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Illinois & Michigan Canal. He was distinguished
for his eloquence, and it was during his first
Congressional campaign that stump-speaking was
introduced into the State. Suffering from
consumption, he visited Cuba, and, after return-
ing to his home at Edwardsville and failing to
improve, he went to Kentucky, where he died,
Oct. 16, 1837.— John (Cook), soldier, born at
Edwardsville, 111., June 13, 1825, the son of
Daniel P. Cook, the second Congressman from
Illinois, and grandson of Gov. Ninian Edwards,
was educated bj- private tutors and at Illinois
College; in ISJ.i was elected Mayor of Springfield
and the following year Sheriff of Sangamon
County, later serving as Quartermaster of the
State. liaising a company promptly after the
firing on Fort Sumter in 1861, he was commis-
sioned Colonel of the Seventh Illinois Volunteers
— the first regiment organized in Illinois under
the first call for troops by President Lincoln ; was
promoted Brigadier-General for gallantry at Fort
Donelson in March, 1863 ; in 1864 commanded the
District of Illinois, with headquarters at Spring-
field, being mustered out, August, 1865, with the
brevet rank of Major-General. General Cook was
elected to the lower house of the General Assem-
bly from Sangamon County, in 1868. During
recent years his home has been in Michigan.

COOK COUNTY, situated in the northeastern
section of the State, bordering on Lake Michigan,
and being the most easterly of the second tier of
counties south of the Wisconsin State line. It
has an area of 890 square miles ; population (1880),
607, 524; (1890), 1,191,922; county-seat, Chicago.
The county was organized in 1831, having origi-
nally embraced the counties of Du Page, Will,
Lake, McHenry and Iroquois, in addition to its
present territorial limits. It was named in
honor of Daniel P. Cook, a distinguished Repre-
sentative of Illinois in Congress. (See Cook,
Daniel P. ) The first County Commissioners were
Samuel Miller, Gholson Kercheval and James
Walker, who took the oath of office before Justice
John S. C. Hogau, on JIarch 8, 1831. AVilliam
Lee was appointed Clerk and Archibald Clybourne
Treasurer. Jedediah Wormley was first County
Surveyor, and three election districts (Chicago,
Du Page and Hickory Creek) were created. A
scow ferry was established across the South
Branch, with Mark Beaubien as ferryman. Only
non-residents were required to pay toll. Geolo-
gists are of the opinion that, previous to the
glacial epoch, a large portion of the county lay
under the waters of Lake Michigan, which was
connected with the Mississippi by the Des Plaines



River. This theory is borne out by the finding
of stratified beds of coal and gravel in the eastern
and southern portions of the county, either under-
lying the prairies or assuming the form of ridges.
The latter, geologists maintain, indicate the exist-
ence of an ancient key, and they conclude that,
at one time, the level of the lake was nearly forty
feet higher than at present. Glacial action is
believed to have been very effective in establish-
ing surface conditions in this vicinity. Lime-
stone and building stone are quarried in tolerable
abundance. Athens marble (white when taken
out, but growing a rich yellow through exposure)
is found in the southwest. Isolated beds of peat
have also been found. The general surface is
level, although undulating in some portions. The
soil near the lake is sandy, but in the interior
becomes a black mold from one to four feet in
depth. Drainage is afforded by the Des Plaines,
Chicago and Calumet Rivers, wliich is now being
improved by the construction of the Drainage
Canal. Manufactures and agriculture are the
principal industries outside of the city of Chi-
cago. (See also Chicago. )

COOK COUNTY HOSPITAL, located in Chi-
cago and under control of the Commissioners of
Cook County. It was originally erected by the
City of Chicago, at a cost of 880,000, and was
intended to be used as a hospital for patients
suffering from infectious diseases. For several
years the building was unoccupied, but, in 1858,
it was leased by an association of physicians, who
opened a hospital, with the further purpose of
affording facilities for clinical instruction to the
students of Rush Medical College. In 1863 the .
building was taken by the General Government
for military purposes, being used as an eye and
ear hospital for returning soldiers. In 1865 it
reverted to the City of Chicago, and, in 1866, was
purchased by Cook County. In 1874 the County
Commissioners purchased a new and more spa-
cious site at a cost of §145,000, and began the erec-
tion of buildings thereon. The two principal
pavilions were completed and occupied before the
close of 1875; the clinical amphitheater and
connecting corridors were built in 1876-77, and an
administrative building and two additional
pavilions were added in 1882-84. Up to that date
the total cost of the buildings had been §719,574,
and later additions and improvements have
swelled the outlay to more than 81,000,000. It
accommodates about 800 patients and constitutes,
a part of the county machinery for the care of
the poor. A certain number of beds are placed
under the care of homeopathic physicians. The



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



m



present (18;Mi) allopathic medical staff consists of
fifteen physicians, fifteen surgeons, one oculist
and aurist and one pathologist ; the homeopathic
staff comprises five physicians and five surgeons.
In addition, there is a large corps of internes, or
house physicians and surgeons, composed of
recent graduates from the several medical col-
leges, who gain their positions through competi-
tive examination and hold them for eighteen
months.

