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to the bar; in 1861, was elected County Judge
with practical unanimity , served as a member of
the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70, and,
in 1874, was elected Judge of the Twelfth Judi-
cial Circuit. His residence (1896) was at Pasa-
dena, Cal.

COLCHESTER, a town in McDonough County,
on the line of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy
Railroad, 53 miles northeast of Quincy, and 7
miles west-southwest of Macomb. Coal abounds
in the surrounding region, more than 100,000 tons
being mined annually, much of which is shipped
from Colchester. The town also has manufac-
tories of stoneware, brick (fire, paving and
building) and drain-tile. It has a bank, three
churches and two weekly newspapers. Popula-
tion (1880), 1,007; (1890), 1,643.

COLES, Edward, the second Governor of the
State of Illinois, born in Albemarle County, Va. ,
Dec. 15, 1786, the son of a wealthy planter, who
had been a Colonel in the Revolutionary War ;
was educated at Hampden-Sidney and William
and j\Iary Colleges, but compelled to leave before
graduation by an accident which interrupted his
studies; in 1809, became the private secretary of
President Madison, remaining six years, after
which he made a trip to Russia as a special mes-
senger by appointment of the President. He
early manifested an interest in the emancipation
of the slaves of Virginia. In 1815 he made his
first tour through the Northwest Territory, going
as far west as St. Louis, returning three years
later and visiting Kaskaskia while the Constitu-
tional Convention of 1818 was in session. In
April of the following year he set out from his
Virginia home, accompanied by his slaves, for
Illinois, traveling by wagons to Brownsville, Pa. ,
where, taking flat-boats, he descended the river
with his goods and servants to a point below
Louisville, where they disembarked, journeying
overland to Edwardsville. While descending
the Ohio, he informed his slaves that they were
free, and, after arriving at their destination,
gave to each head of a family 160 acres of land.
This generous act was, in after years, made the
ground for bitter persecution by his enemies. At



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



Edwardsville he entered upon the duties of
Register of the Land Office, to whicli he had
been appointed by President Monroe. In 1823
he became the candidate for Governor of those
opposed to removing tlie restriction in the State
Constitution against the introduction of slavery,
and, althougli a majority of tlie voters then
favored the measure, he was elected by a small
plurality over his highest competitor in conse-
quence of a division of the opposition vote
between three candidates. The Legislature
chosen at the same time submitted to the people
a proposition for a State Convention to revise the
Constitution, which was rejected at the election
of 1824 by a majority of 1,668 in a total vote of
11,612. While Governor Coles had the efficient
aid in opposition to the measure of such men as
Judge Samuel D. Lockwood, Congressman Daniel
P. Cook, Morris Birkbeck, George Forquer,
Hooper Warren, George Churchill and others, he
was himself a most influential factor in protecting
Illinois from the blight of slavery, contributing
his salary for his entire term (S4,000) to that end.
In 1825 it became his duty to welcome La Fay-
ette to Illinois. Retiring from office in 1826, he
continued to reside some years on his farm near
Edwardsville, and, in 1830, was a candidate for
Congress, but being a known opponent of Gen-
eral Jackson, was defeated by Joseph Duncan.
Previous to 1833, he removed to Philadelphia,
where he married during the following year, and
continued to reside there until his death, July 7,
1868, having lived to see the total extinction of
slavery in the United States. (See Slavery and
Slave Latcs.)

COLES COUNTY, originally a part of Crawford
County, but organized in 1831, and named in
honor of Gov. Edward Coles.— lies central to the
eastern portion of the State, and embraces 530
square miles, with a population (1890) of 30,093.
The Kaskaskia River (sometimes called the
Okaw) runs through the nortliwestern part of the
county, but the principal stream is the Embarras
(Embraw). The chief resource of the people is
agriculture, although the county lies within the
limits of the Illinois coal belt. To the north and
west are prairies, while timber abounds in the
southeast. The largest crop is of corn, although
wheat, dairy products, potatoes, hay, tobacco,
sorghum, wool, etc. , are also important products.
Broom-corn is extensively cultivated. Manufac-
tiiring is carried on to a fair extent, the output
embracing sawed lirmber, carriages and wagons,
agricultural implements, tobacco and snuff, boots
and shoes, etc. Charleston, the county-seat, is



centrally located, and has a number of handsome
public buildings, private residences and business
blocks. It was laid out in 1831, and incorporated
in 1865; in 1890, its population was 4,13,").
Mattoon is a railroad center, situated some 130
miles east of St. Louis. It has a population of
6,833, and is an important shipping point for
grain and live-stock. Other principal towns are
Ashmore, Oakland and Lerna.

