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CRYSTAL LAKE, a village in McHenry
County, at the intersection of two divisions of
the Chicago & Northwestern Railway, 43 miles
northwest of Chicago. Population (1880), 546;
(1890), 781.

CUBA, a town in Fulton County, distant 38
miles west-southwest of Peoria, and about 8 miles
north of Lewistown. The entire region (including
the town) is underlaid with a good quality of
bituminous coal, of which the late State Geologist
Worthen asserted that, in seven townships of
Fulton County, there are 9,000,000 tons to the
square mile, within 150 feet of the .surface.
Brick and cigars are made here, and the town
has a bank, a newspaper, three churches and
good schools. Population (1880), 686; (1890),

CULLEN, William, editor and Congressman,
born in the north of Ireland, March 4, 1826 ; while
yet a child was brought by his parents to Pitts-
burg, Pa., where he was educated in the public
schools. At the age of 20 he removed to
La Salle Coimty, 111, and began life as a farmer.
Later he took up his residence at Ottawa. He
has served as Sherifl^ of La Salle Coiuitv, and held


other local offices, ami was for many years a part
owner and senior editor of "The Ottawa Kepub
lican." From 1881 to I880, as a Republican, he
represented the Eighth Illinois District in Con-

CULLOM, Richard Jiortlicraft, farmer and
legislator, was born in the State of Maryland,
October 1, 179.5, but early removed to Wayne
, Coimty, Ky.. where he was married to Miss
Elizabeth Coffey, a native of North Carolina. In
«1830 he removed to Illinois, settling near Wash-
ington. Tazewell County, where he continued to
reside during the remainder of his life. Although
a farmer by vocation, 5Ir. CuUoni was a man of
prominence and a recognized leader in public
affairs. In 183li he was elected as a Whig Rejire-
sentative in the Tenth General Assembly, serving
in the same body with Abraham Lincoln, of
whom he was an intimate personal and political
friend. In 1840 he was chosen a member of the
State Senate, serving in the Twelfth and Thir-
teenth General Assemblies, and, in 1853, was
again elected to the House. Mr. CuUom's death
occurred in Tazewell County, Dec. 4, 1872. his
wife having died Dec. 5. 1868. Mr. and Mrs.
Cullom were the parents of Hon. Shelby M.

CULLOxM, Shelby Moore, United States Sena-
tor, was born in Wayne County, Ky., Nov. 22,
1829. His parents removed to Tazewell County,
111., in 1830, where his father became a member
of the Legislature and attained prominence as a
public man. After two years spent in Rock
River Seminary at Mount Morris, varied by some
experience as a teacher, in 1853 the subject of
this sketch went to Springfield to enter upon the
study of law in the office of Stuart & Edwards.
Being admitted to the bar two years afterward,
lie was almost immediately elected City Attor-
ney, and, in 1856, was a candidate on the Fill-
more ticket for Presidential Elector, at the same
time being elected to the Twentieth General
Assembly for Sangamon Count}-, as he was again,
as a Republican, in 1800, being supported alike by
the Fillmore men and the Free-Soilers. At the
session following the liitter election, he was
chosen Speaker of the House, which was his first
important political recognition. In 1802 he was
appointed by President Lincoln a member of the
War Claims Commission at Cairo, serving in this
capacity with Governor Boutwell of Massachu-
setts and Charles A. Dana of New York. He was
also a candidate for the State Senate the same
year, but then sustained his only defeat. Two
years later (1864) he was a candidate for Con-

gress, defeating his former preceptor, Hon, John
T. Stuart, being re-elected in 1806, and again in
1808, the latter year over B, S. Edwards. He
was a delegate to the National Republican Con-
vention of 1872, and, as Chairman of the Illinois
delegation, placed General Grant in nomination
for the Presidency, holding the same position
again in 1884 and in 1893; was elected to the Illi-
nois House of Representatives in 1872 and in 1874,
being chosen Speaker a second time in 1873, as he
was the unanimous choice of his part}' for
Speaker again in 1875 ; in 1876 was elected Gov-
ernor, was re-elected in 1880, and, in 1888, elected
to the United States Senate as successor to Hon.
David Davis. Having had two re-elections since
(1889 and '95), he is now serving his third term,
which will expire in 1901. In 1898, by special
appointment of President McKinley. Senator
CuUom served upon a Commission to investigate
the condition of the Hawaiian Islands and
report a plan of government for this new division
of the American Republic. Other important
measures with which his name has been promi-
nently identified have been the laws for the sup-
pression of polygamy in Utah and for the creation
of the Inter-State Commerce Commission. At
present he is Chairman of the Senate Committee
on Inter-State Commerce and a member of those
on Appropriations and Foreign Affairs. His
career has been conspicuous for his long public
service, the large number of important offices
which he has held, tlie almost unbroken uniform-
ity of his success wlien a candidate, and his com-
plete exemption from scandals of every sort. No
man in the history of the State has been more
frequently elected to the United States Senate,
and only three — Senators Douglas, Trumbull and
Logan— for an equal number of terms; though
only one of these (Senator Trumbull) lived to
serve out the full period for which he was

