extensive
tour of the world, and, altliough he had intro-
duced the system of transmitting money by
telegraph, he declined all invitations to return to
tlie key-board. Having made large investments
in lands about Kankakee, where he now resides,
he has devoted much of his time to agriculture
and stock-raising; was also, for many years, a
member of the State Board of Agriculture, Presi-
dent of the Short-Horn Breeders' Association,
and, for twenty years (1873-93), a member of the
Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois.
He lias done much to improve the city of his
adoption by the erection of buildings, the con-
struction of electric street-car lines and the
promotion of manufactures.

COBB, Silas B., pioneer and real-estate opera-
tor, was born at Montpelier, Vt., Jan. 23, 1813;
came to Chicago in 1833 on a schooner from Buf-
falo, the voyage occupying over a month. Being
without means, he engaged as a carpenter upon a
building which James Kinzie, the Indian trader,
was erecting; later he erected a building of his
own in which he started a harness-shop, which
he conducteil successfully for a number of years.
He has since teen connected with a number



of business enterprises of a public character,
including banks, street and steam railways, but
his largest successes have been achieved in the line
of improved real estate, of which he is an exten-
sive owner. He is also one of the liberal bene-
factors of the University of Chicago, "Cobb
Lecture Hall," on the campus of that institution,
being the result of a contribution of his amount-
ing to $150,000.

COBDEN, a village in Union County, on the
Illinois Central Railroad, 43 miles north of Cairo
and 15 miles south of Carbondale. Fruits and
vegetables are extensively cultivated here and
shipped to northern markets. The surrounding
region is well timbered, and Cobden has two
lumber mills, as well as two flour mills. There
are five churches and two weekly newspapers.
Population (1880), 800; (1890), 994.

COCHRAN, William Granville, legislator and
jurist, was born in Ross County, Ohio, Nov. 13,
1844; brought to Moultrie County, 111., in 1849,
and, at the age of 17, enlisted in the One Hundred
and Twenty-sixth Regiment Illinois Volunteers,
serving in the War of the Rebellion three years
as a private. Returning home from the war, he
resumed life as a farmer, but early in 1873 began
merchandising at Lovington, continuing this
business three years, when he began the study of
law; in 1879, was admitted to the bar, and has
since been in active practice. In 1888 he was
elected to the lower house of the General
Assembly, was an xmsuccessful candidate for the
Senate in 1890, but was re-elected to the House
in 1894, and again in 1896. At the special session
of 1890, he was chosen Speaker, and was similarly
honored in 1895. He is an excellent parliamen-
tarian, clear-headed and just in his rulings, and
an able debater. In June, 1897, he was elected
for a six years' term to the Circuit bench. He is
also one of the Trustees of the Soldiers' Orphans'
Home at Normal.

CODDING, Ichabod, clergyman and anti-
slavery lecturer, was born at Bristol, N. Y., in
1811; at the age of 17 he was a popular temper-
ance lecturer; while a student at Middlebury,
Vt., began to lecture in opposition to slavery;
after leaving college served five years as agent
and lecturer of the Anti-Slavery Society; was
often exposed to mob violence, but always retain-
ing his self-control, succeeded in escaping
serious injury. In 1842 he entered the Congrega-
tional ministry and held pastorates at Princeton,
Lockport, Joliet and elsewhere; between 1854
and '58. lectured extensively through Illinois on
the Kansas-Nebraska issue, and was a power in

the organization of the Republican party. Died
at Baraboo, Wis., June 17, 1866.

CODY, Hiram Hitclicoclt, lawyer and Judge;
born in Oneida County, N. Y., June 11, 1824; was
partially educated at Hamilton College, and, in
1843, came with his father to Kendall County,
111. In 1847, he removed to Naperville, where
for six years he served as Clerk of the County
Commissioners' Court. In 1851 he was admitted

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