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Yates County. N. Y., but about 1853 he engaged



in the live-stock business in Central and Western
New York. In 1856 he transferred hisojierations
to Illinois, shipping stock from various points to
New York City, finally locating in Chicago. He
was one of the earlie.st projectors of the Chicago
Stock- Yards, later securing conti'ol of the Pitt..^-
burg Stock- Yards, also -becoming interested in
yards at Baltimore, Philadelphia, Jersey City anc 1
Omaha. Mr. AUerton is one of the founders and
a Director of the First National Bank of Chicago,
a Director and stockholder of the Chicago City
Railway (the first cable line in that city), the
owner of an extensive area of liighly improved
farming lands in Central lllinl>i^. as also of large
tracts in Nebraska and WyiiiuiiiL;-, and cil valuable
and productive mining ju-uperties in the Black
Hills. A zealous Republican in politics, he is a
liberal supporter of the measures of that party,
and, in 1893, was the unsuccessful Republican can-
didate for Mayor of Chicago in opposition to
Carter H. Harrison.

ALLOUEZ, Glande Jean, sometimes called
"The Apostle of the West," a Jesuit priest, was
born in France in 1620. He reached Quebec in
1658, and later explored the country around
Lakes Superior and Michigan, establishing the
mission of La Poiute, near where Ashland, Wis.,
now stands, in 1665, and St. Xavier, near Green
Baj', in 1669. He learned from the Indians the
existence and direction of the upper Mississippi,
and was the first to communicate the informa-
tion to the authorities at Montreal, which report
was the primary cause of Joliet's expedition. He
succeeded Marquette in charge of the mission at
Kaskaskia, on the Illinois, in 1677, where he
preached to eight tribes. From that date to 1690
he labored among the aborigines of Illinois and
Wisconsin. Died at Fort St. Joseph, in 1690.

ALLYX, (Rev.) Robert, clergyman and edu-
cator, was born at Ledyard, New London County,
Conn., Jan. 25, 1817, being a direct descend-
ant in the eighth generation of Captain Robert
Allyn, who was one of the first settlers of New
London. He grew up on a farm, receiving his
early education in a comitry school, supple-
mented by access to a small pulilic library, from
wiiich he acquired a good degree of familiarity
with standard English wTiters. In 1837 he
entered the Wesleyan University at Middletown,
Conn., where he distinguished himself as a
mathematician and took a high rank as a linguist
and rhetorician, graduating in 1841. He im-
mediately engaged as a teacher of mathematics
in the Wesleyan Academy at Wilbraham, Mass.,
and, in 1846, was elected principal of the school.



10



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



meanwhile (1843) becoming a licentiate of the
Providence Conference of the Methodist Episcopal
Church. From 1848 to 1854 he served as Princi-
pal of the Providence Conference Seminary at
East Greenvrich, R. I., when he was appointed
Commissioner of Public Schools of Rhode Island
— also serving the same year as a Visitor to West
Point Military Academy. Between 1857 and 1859
he filled the chair of Ancient Languages in the
State University at Athens. Ohio, when he ac-
cepted the Presidency of tlie Wesleyan Female
College at Cincinnati, four years later (1863)
becoming President of McKendree College at
Lebanon, 111., where he remained until 1874.
That position he resigned to accept the Presi-
dency of the Soutliern Illinois Normal University
at Carbondale, whence he retired in 1893. Died
at Carbondale, Jan. 7. 1894.

ALTAMONT, a town and railway junction in
Effingham County, midway and the highest
point between St. Louis and Terre Haute, lud.,
being 88 miles distant from each. It was laid out
in 1870. The principal industries are grain
and fruit-shipping. It has a bank, two grain
elevators, two flouring mills, and several manu-
facturing establishments, including tile-works,
wagon and furniture factories, besides churches
and good schools. Population (1880), 650; (1890),
1,044.