COOKE, Edward Dean, lawyer and Congress-
man, born in Dubuque County, Iowa, Oct. 17,
1S49; was educated in the common schools and
the higli school of Dubuque; studied law in that
city and at Columbian University, Washington,
DC. graduating from that institution with the
degree of Bachelor of Laws, and was admitted to
the bar in Washington in 1873. Coming to Chi-
cago the same year, he entered upon the practice
of his profession, which he pursued for the
remainder of his life. In 1882 he was elected a
Representative in the State Legislature from
Cook County, serving one term ; was elected as a
Republican to the Fifty-fourth Congress for the
Sixth District (Chicago), in 1894, and re-elected in
1896. His death occurred suddenly while in
attendance on the extra session of Congress in
Washington, June 24, 1897.

COOLBAUGH, William Findlay, financier, was
born in Pike County, Pa., July 1, 1821; at the
age of lo became clerk in a dry-goods store in
Philadelphia, but, in 1842, opened a branch
establishment of a New York firm at Burlington,
Iowa, where he afterwards engaged in the bank-
ing business, also serving in the Iowa State
Constitutional Convention, and, as the candidate
of his party for United States Senator, being
defeated by Hon. James Harlan by one vote. In
1862 he came to Chicago and opened the banking
house of W. F. Coolbaugh & Co., which, in 1865,
became the Union National Bank of Chicago.
Later he became the first President of the Chi-
cago Clearing House, as also of the Bankers'
Association of the West and South, a Director of
the Board of Trade, and an original incorporator
of the Chamber of Commerce, besides being a
member of the State Constitutional Convention
of 1869-70. His death by suicide, at the foot of
Douglas Monument, Nov. 14, 1877, was a shock to
the whole city of Chicago.

COOLEY, Horace S., Secretary of State, was
born in Hartford. Conn., in 1806, studied medi-
cine for two years in early life, then went to Ban-
gor. Maine, where he began the study of law ; in
1840 he came to Illinois, locating first at Rushville



and finally in the city of Quincy; in 1843 took a
prominent part in the campaign whicli resulted
in the election of Thomas Ford as Governor — also
received fx-om Governor Carlin an apix)intment as
Quartermaster-Genei-al of the State. On the
acce.s-sion of Governor French in December, 1846.
he was appointed Secretary of State and elected
to the s;ime office under the Constitution of 1848,
dying before the expiration of his terra, April 2,
1850.

CORBUS, (Dr.) J. C, physician, was born in
Holmes County, Ohio, in 1833, received his pri
mary education in the public schools, followed
bj- an academic course, and began the study of
medicine at Millersburg, finally graduating from
the Western Reserve Medical College at Cleve-
land. In 18.5.'5 he began practice at Orville, Ohio,
but the same year located at Mendota, 111., soon
thereafter removing to Lee County, where he
remained until 1862. The latter year he was
appointed Assistant Surgeon of the Seventy-fifth
Illinois Volunteer Infantry, but was soon pro-
moted to the position of Surgeon, though com-
])elled to resign the following year on account t)f
ill health. Returning from tlie army, he locateil
at Mendota. Dr. Corbus served continuously as a
member of the State Board of Public Charities
from 1873 until the accession of Governor Altgeld
to the Governorship in 1893, wlien he resigned.
He was also, for fifteen years, one of the Medical
Examiners for his District under the Pension
Bureau, and has served as a member of the
Republican State Central Conunittee for the
Mendota District. In 1897 he was complimented
by Governor Tanner by reappointment to the
State B(jard of Charities, and was made President
of the Board. Early in 1899 he was appointed
Superintendent of the Eastern Hospital for the
In.sane at Kankakee, as successor to Dr. William
G. Stearns.