COLFAX, a village of McLean County, on the
Kankakee & Bloomington branch of. the Illinois
Central Railroad, 23 miles northeast of Blooming-
ton. Farming and stock-growing are the leading
industries of the section. It has banks and two
newspapers. Population (1890), 835.

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS,
located at Chicago, and organized in 1881. Its
first term opened in September, 1882, in a build-
ing erected by the trustees at a cost of §60,000,
with a faculty embracing twenty-five professors,
with a sufficient corps of demonstrators, assist-
ants, etc. The number of matriculates was 152.
The institution ranks among the leading medical
colleges of the West. Its standard of qualifica-
tions, for both matriculates and graduates, is
equal to those of other first-blass medical schools
throughout the country. The teaching faculty,
of late years, has consisted of some twenty-five
professors, who are aided by an adequate corps of
assistants, demonstrators, etc.

COLLEGES, EARLY. The early Legislatures of
Illinois manifested no little unfriendliness toward
colleges. The first charters for institutions of
this character were granted in 1833, and were for
the incorporation of the "Union College of Illi-
nois," in Randolph County, and the "Alton Col-
lege of Illinois," at Upper Alton. The first
named was to be under the care of the Scotch
Covenanters, but was never founded. The
second was in the interest of the Baptists, but
the charter was not accepted. Botli these acts
contained jealous and unfriendly restrictions,
notably one to the effect that no theological
department sliould be established and no pro-
fessor of theology employed as an instructor, nor
should any religious test be applied in the selec-
tion of trustees or the admission of pupils. The
friends of higher education, however, made com-
mon cause, and, in 1835, secured the passage of
an "omnibus bill" incorporating four private
colleges — the Alton ; the Illinois, at Jacksonville ;
the McKendree, at Lebanon, and the Jonesboro.
Similar restrictive provisions as to theological
teaching were incorporated in these charters, and
a limitation was placed upon the amount of



112



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



propertj- to be owned bj' any institution, but in
many respects the law was more liberal than its
predecessors of two years previous. Owing to
the absence of suitable preparatory schools, these
institutions were compelled to maintain prepara-
tory departments under the tuition of the college
professors. The college last named above ( Jones-
boro) was to have been founded by the Cliristian
denomination, but was never organized. The
three remaining ones stand, in the order of their
formation, l^cKendree, Illinois, Alton (afterward
Shurtleff) ; in the order of graduating initial
classes — Illinois, McKendree, Shurtleff. Pre-
paratoiy instruction began to be given in Illinois
College in 1839, and a class was organized in the
collegiate department in 1831. The Legislature
of 1835 also incorporated the Jacksonville Female
Academy, the first school for girls chartered in
the State. From this time forward colleges and
academies were incorporated in rapid succession,
many of them at places whose names have long
since disappeared from the map of the State. It
was at this time that there developed a strong
party in favor of founding what were termed,
rather euijhemistically, "Manual Labor Col-
leges." It was believed that the time which a
student might be able to "redeem" from study,
could be so profitably employed at farm or shop-
work as to enable him to earn his own livelihood.
Acting upon this theory, the Legislature of 1835
granted charters to the "Franklin Manual Labor
College," to be located in either Cook or La Salle
County; to the "Burnt Prairie Manual Labor
Seminary," in White County, and the "Chatham
Manual Labor School," at Lick Prairie, Sanga-
mon County. University powers were conferred
upon the institution last named, and its charter
also contained the somewhat extraordinary pro-
vision that any sect might establish a professor-
ship of theology therein. In 1837 six more
colleges were incorporated, only one of which
(Knox) was successfully organized. By 1840,
better and broader views of education had
developed, and tlie Legislature of 1841 repealed
all prohibition of the establishing of theological
departments, as well as the restrictions previously
imposed upon the amount and value of property
to be owned by private educational institutions.
The whole number of colleges and seminaries
incorporated under the State law (1896) is forty-
three. (See also Illinois College, Knox College,
Lake Forest University, McKendree College, Mon-
mouth College, Jacksonville Female Seminary,
Monticello Female Seminary, Northwestern Uni-
versHy, Shvrtleff College.)