CUMBERLAND COUNTY, situated in the
southeast quarter of the State, directly south of
Coles County, from which it was cut off in 1843.
Its area is 350 square miles, and population (1890)
1.5.448. The county-seat was at Greenup until
1855, when it was transfened to Prairie City,
which was laid off in 1854 and incorporated as a
town in 1866. The present county-seat is at
Toledo (population. 1890. 676). The Embarras
River crosses the county, as do also three lines of
railroad. Neoga, a mining town, has a popula-
tion of 829. Tlie county received its name from
the Cumberland Road, which, as originally pro-
jected, passed through it.



CUMMINS, (Rev.) David, Bishop of the Re-
formed Protestant Episcopal Church, was
born near Smyrna, Del., Dec. 11, 1822; gradu-
ated at Dickinson College, Pa., in 1841, and
became a licentiate in the Methodist ministry,
but, in 1846, took orders in the Episcopal
Church; afterwards held rectorships in Balti-
more, Norfolk, Richmond and the Trinity
Episcopal Church of Chicago, in 1866 being con-
secrated Assistant Bishop of the Diocese of
Kentucky. As a recognized leader of the Low-
Church or Evangelical party, he early took issue
with the ritualistic tendencies of the High-Church
party, and, having withdrawn from the Episcopal
Church in 1873, became the first Bishop of the
Reformed Episcopal organization. He was zeal-
ous, eloquent and conscientious, but overtaxed his
strength in his new field of labor, dying at Luth-
erville, Md., June 26, 1876. A memoir of Bishop
Cummins, by his wife, was publishedin 1878.

CUMULATIVE VOTE. (See Minority Rei}re~
sentation. )

CURTIS, Harvey, clergyman and educator, was
born in Adams, Jefferson County, N. Y., May 30,
1806; graduated at Middlebury College, Vt., in
1831, with the highest honors of his class ; after
three years at Princeton Theological Seminary,
was ordained pastor of the Congregational
church at Brandon, Vt., in 1886. In 1841 he
accepted an appointment as agent of the Home
Missionary Society for Ohio and Indiana, between
1843 and 18.58 holding pastorates at Madison,
Ind., and Chicago. In the latter year he was
chosen President of Knox College, at Galesburg,
dying there, Sept. 18, 1862.

CURTIS, William Eiroy, journalist, was born
at Akron, Ohio, Nov. 5, 18.50; graduated at
V\^estern Reserve College in 1831, meanwhile
learning the art of typesetting; later served as a
reporter on "The Cleveland Leader" and, in 1872,
took a subordinate position on "The Chicago
Inter Ocean," finally rising to that of managing-
editor. While on "The Inter Ocean" he accom-
panied General Custer in his campaign against
the Sioux, spent several months investigating
the "Ku-Klux" and "White League" organiza-
tions in the South, and, for some years, was "The
Inter Ocean" correspondent in Washington.
Having retired from "The Inter Ocean," he
became Secretary of the "Pan-American Con-
gress" in Washington, and afterwards made the
tour of the United States with the South and
Central American representatives in that Con-
gress. During the World's Columbian Exposition
in Chicago he had general supervision of the

Latin-American historical and arch»ological
exhibits. Mr. Curtis has visited nearly every
Central and South American country and has
written elaborately on these subjects for the
magazines and for publication in book form ; has
also published a "Life of Zachariah Chandler''
and a "Diplomatic History of the United States
and Foreign Powers," For some time he was
managing editor of "The Chicago News" and is
now (1898) the Washington Correspondent of
"The Chicago Record. "