CORNELL, Paul, real-estate operator and capi-
talist, was born of English Quaker ancestry in
Washington County, N. Y., August 5, 1822: at 9
years of age removed with his step-father. Dr.
Barry, to Ohio, and five years later to Adams
County, 111. Here young Cornell lived the life of
a farmer, working part of the year to earn money
to send himself to school the remainder; also
taught for a time, then entered tlie office of W. A.
Richardson, at Rushville, Schuyler County, as a
law student. In 184.5 he came to Chicago, but
soon after became a student in the law office of
Wilson & Henderson at Joliet, and was admitted
to practice in that city. Removing to Chicago in
1847, he was a.ssociated, successively, with the lato



122



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



L. C. P. Freer, Judge James H. Collins and
Messrs. Skinner & Hoyne ; finally entered into a
contract with Judge Skinner to perfect the title to
330 acres of land held under tax-title within the
present limits of Hyde Park, which he succeeded
in doing bj' visiting the original owners, thereby
securing one-half of the property in his own
name. He thus became the founder of the village
of Hj'de Park, meanwhile adding to his posses-
sions other lands, which increased vastly in value.
He also established a watch factory at Cornell
(now a part of Chicago), which did a large busi-
ness until removed to California. Mr. Cornell
was a member of the first Park Board, and there-
fore has the credit of assisting to organize Chi-
cago's extensive park S3stein.

CORWIN, Franklin, Congressman, was born at
Lebanon, Ohio, Jan. 12, 1818, and admitted to the
bar at the age of 21. While a resident of Ohio he
served in both Houses of the Legislature, and
settled in Illinois in 1857, making his home at
Peru. He was a member of the lower house of
the Twenty-fourth, Twenty-fifth and Twenty-
sixth General Assemblies, being Speaker in 1867,
and again in 1869. In 1872 he was elected to
Congress as a Republican, but, in 1874, was
defeated by Alexander Campbell, who made the
race as an Independent. Died, at Peru, 111. , June
15, 1879.

COUCH, James, pioneer hotel-keeper, was born
at Fort Edward, N. Y., August 31, 1800; removed
to Chautauqua County, in the same State, where
he remained mitil his twentieth year, receiving a
fair English education. After engaging succes-
sively, but with indifferent success, as hotel-clerk,
stage-house keeper, lumber-dealer, and in the dis-
tilling business, in 1836, in company with his
younger brother, Ira, he visited Cliicago. Tliey
both decided to go into business there, first open-
ing a small store, and later entering upon their
hotel ventures whicli proved so eminently suc-
cessful, and gave the Tremont House of Chicago
so wide and enviable a reputation. Mr. Couch
superintended for his brother Ira the erection, at
various times, of many large business blocks in
the city. Upon the death of his brother, in 1857,
he was made one of tlie trustees of his estate, and,
with other trustees, rebuilt the Tremont House
after the Chicago fire of 1871. In April, 1893,
wliile boarding a street car in the central part of
the city of Chicago, he was run over by a truck,
receiving injuries which resulted in his death
the same day at the Tremont House, in the 92d
year of his age. —Ira (Couch), younger brother of
the preceding, was born in Saratoga County,



N. Y., Nov. 22, 1806. At the age of sixteen he
was apprenticed to a tailor, and, in 1826, set up
in business on his own account. In 1836, while
visiting Chicago with his brother James, he
determined to go into business there. With a
stock of furnishing goods and tailors' supplies,
newly bought in New York, a small store was
opened. This business soon disposed of, Mr.
Couch, with his brother, obtained a lease of the
old Tremont House, then a low frame building
kept as a saloon boarding house. Changed and
refurnished, this was opened as a hotel. It was
destroyed by fire in 1839, as was also the larger
rebuilt structure in 1849. A second time rebuilt,
and on a much larger and grander scale at a cost
of §75,000, surpassing anything the West had ever
known before, the Tremont House this time stood
until the Chicago fire in 1871, when it was again
destroyed. Mr. Couch at all times enjoyed an
immense patronage, and was able to accumulate
(for that time) a large fortune. He purchased
and improved a large number of business blocks,
then within the business center of the city. In
1853 he retired from active business, and, in con-
sequence of impaired health, chose for the rest of
his life to seek recreation in travel. In the
winter of 1857, while with his family in
Havana, Cuba, he was taken with a fever which
soon ended his life. His remains now rest in a
mausoleum of masonry in Lincoln Park, Chi-
cago.

COULTER VILLE, a town of Randolph County,
at the Crossing of the Centralia & Chester and
the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railways, 49
miles southeast of St. Louis. Farming and coal-
mining are the leading industries. The town has
a bank and a newspaper. Population (1880), 590;
(1890), 598.

COUNTIES, UNORGANIZED. (See Unorgan-
ized CountieH.)