COLLIER, Robert Laird, clergyman, was born
in Salisbury, Md., August 7, 1837; graduated at
Boston University, 1858; soon after became an
itinerant Methodist minister, but, in 1866, united
with the Unitarian Church and officiated as
pastor of churches in Chicago, Boston and Kan-
sas City, besides supplying pulpits in various
cities in England (1880-85). In 1885, he was
appointed United States Consul at Leipsic, but
later served as a special commissioner of the
Johns Hopkins University in the collection of
labor statistics in Europe, meanwhile gaining a
wide reputation as a lecturer and magazine
writer. His published works include; "Every-
Day Subjects in Sunday Sermons" (1869) and
"Meditations on the Essence of Christianity"
(1876). Died near his birthplace, July 27, 1890.

COLLINS, Frederick, manufacturer, was bom
in Connecticut, Feb. 34, 1804. He was the young-
est of five brothers who came with their parents
from Litchfield, Conn , to Illinois, in 1833, and
settled in the town of Unionville — now Collins-
ville — in the southwestern part of Madison
County. They were enterprising and public-
spirited business men, who engaged, quite
extensively for the time, in various branches of
manufacture, including flour and whisky. This
was an era of progress and development, and
becoming convinced of the injurious character
of the latter branch of their business, it was
promptly abandoned. The subject of this sketch
was later associated with his brother Michael in
the pork-packing and grain business at Naples,
the early Illinois River terminus of the Sangamon
& Morgan (now Wabash) Railroad, but finally
located at Quincy in 1851, where he was engaged
in manufacturing business for many years. He
was a man of high business probity and religious
principle, as well as a determined opponent of the
institution of slavery, as shown by the fact that
lie was once subjected by his neighbors to the
intended indignity of being hung in effigy for the
crime of assisting a fugitive female slave on the
road to freedom. In a speecli made in 1834, in
commemoration of the act of emancipation in the
West Indies, he gave utterance to the following
prediction ; "Methinks the time is not far distant
when our own country will celebrate a day of
emancipation within her own borders, and con-
sistent songs of freedom shall indeed ring
throughout the length and breadth of the land."
He lived to see this prophecy fulfilled, dying at
Quincy, in 1878. Mr. Collins was the candidate of
the Liberty Men of Illinois for Lieutenant-Gov-
ernor in 1843.



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



COLLINS, James H., lawyer and jurist, was
born in Cambridge, Washington County, N. Y.,
but taken in early life to Vernon, Oneida County,
where he grew to manhood. After spending a
couple of years in an academy, at the age of 18
he began the study of law, was admitted to the
bar in 1834, and as a counsellor and solicitor in
1827, coming to Chicago in the fall of 1833, mak-
ing a part of the journey by the first stage-coach
from Detroit to the present Western metropolis.
After arriving in Illinois, he spent some time in
exploration of the surrounding country, but
returning to Chicago in 1S34, he entered into
partnership with Judge John D. Caton, who had
been his preceptor in New York, still later being
a partner of Justin Butterfield under the firm
name of Butterfield & Collins. He was con-
sidered an eminent authority in law and gained
an extensive practice, being regarded as espe-
cially strong in chancery cases as well as an able
pleader. Politically, he was an uncompromising
anti-slavery man, and often aided runaway
slaves in seciiring their liberty or defended others
who did so. He was also one of the original
promoters of the old Galena & Chicago Union
Railroad and one of its first Board of Directors.
Died, suddenlj- of cholera, while attending court
at Ottawa, in 1854.

COLLINS, Loren C, jurist, was born at Wind-
sor, Conn., August 1, 1848; at the age of 18
accompanied his family to Illinois, and was
educated at the Northwestern University. He
read law, was admitted to the bar, and soon
built up a remunerative practice. He was
elected to the Legislature in 1878, and through
his ability as a debater and a parliamentarian,
soon became one of the leaders of his party on
the floor of the lower house. He was re-elected
in 1880 and 1882. and, in 1883, was chosen Speaker
of the Thirty-third General Assembly. In
December, 1884, he was appointed a Judge of the
Circuit Court of Cook County, to fill the vacancy
created by the resignation of Judge Barnum, was
elected to succeed himself in 188.5, and re-elected
in 1891, but resigned in 1894, since that time
devoting his attention to regular practice in the
city of Chicago.