ALTGELD, John Peter, ex-Judge and ex-Gov-
ernor, was born in Prussia in 1848, and in boy-
hood accompanied his parents to America, the
family settling in Ohio. At the age of 16 he
enlisted in tlie One Hundred and Sixty-fourth
Ohio Infantry, serving until the close of the war.
His legal education was acquired at St. Louis and
Savannah, Mo., and from 1874 to '78 he was
Prosecvitiug Attorney for Andrew Count3' in that
State. In 1878 he removed to Chicago, where he
devoted himself to professional work. In 1884 he
led the Democrati-c forlorn hope as candidate for
Congiess in a strong Republican Congressional
district, and in 1886 was elected to the bench of
tlie Superior Court of Cook County, but resigned
in August, 1891. Tlie Democratic State conven-
tion of 1892 nominated him for Governor, and he
was elected the following November, being tlie
first foreign-born citizen to hold that office in the
history of the State, and the first Democrat
elected since 1852. In 1896 he was a prominent
factor in the Democratic National Convention
which nominated William J. Bryan for Presi-
dent, and was also a candidate for re-election to
the office of Governor, but was defeated by John
R. Tanner, the Republican nominee.



ALTOJT, the principal city of Madison County,
and a commercial and manufacturing center,
situated on the east bank of the Mississippi, about
25 miles north of St. Louis and 20 miles south of
the mouth of the Illinois. Population by the
census of 1890, 10,294. Most of the business por-
tion of the city is built in a valley through which
flows a small stream, while the residence portion
occupies the bluffs overlooking the Mississippi
River, some of these — especially in the northern
part — rising to a height of nearly 250 feet. Be-
sides a brisk trade in lumber, Alton has been
noted for its manufactures, including glass, iron,
castor oil, woolens, flour, tobacco and agricul-
tural implements. Its origin was a single small
building, erected in 1807 by the French as a trad-
ing post, the town proper being laid out by Col.
Rufus Easton in 1817. Good building stone is
abundant. The city has four newspapers, three
of them issuing daily editions. In 1827 the State
built a penitentiary at Alton, but later removed
the institution to Joliet. (See also Lovejoy.)

ALTON PENITENTIARY. The earliest pun-
ishments imposed upon public offenders in Illi-
nois were by public flogging or imprisonment for
a short time in jails rudelj' constructed of logs,
from which escape was not difficult for a prisoner
of nerve, strength and mental resource. The
inadequacy of such places of confinement was
soon perceived, but popular antipathy to any
increase of taxation prevented the adoption of
any other polic}' until 1827. A grant of 40,000
acres of saline lands was made to the State by
Congress, and a considerable portion of the money
received from their sale was appropriated to the
establishment of a State penitentiary at Alton.
The sum set apart proved insufficient, and, in 1831,
an additional appropriation of .$10,000 was made
from the State treasury. In 1833 the prison was
ready to receive its first inmates. It was built of
•stone and had but twenty-four cells. Additions
were made from time to time, but by 1857 the
State determined upon building a new peniten-
tiary, which was located at Joliet (see Northern
Penitentiiirii). and, in 1860, the last convicts were
transferred thither from Alton. The Alton prison
was conducted on what is known as "the Auburn
plan" — associated labor in silence by day and
separate confinement by night. The manage-
ment was in the hands of a "lessee," who fur-
nished supplies, employed guards and exercised
the general powers of a warden under the super-
vision of a Commissioner appointed by ihe State,
and who liandled all the products of convict
labor.



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



17



ALTON RIOTS. (See Lovejoy, Elijah Par-
rish. )

ALTONA, a town of Knox County, on the Chi-
cago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 16 miles
northeast of Galesburg ; has some manufactures,
a bank and a newspaper. Population (1880), 818;
(1890). 654.

ALTON & SANOAMON RAILROAD. (See
Chicago & Alton Railroad.)

AMBOY, a city in Lee County, on Green River,
and on tlie Illinois Central and the Chicago, Bur-
lington & Quincy Railroads; 117 miles southeast
of Dubuque, 16 miles northwest of Mendota, and
9.5 miles south by west from Chicago. It con-
tains a town-hall, a bank, seven churches,
graded schools (including a high school) and two
flouring mills. Extensive railroad repair shops,
employing some 200 hands, are located here.
Population (1880), 3,448; (1890), 3,357.