COWDEN, a village of Shelby County, at the
intersection of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwest-
ern and the Toledo, St. Louis & Kansas City
Railways, 60 miles southeast of Springfield.
Considerable coal is mined in the vicinity ; has a
bank and a weekly paper. Population (1880),
350; (1890), 702.

COWLES, Alfred, newspaper manager, was
born in Portage County, Ohio, May 13, 1833, grew
up on a farm and, after spending some time at
Michigan University, entered the office of "The
Cleveland Leader"' as a clerk; in 1855 accepted a
similar position on "The Chicago Tribune, " which
had just been bought by Joseph Medill and
others, finally becoming a stockholder and busi-



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



123



I



ness manager of the paper, so remaining until hi.s
death in Chicago, Dec. 20, 1889.

COX, Thomas, pioneer. Senator in the First
General Assembly of Illinois (1818-22) from Union
County, and a conspicuous figure in early State
history ; was a zealous advocate of the policy of
making Illinois a slave State ; became one of tlie
original proprietors and founders of the city of
Springfield, and was appointed the first Register
of the Land Office there, but was removed under
charges of misconduct; after his retirement from
the Land Office, kept a hotel at Springfield. In
1836 he removed to Iowa (then a part of Wiscon
sin Territory), became a member of the first
Territorial Legislature there, was twice re-elected
and once Speaker of the House, being prominent
in 1840 as commander of tlie "Regulators" wlio
drove out a gang of murderers and desperadoes
who had got possession at Bellevue. Iowa. Died,
at Maquoketa, Iowa, 1843.

COT, Irns, lawyer, was born in Chenango
County, N. Y., July 2."), 1832; educated in tlie
common schools and at Central College, Cortland
County, N. Y., graduating in law at Albany in
1857. Then, having removed to Illinois, he
located in Kendall Comity and began practice ; in
1868 was elected to the lower house of the General
Assembly and, in 1872. served as Presidential
Elector on the Republican ticket; removed to
Chicago in 1871. later serving as attorney of the
Union Stock Yards and Transit Company. Died,
in Chicago, Sept. 20, 1897.

CRAFTS, Clayton E., legislator and politician,
bom at Auburn, Geauga Count)', Ohio, July 8,
1848 ; was educated at Hiram College and gradu-
ated from the Cleveland Law School in 1868.
coming to Cliicago in 1869. Mr. Crafts served in
seven consecutive sessions of the General Assem-
bly (1883-9.5, inclusive) as Representative from
Cook County, and was elected by the Democratic
majority as Speaker, in 1891, and again in '93.

CRAIG, Alfred M., jurist, was born in Edgar
County, 111., Jan. 1.5. 1831, graduated from Knox
College in 1853, and was admitted to the bar in
the following year, commencing practice at
Knoxville. He held the offices of State's
Attorney and County Judge, and represented
Knox County in the Constitutional Convention
of 1869-70. In 1873 he was elected to the bench
of the Supreme Court, as successor to Justice
C. B. Lawrence, and was re-elected in '82 and
'91 : his present term expiring with the century.
He is a Democrat in politics, but has been
three times elected in a Republican judicial
district.



CRAWFORD, Charles H., lawyer and legisla-
tor, was born in Bennington, Vt., but reared in
Bureau and La Salle Counties, 111. ; lias practiced
law for twenty years in Chicago, and been three
times elected to the State Senate— 1884, "88 and
'94— and is author of the Crawford Primary Elec-
tion Law, enacted in 1885.

CRAWFORD COUNTY, a southeastern county,
bordering on the Wabash, 190 miles nearly due
south of Chicago — named for William H. Craw-
ford, a Secretary of War. It lias an area of 452
square miles; population (1890), 17.283. The
first settlers were the French, but later came
emigrants from New England. The soil is rich
and well adapted to the production of corn and
wheat, which are the principal crops. The
county was organized in 1817. Darwin being
the first county-seat. The present county-seat
is Robin.son. with a population (1890) of 1.387;
centrally located and the point of inter.section of
two railroads. Other towns of importance are
Palestine (population, 734) and Hutsonville (popu-
lation, .582). The latter, as well as Robinson, is
a grain-sliipping point. The Embarras River
crosses the southwest portion of the county, and
receives the waters of Big and Honey Creeks and
Bushy Fork. The county has no mineral
resources, but contains some valuable woodland
and many well cultivated farms. Tobacco,
potatoes, sorghum and wool are among the lead-
ing products.

CREAL SPRINGS, a village of William.son
County, on the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute
Railroad ; lias a bank and a weekly paper. Popu-
lation (1890), 539.