CUSHMAN, (Col.) William H. W., financier
and manufacturer, was born at Freetown, Mass.,
May 13, 1813 ; educated at the American Literary,
Scientific and Military Academy, Norwich, Vt. ;
at 18 began a mercantile career at Middlebury,
and, in 1824, removed to La Salle County, 111.,
where he opened a country store, also built a mill
at Vermilionville ; later was identified with many
large financial enterprises which generally
proved successful, thereby accumulating a for-
tune at one time estimated at §3,000,000. He was
elected as a Democrat to the Thirteenth and
Fourteenth General Assemblies (1842 and '44)
and, for several years, held a commission as
Captain of the Ottawa Cavalry (militia). Tlie
Civil War coming on, he assisted in organizing
the Fifty-third Illinois Volunteers, and was com-
missioned its Colonel, but resigned Sept. 3, 1862.
He organized and was principal owner of the
Bank of Ottawa, which, in 1865, became the First
National Bank of that city; was the leading
spirit in the Hydraulic Company and the Gas
Company at Ottawa, built and operated the
Ottawa Machine Shops and Foundry, speculated
largely in lands in La Salle and Cook Counties —
his operations in the latter being especially large
about Riverside, as well as in Chicago, was a
principal stockholder in the bank of Cush-
man & Hardin in Chicago, had large interests in
the lumber trade in Michigan, and was one of
the builders of the Chicago, Paducah & South-
western Railroad. The Chicago fire of 1871,
however, brought financial disaster upon him,
which finally dissipated his fortune and de-
stroyed his mental and physical health. His
death occurred at Ottawa, Oct. 28, 1878.

DALE, Michael (i., lawyer, was born in Lan-
caster, Pa. , spent his cliildhood and youth in the
public schools of his native city, except one year
in West Chester Academy, when he entered
Pennsylvania College at Gettysburg, graduating
there in 1835. He then began the study of law
and was admitted to the bar in 1837 ; coming to



Illinois the following year, he was retained in a
suit at Greenville, Bond County, wliich led to his
employment in others, and finally to opening an
office there. In 1839 he was elected Probate
Judge of Bond County, remaining in office four-
teen years, meanwhile being commissioned Major
of the State Militia in 1844, and serving as mem-
ber of a Military Court at Alton in 1847 ; was also
the Delegate from Bond County to the State Con-
stitutional Convention of 1847. In 1853 he re-
signed the office of County Judge in Bond County
to accept that of Register of the Land office at
Edwardsville, where he continued to reside, fill-
ing the office of County Judge in Madison County
five or six terms, besides occupying some subordi-
nate positions. Judge Dale married a daughter
of Hon. William L. D. Ewing. Died at Edwards-
ville, April 1, 1895.

DALLAS CITY, a town of Hancock County, at
the intersection of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa
Fe and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, Rail-
roads, 16 miles south of Burlington. It has
manufactories of lumber, woolen goods, carriages
and wagons and a weekly newspai)er. Popula-
tion (1880), 829; (1890), 747.

DANENHOWER, John Wilson, Arctic explorer,
was born in Chicago, Sept. 30, 1849 — the son of
W. W. Danenhower, a journalist. After passing
through the schools of Chicago and Washington,
he graduated from the United States Naval Acad-
emy at Annapolis in 1870, was successively com-
missioned as Ensign. Master and Lieutenant, and
served on expeditions in the North Pacific and in
the Mediterranean. In 1878 he joined the Arctic
steamer Jeannette at Havre, France, as second in
command imder Lieut. George W. De Long; pro-
ceeding to San Francisco in July, 1879, the
steamer entered the Arctic Ocean by way of
Behring Straits. Here, having been caught in an
ice-pack, the vessel was held twenty-two months.
Lieutenant Danenhower meanwhile being dis-
abled most of tlie time by ophthalmia. The crew,
as last compelled to abandon the steamer, dragged
their boats over the ice for ninety-five days until
they were able to launch them in open water,
but were soon separated by a gale. The boat
commanded by Lieutenant Danenhower reached
the Lena Delta, on the north coast of Siberia,
where the crew were rescued by natives, landing
Sept. 17, 1881. After an ineffectual search on
the delta for tlie crews of the other two boats.
Lieutenant Danenhower, with his crew, made
the journey of 6,000 miles to Orenburg, finally
arriving in the United States in June, 1883. He
has told the story of the expedition in "The

Narrative of the Jeannette," published in 1882.
Died, at Annapolis, Md., April 20, 1887.

DANVERS, a village of McLean County, on the
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis
Railway. The section is agricultural. The town
has a bank and a newspaper. Population (1880),
460; (1890), 506.

DANVILLE, the county-seat and principal
town of Vermilion County, situated on the Ver-
milion River. Four important lines of railroad
intersect here. The town contains car-shops and
numerous factories and is in the heart of a coal
mining district. Danville is the seat of the new
Soldiers' and Sailors' Home established by the
General Government a few years ago. It has a
number of churches, five graded and one high
school, several banks and six pewspapers, three
publishing daily editions. Population (1880),
7,753; (1890), 11,491.