AMES, Edward Raymond, Methodist Episcopal
Bishop, born at Amesville, Athens County, Ohio,
May 30, 1806; was educated at the Ohio State
University, where he joined the M. E. Church.
In 1828 he left college and became Principal of
the Seminary at Lebanon, 111. , which afterwards
became McKendree College. While there he
received a license to preach, and, after holding
various charges and positions in the church, in-
cluding membership in the General Conference
of 1840, '44 and '53, in the latter year was elected
Bishop, serving until his death, which occurred
in Baltimore, April 25, 1879.

ANDERSON, (ialusha, clergyman and edu-
cator, was born at Bergen, N. Y., March 7, 1S33;
graduated at Rochester University in 1854 and at
the Theological Seminary there in 1856; spent
ten years in Baptist pastoral work at Janesville,
Wis. , and at St. Louis, and seven as Professor in
Newton Theological Institute, Mass. From 1873
to '80 he preached in Brooklyn and Chicago ; was
then chosen President of tlie old Chicago Univer-
sity, remaining eight years, when he again be-
came a pastor at Salem, Mass., but soon after
assumed the Presidency of Denison University,
Ohio. On the organization of the new Cliicago
University, he accepted the chair of Homiletics
and Pastoral Theology, which he now holds

ANDERSON, Georsre A., lawyer and Congress-
man, was born in Botetourt County, Va., March
11, 1853. When two years old lie was brought by
his parents to Hancock County, 111 He re-
ceived a collegiate education, and, after studying
law at Lincoln, Neb., and at Sedalia, Mo., settled
at Quincy, 111., where he began practice in 1880.
In 1884 he was elected City Attorney on the



Democratic ticket, and re-elected in 1885 without
opposition. The following year he was the suc-
cessful candidate of his party for Congress, whicli
was his last public service. Died at Quincy,
Jan. 31, 1896.

ANDERSON, James C, legislator, was born in
Henderson County, 111., August 1, 1845; raised on
a farm, and after receiving a common-school
education, entered Monmouth College, but left
early in the Civil War to enlist in the Twentietli
Illinois Volunteer Infantry, in which lie attained
the rank of Second Lieutenant. After the war he
served ten years as Sherilf of Henderson County,
was elected Representative in the General
Assembly in 1888, "90, "93 and "96, and served on
tlie Republican "steering committee" during the
session of 1893. He also served as Sergeant-at-
Arms of the Senate for the session of 1895, and
was a delegate to the Republican National Con-
vention of 1896. His home is at Decorra.

ANDERSON, Stiiisoii H., Lieutenant-Gover-
nor, was born in Sumner Count}', Tenn. , in 1800 ;
came to Jefferson County, 111. , in his youth, and,
at an early age, began to devote his attention to
breeding fine stock; served in the Black Hawk
War as a Lieutenant in 1833, and the same year
was elected to the lower branch of the Eighth
General Assembly, being re-elected in 1834. In
1838 he was chosen Lieutenant-Governor on the
ticket with Gov. Thomas Carlin. and soon after
the close of his term entered the United States
Army as Captain of Dragoons, in this capacity
taking part in the Seminole War in Florida.
Still later he served under President Polk as
United States Marshal for Illinois, and also held
the position of Warden of the State Penitentiarj-
at Alton for several years. Died, September, 1857. —
William B. (Anderson), son of the preceding,
was born at Mount Vernon, 111., April 30, 1830;
attended the common schools and later studied
surveying, being elected Surveyor of Jefferson
County, in 1851. He studied law and was admit-
ted to the bar in 1858, but never practiced, pre-
ferring the more quiet life of a farmer. In 1856
he vs'as elected to the lower house of the General
Assembly and re-elected in 1858. In 1861 he
entered the volunteer service as a private, was
promoted through the grades of Captain and
Lieutenant-Colonel to a Colonelcy, and, at the
close of the war, was brevetted Brigadier-Gen-
eral. In 1868 he was a candidate for Presidential
Elector on the Democratic ticket, was a member
of the State Constitutional Convention of 1869-70,
and, in 1871, was elected to the State Senate, to
fill a vacancy. In 1874 he was elected to the Forty -



18



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



fourth Congress on the Democratic ticket. In
1893 General Anderson was appointed by Presi-
dent Cleveland Pension Agent for Illinois, con-
tinuing in that position four years, when he
retired to private life.