CREBS, John M., ex-Congressman, was born in
Middleburg, Loudoun County, Va., April 7, 1830.
When he was but 7 years old his parents removed
to Illinois, where he ever after resided. At the
age of 21 he began the study of law, and, in 1852,
was admitted to the bar, beginning practice in
White County. In 1862 he enlisted in the
Eighty-seventh Illinois Volunteers, receiving a
commission as Lieutenant-Colonel, participating
in all the important movements in the Mississippi
Valley, including the capture of Vicksburg, and
in the Arkansas campaign, a part of tlie time
commanding a brigade. Returning home, he
resumed the practice of his profession. In 1866
he was an unsuccessful candidate for ■ State
Superintendent of Public Instruction on the
Democratic ticket. He was elected to Congress
in 1868 and re-elected in 1870, and, in 1880, was a
delegate to the Democratic State Convention.
Died, June 26, 1890.



124



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



CRE1GHT0>', James A., jurist, was born in
White County, 111., March 7, 1846; in childhood
removed with his parents to Wayne County, and
was educated in the schools at Fairfield and at
the Southern Illinois College, Salem, graduating
from the latter in 1868. After teaching for a
time while studying law, he was admitted to the
bar in 1870, and opened an office at Fairfield, but,
in 1877, removed to Springfield. In 1885 lie was
elected a Circuit Judge for the Springfield Cir-
cuit, was re-elected in 1891 and again in 1897.

CRERAR, John, manufacturer and philanthro-
pist, was born of Scotch ancestry in New York
City, in 1837 ; at 18 years of age was an employe
of an iron-importing firm in that city, subse-
quently accepting a position with Morris K.
Jessup & Co., in the same line. Coming to
Chicago in 1863, in partnership with J. McGregor
Adams, he succeeded to the business of Jessup &
Co. , in that city, also becoming a partner in the
Adams & Westlake Company, iron manufactur-
ers. He also became interested and an official in
various other business organizations, including
the Pullman Palace Car Company, the Chicago
& Alton Railroad, the Illinois Trust and Savings
Bank, and, for a time, was President of the Chi-
cago & Joliet Railroad, besides being identified
with various benevolent institutions and associ-
ations. After the fire of 1871, he was intrusted
by the New York Chamber of Commerce with
the custody of funds sent for the relief of suffer-
ers by that calamity. His integrity and business
sagacity were universally recognized. After his
death, which occurred in Chicago, Oct. 19,
1889, it was found that, after making munificent
bequests to some twenty religious and benevolent
associations and enterprises, aggregating nearly
a million dollars, besides liberal legacies to
relatives, he had left the residue of his estate,
amounting to some !S3,000,000, for the purpose of
founding a public library in the city of Chicago,
naming thirteen of his most intimate friends as
the first Board of Trustees. No more fitting and
lasting monument of so noble and public-spirited
a man could have been devised.

CRETE, a village of Will County, on the Chi-
cago & Eastern Illinois Railroad, 30 miles south
of Chicago. Population (1880), 539; (1890), 643.

CROOK, Ueorare, soldier, was born near Day-
ton, Ohio, Sept. 8, 1828 ; graduated at the United
States Military Academy, West Point, in 1853, and
was assigned as brevet Second Lieutenant to the
Fourth Infantry, becoming full Second Lieuten-
ant in 1853. In 1861 he entered the volunteer
service as Colonel of the Thirtv-sixth Ohio Infan-



try ; was promoted Brigadier-General in 1863 and
Major-General in 1864, being mustered out of the
service, January, 1866. During the war he
participated in some of the most important
battles in West Virginia and Tennessee, fought at
Chickamauga and Antietam, and commanded
the cavalry in the advance on Richmond in the
spring of 1865. On being mustered out of the
volunteer service he returned to the regular
army, was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the
Twenty-third Infantry, and, for several years, was
engaged in campaigns against the hostile Indians
in the Northwest and in Arizona. In 1888 he
was appointed Major-General and, from that time
to his death, was in command of the Military
Division of the Missouri, with headquarters at
Chicago, where he died, March 19, 1890.

CROSIAR, Simon, pioneer, was born near
Pittsburg, Pa., in the latter part of the last
century; removed to Ohio in 1815 and to Illinois
in 1819, settling first at Cap au Gris, a French
village on the Mississippi just above the mouth
of the Illinois in what is now Calhoun County;
later lived at Peoria (1834), at Ottawa (1826), at
Shippingport near the present city of La Salle
(1839), and at Old Utica (18.84); in the mean-
while built one or two mills on Cedar Creek in
La Salle County, kept a storage and commission
house, and, for a time, acted as Captain of a
steamboat plying on the Illinois. Died, in 1846.



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