ROAD. (See Chicago & Ohio River Railroad.)

PEKIN RAILROAD. (See Peoria & Eastern

D'ARTAItJUIETTE, Pierre, a French com-
mandant of Illinois fi-om 1734 to 1736, having
been appointed by Bienville, then Governor of
Louisiana. He was distinguished for gallantry
and courage. He defeated the Natchez Indians,
but, in an unsuccessful expedition against the
Chicka,saws, was wounded, captured and burned
at the stake.

DAVENPORT, George, soldier, pioneer and
trader, born in Lincolnshire, England, in 1783,
came to this country in 1804, and soon after
enlisted in the United States army, with the rank
of sergeant. He served gallantly on various
expeditions in the West, where he obtained a
knowledge of the Indians which was afterward
of great value to him. During the War of 1813
his regiment was sent East, where he partici-
I)ated in the defense of Fort Erie and in other
enterprises. In 1815, his term of enlistment hav-
ing expired and the war ended, he entered the
service of the contract commissary. He selected
the site for Fort Armstrong and aided in planning
and supervising its construction. He cultivated
friendly relations with the surrounding tribes,
and, in 1818, built a double log house, married,
and engaged in business as a fur-trader, near the
site of the present city of Rock Island. He had
the confidence and respect of the savages, was
successful and his trading posts were soon scat-
tered through Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin. In
1823 he piloted the first steamboat through the



upper Mississippi, and, in 1835, was appointed the
first postmaster at Rock Island, being the only
white civilian resident there. In 1826 he united
his business with that of the American Fur Com-
pany, in whose service he remained. Althougli
lie employed every effort to induce President
Jackson to make a payment to Black Hawk and
his followers to induce them to emigrate across
the Mississippi voluntarily, when that Chief
commenced hostilities, Mr. Davenport tendered
his services to Governor Reynolds, bj whom he
was commissioned Quartermaster-General witli
the rank of Colonel. Immigration increased
rapidly after tlie close of tlie Black Hawk War
In 1835 a company, of which he was a member,
founded tlie town of Davenport, opposite Rock
Island, which was named in his honor. In 1837
and '43 he was largely instrumental in negoti-
ating treaties by which the Indians ceded their
lands in Iowa to the United States. In the
latter year he gave up the business of fur-trading,
having accumulated a fortune through hard
labor and scrupulous integrity, in the face often
of grave perils. He had large business interests in
nearly every town in his vicinity, to all of which
he gave more or personal attention. On the
night of July 4, 1843, he was assassinated at his
liome by robbers. For a long time the crime was
shrouded in mystery, but its perpetrators were
ultimately detected and brought to punishment.
DAVIS, David, jurist and United States
Senator, was born in Cecil County, Md., March
6, 1815; pursued his academic studies at Kenyon
College, Ohio, and studied law at Yale. He settled
at Bloomington, 111., in 1836, and, after practicing
law there until 1844, was elected to the lower house
of the Fourteenth General Assembly. After
serving in tlie Constitutional Convention of 1847,
lie was elected Judge of the Eighth Judicial
Circuit under the new Constitution in 1848, being
re-elected in 1855 and '61. He was a warm, per-
sonal friend of Abraham Lincoln, who, in 1863,
placed him upon the bench of the United States
Supreme Court. He resigned his high judicial
honors to become United States Senator in 1877
as successor to Logan's first term. On Oct. 13,
1881, he was elected President pro tem. of the
Senate, serving in this capacity to the end of his
term in 1885. He died at his home in Blooming-
ton, June 26, 1886.

DAVIS, Oieorge R., lawyer and Congressman,
was born at Three Rivers, Mass., January 3, 1840;
received a common school education, and a
classical course at Williston Seminary, Easthamp-
ton, Mass. From 1862 to 1865 he served in the

Union army, first as Captain in the Eighth
Massachusetts Infantry, and later as Major in the
Third Rhode Island Cavalry. After the war he
removed to Chicago, where he still resides. By
profession he is a lawyer. He took a prominent
part in the organization of the Chicago militia,
was elected Colonel of the First Regiment,
I. N. G. , and was for a time the senior Colonel in
the State service. In 1876 he was an unsuccessful
Republican candidate for Congress, but was
elected in 1878, and re-elected in 1880 and 1883.
From 1886 to 1890 he was Treasurer of Cook
County. He took an active and influential part
in securing the location of the World's Columbian
Exposition at Chicago, and was Director-General
of the Exposition from its inception to its close,
by his executive ability demonstrating the wis-
dom of his selection.