COLLINS, William H., retired manufacturer,
born at Collinsville, III, March 20, 1831; was
educated in the common schools and at Illinois
College, later taking a course in literature,
philosophy and theology at Yale College ; served
as pastor of a Congregational church at La Salle
several years; in 1858, became editor and propri-
etor of "The Jacksonville Journal," which he



conducted some four years. The Civil War hav-
ing begun, he then accepted the chaplaincy of
the Tenth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, but
resigning in 18C3, organized a company of the
One Hundred and Fourth Volunteers, of which
he was chosen Captain, participating in the
battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and
Missionary Ridge. Later he served on the staff
of Gen. John JI. Palmer and at Fourteenth Army
Corps headquarters, until after the fall of
Atlanta. Then resigning, in November, 1864, he
was appointed by Secretary Stanton Provost-
Marshal for the Twelfth District of Illinois, con-
tinuing in this service until the close of 1865,
when he engaged in the manufacturing business
as head of the Collins Plow Company at Quincy.
This business he conducted successfully some
twenty-five years, when he retired. Mr. Collins
has served as Alderman and Mayor, ad interim,
of the city of Quincy ; Representative in the
Thirty-fourth and Thirty-fifth General Assem-
blies — during the latter being chosen to deliver
the eulogy on Gen. John A. Logan ; was a promi-
nent candidate for the nomination for Lieutenant
Governor in 1888, and the same year Republican
candidate for Congress in the Quincy District;
in 1894, was the Republican nominee for State
Senator in Adams County, and, though a Repub-
lican, has been twice elected Supervisor in a
strongly Democratic city.

COLLINSTILLE, a city on the southern border
of Madison County, 13 miles (by rail) east-north-
east of St. Louis, and about 11 miles south of
Edwardsville. The place was originally settled
in 1817 by four brothers named ColUns from
Litchfield, Conn., who established a tan-yard
and erected an ox-mill for grinding corn and
wheat and sawing lumber, which was patronized
by early settlers from a long distance. The town
was platted by surviving members of this family
in 1836. Coal-mining is a principal industry in
the surrounding district, and oce or two mines
are operated within the corporate limits. The
cit}' has zinc works, as well as flour mills and
brick and tile factories. It contains seven
churches, two banks, a high school, and a news-
paper office. Population (1880), 3,887; (1890),
3,498.

COLLIER, Robert, clergyman, was born at
Keighly, Yorkshire, England, Dec. 8, 1823; left
school at eight years of age to earn his living in
a factory ; at fourteen was apprenticed to a black-
smith and learned the trade of a hammer-maker.
His only opportunity of acquiring an education
during this period, apart from private study, was-



114



HISTOEICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



in a night-school, which he attended two winters.
In 1849 he became a local Methodist preacher,
came to the United States the next year, settling
in Pennsylvania, where he pursued his trade,
preaching on Sundays. His views on the atone-
ment having gradually been changed towards
Unitarianism, his license to preach was revoked
by the conference, and, in IS.JO, he united with
the Unitarian Church, having already won a
wide reputation as an eloquent public speaker.
Coming to Chicago, he began work as a mission-
ary, and, in 1860, organized the Unity Chvirch,
beginning with seven members, though it has
since become one of the strongest and most influ-
ential churches in the city. In 1879 he accepted
a call to a church in New York City, where he
still remains. Of strong anti-slavery views and
a zealous Unionist, he served during a part of the
Civil War as a camp inspector for the Sanitary
Commission. Since the war he has repeatedly
visited England, and has exerted a wide influence
as a lecturer and pulpit orator on both sides of
the Atlantic. He is the author of a number of
volumes, including "Nature and Life" (1866);
"A Man in Earnest: Life of A. H. Conant" (1868) ;
"A History of the Town and Parish of likely"
(1886), and "Lectures toYoung Men and Women"
(1886).