DAVIS, Hasbrouck, soldier and journalist, was
born at Worcester, Mass., April 23, 1827, being
the son of John Davis, United States Senator and
Governor of Massachusetts, known in his lifetime
as "Honest John Davis." The^on came to Chi-
cago in 1855 and commenced the practice of
law , in 1861 joined Colonel Voss in the organiza-
tion of the Twelfth Illinois Cavalry, being elected
Lieutenant-Colonel and, on the retirement of
Colonel Voss in 1863, succeeding to the colonelcy.
In March, 1865, he was brevetted Brigadier-Gen-
eral, remaining in active service imtil August,
1865, when he resigned. After the war he was,
for a time, editor of ' 'The Chicago Evening Post, ' '
was City Attorney of the City of Chicago from
1867 to '69, but later removed to Massachusetts
Colonel Davis was drowned at sea, Oct. 19, 1870,
by the loss of the steamship Cambria, while on a
voyage to Europe.

DAVIS, James M., early lawyer, was born in
Barren County, Ky., Oct. 9, 1793, came to Illinois
in 1817, located in Bond County and is said to
have taught the first school in that county. He
became a lawyer and a prominent leader of the
Whig party, was elected to the Thirteenth Gen-
eral Assembly (1842) from Bond County, and to
the Twenty-first from Montgomery in 1858, hav-
ing, in the meantime, become a citizen of
Hillsboro ; was also a member of the State Consti-
tutional Convention of 1847. Mr. Davis was a
man of striking personal appearance, being over
six feet in height, and of strong individuality.
After the dissolution of the Whig party he identi-
fied himself with the Democracy and was an
intensely bitter opponent of the war policy of
the Government. Died, at Hillsboro, Sept. 17,



DAVIS, John A., soldier, was born in Craw-
ford County, Pa., Oct. 25, 1823; came to Stephen-
son County, 111., in boyhood and served as
Representative in the General Assembly of 1857
and '59; in September, 1861, enlisted as a private,
was elected Captain and, on the organization of
the Forty-sixth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, at
Camp Butler, was commissioned its Colonel. He
participated in the capture of Fort Donelson,
and in the battle of Shiloh was desperately
wounded by a shot through the lungs, but
recovered in time to join his regiment before the
battle of Corinth, where, on Oct. 4, 1862, he fell
mortally wounded, dying a few days after. On
receiving a request from some of his fellow-citi-
zens, a few days before his death, to accept a
nomination for Congress in the Freeport District,
Colonel Davis patriotically replied: "I can serve
my country better in following the torn banner
of my regiment in the battlefield. ' '

DAVIS, Levi, lawyer and State Auditor, was
born in Cecil County, Md. , July 20, 1806 ; gradu-
ated at Jefferson College, Pa., in 1828, and was
admitted to the bar at Baltimore in 1830. The
following year he removed to Illinois, settling at
Vandalia, then the capital. In 1835 Governor
Duncan appointed him Auditor of Public
Accounts, to which office he was elected by the
Legislature in 1837, and again in 1838. In
1846 he took up his residence at Alton. He
attained prominence at the bar and was, for
several years, attorney for the Cliicago & Alton
and St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad
Companies, in which he was also a Director.
Died, at Alton, March 4, 1897.

DAVIS, Xathau Smith, M.D., LL.D., physi-
cian, educator and editor, was born in Chenango
County, N. Y., Jan. 9, 1817; took a classical and
scientific course in Cazenovia Seminary ; in 1837
graduated from the College of Physicians and
Surgeons, winning several prizes during his
course; the same year began practice at Bing-
hamton; spent two years (1847-49) in New York
City, when he removed to Chicago to accept the
chair of Physiology and General Pathology in
Rush Medical College. In 1859 he accepted a
similar position in the Chicago Medical College
(now the medical department of Northwestern
University), where he still remains. Dr. Davis
has not only been a busy practitioner, but a volu-
minous writer on general and special topics con-
nected with his profession, having been editor at
different times of several medical periodicals,
including "The Chicago Medical Journal," "The
Medical Journal and Examiner, " and "The

Journal of the American Medical Association."
He has also been prominent in State, National
and International Medical Congresses, and is one
of the founders of the Northwestern University,
the Chicago Academy of Sciences, the Chicago
Historical Society, the Illinois State Microscopi-
cal Society and the Union College of Law, besides
other scientific and benevolent associations.

DAVIS, Oliver L., lawyer, was born in New
York City, Dec. 20, 1819; after being in the
employ of the American Fur Company some
seven years, came to Danville, 111., in 1841 and

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