COLTON, Chauncey Sill, pioneer, was born at
Springfield, Pa., Sept. 31, 1800; taken to Massachu-
setts in childhood and educated at Monson in that
State, afterwards residing for many years, dur-
ing his manhood, at Monson, Maine. He came to
Illinois in 1836, locating on the site of the present
city of Galesburg, where he built the first store
and dwelling house; continued in general mer-
chandise some seventeen or eighteen years, mean-
while associating his sons with him in business
under the firm name of C. S. Colton & Sons. Mr.
Colton was associated with the construction of
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad from
the beginning, becoming one of the Directors of
the Company; was also a Director of the First
National Bank of Galesburg, the first organizer
and first President of the Farmers' and Mechan-
ics' Bank of that city, and one of the Trustees of
Knox College. Died in Galesburg, July 27, 1885.
— Francis (Colton), son of the preceding; born
at Monson, Maine, May 34, 1834, came to Gales-
burg with his father's family in 1836, and was
educated at Knox College, graduating in 185.5,
and receiving the degree of A.M. in 1858. After
graduation, he was in partnership with his father
some seven years, also served as Vice-President
of the First National Bank of Galesburg, and, in



1866, was appointed by President Johnson United
States Consul at Venice, remaining there until
1869. The latter year he became the General
Passenger Agent of the Union Pacific Railroad,
continuing in that position vintil 1871, meantime
visiting China, Japan and India, and establishing
agencies for the Union and Central Pacific Rail-
ways in various countries of Europe. In 1873 he
succeeded his father as President of the Farmers"
and Mechanics' Bank of Galesburg, but retired in
1884, and the same year removed to Washington,
D. C, where he has since resided. Mr. Colton is
a large land owner in some of the Western States,
especially Kansas and Nebraska.

COLUMBIA, a town in Monroe County, 15
miles by rail south of St. Louis, Mo., and 9 miles
north of Waterloo. It has a machine shop, two
flouring mills and two cigar factories, besides five
churches and a public school. Population (1880) ,
1,308; (1890), 1,367.

COMPANY OF THE WEST, THE, a company
formed in France, in August, 1717, to develop
the resources of "New France." in which the
"Illinois Country" was at that time included.
At the head of the company was the celebrated
John Law, and to him and his associates the
French monarch granted extraordinary powers,
both governmental and commercial. They were
given the exclusive right to refine the precious
metals, as well as a monopoly in the trade in
tobacco and slaves. Later, the company became
known as the Indies, or East Indies, Company,
owing to the king having granted them conces-
sions to trade with the East Indies and China.
On Sept. 27, 1717, the Royal Council of France
declared that the Illinois Country should form a
part of the Province of Louisiana ; and, under the
shrewd management of Law and his associates,
immigration soon increased, as many as 800
settlers arriving in a single year. The directors
of the company, in the exercise of their govern-
mental powers, appointed Pierre Duque de Bois-
briant Governor of the Illinois District. He
proceeded to Kaskaskia, and, within a few miles
of that settlement, erected Fort Chartres. (See
Fort Chartres. ) The policy of the Indies Company
was energetic, and, in the main, wise. Grants of
commons were made to various French villages,
and Cahokia and Kaskaskia steadily grew in size
and population. Permanent settlers were given
grants of land and agriculture was encouraged.
These grants (which were allodial in their char-
acter) covered nearly all the lands in that part of
the American Bottom, lying between the Missis-
sippi and the Kaskaskia Rivers. Many grantees



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLIXt)!^



held their lands in one great common field, each
proprietor contributing, pro rata, to the mainte-
nance of a surrounding fence. In 1721 the Indies
Company divided the Province of Louisiana into
nine civil and military districts. That of Illinois
was numericalh- the Seventh, and included not
only the soutliern half of the existing State, but
also an immense tract west of the Mississippi,
extending to the Rocky Mountains, and embrac-
ing the present States of Missouri, Kansas, Iowa
and Nebraska, besides portions of Arkansas and
Colorado. The Commandant, with his secretary
and the Company's Commissary, formed the
District Council, the civil law being in force. In
1732, the Indies Company surrendered its charter,
and thereafter, the Governors of Illinois were
appointed directly by the French crown.

CONCORDIA SEMINARY, an institution lo-
cated at Springfield, founded in 1S7U ; the succes-
sor of an earlier institution imder the name of
Illinois University. Theological, scientific and
preparatorj' departments are maintained, al-
though there is no classical course. The insti-
tution is under control of the German Lutherans.
The institution reports $12r),()00 worth of real
property. The members of the Faculty (189s)
are five in number, and there were about 171
students in attendance.

CONDEE, Leander D., lawyer, was born in
Athens County, Ohio. Sept. 26, 1847; brought
by his parents to Coles County. 111., at the age of
eight years, and received his education in the
common schools and at St. Paul's Academy, Kan-
kakee, taking a special course in Michigan State
University and graduating from the law depart-



Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 23 of 207)