ANDRUS, Rev. Reuben, clergyman and edu-
cator, was born at Rvitland, Jefferson County.
N. Y., Jan. 29, 1824; early came to Fulton
County, 111., and spent three years (1844-47) as a
student at Illinois College, Jacksonville, but
graduated at McKendree College, Lebanon, in
1849 ; taught for a time at Greenfield, entered the
Methodist ministry, and, in 1850, founded the Illi-
nois Wesleyan University at Bloomington, of
vv'hich he became a Professor; later re-entered
the ministry and held charges at Beardstown,
Decatur, Quincy, Springfield and Bloomington,
meanwhile for a time being President of Illinois
Conference Female College at Jacksonville, and
temporary President of Quincy College. In 1867
he was transferred to the Indiana Conference and
stationed at Evansville and Indianapolis; from
1872 to "75 was President of Indiana Asbury Uni-
versity at Greencastle. Died at Indianapolis,
Jan. 17, 1887.

ANNA, a town in Union County, on the Illinois
Central Railroad, 37 miles north of Cairo. The
surrounding region is famous for its crops of fruit
and vegetables, and for these Anna is an impor-
tant shipping point. It has a bank, three weekly
newspapers and fruit-drying establishments.
The (State) Southern Hospital for the Insane is
located here. Population (1880)), 1,494; (1890),
2,295.

ANTHONY, Elliott, jurist, was born of New
England Quaker ancestry at Spafford, Onondaga
County, N. Y., June 10, 1827; was related on
the maternal side to the Cliases and Phelps (dis-
tinguished lawyers) of Vermont. His early years
were spent in labor on a farm, but after a course
of preparatory study at Cortland Academy, in
1847 he entered the sophomore class in Hamilton
College at Clinton, graduating with honors in
1850. The next year he began the study of law,
at the same time giving instruction in an Acad-
emy at Clinton, where he had President Cleve-
land as one of his pupils. After admission to the
bar at Oswego, in 1851, he removed West, stop-
ping for a time at Sterling, 111. , but the following
year located in Chicago. Here he compiled "A
Digest of Illinois Rei)orts" ; in 1858 was elected
City Attorney, and, in 1863, became solicitor of
the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad (now the
Chicago & Northwestern). Judge Anthony
served in two State Constitutional Conventions —



those of 1862 and 1869-70 — being chairman of the
Committee on Executive Department and mem-
ber of the Committee on Judiciary in the latter.
He was delegate to the National Republican Con-
vention of 1880, and was the same year elected a
Judge of the Superior Court of Chicago, and was
re-elected in 1886, retiring in 1892, after whicli he
resumed the practice of his profession, being
chiefly employed as consulting counsel. Judge
Anthony was one of the founders and incorpo-
rators of the Chicago Law Institute and a member
of the first Board of Directors of the Chicago
Public Library ; also served as President of the
State Bar Association (1894-95), and delivered
several important historical addresses before that
body. His other most important productions
are volumes on "Tlie Constitutional History of
Illinois," "The Story of the Empire State" and
"Sanitation and Navigation." Near the close of
his last terra upon the bench, he spent several
months in an extended tour through the princi-
pal countries of Europe. His death occurred,
after a protracted illness, at his home at Evans-
ton, Feb. 24. 1898.

ANTI-NEBRASKA EDITORIAL CONVEN-
TION, a political body, which convened at
Decatur, Feb. 22. 1856, pursuant to the suggestion
of "The Morgan Journal," then a weekly paper
published at Jacksonville, for the purpose of for-
mulating a policy in opposition to the principles
of the Kansas-Nebraska bill. Twelve editors
were in attendance, as follows: Charles H. Ray
of "The Cliicago Tribune"; V. Y. Ralston of
"The Quincy Whig"; O. P. Wharton of "The
Rock Island Advertiser"; T. J. Pickett of "The
Peoria Republican"; George Schneider of "The
Chicago Staats Zeitung" ; Charles Faxon of "The
Princeton Post" ; A. N. Ford of "The Lacon Ga-
zette" ; B. F. Shaw of "The Dixon Telegraph" ; E.
C. Daugherty of "The Rockford Register" ; E. W.
Blaisdell of "The Rockford Gazette"; W. J.
Usrey of "The Decatur Chronicle"; and Paul
Selby of "The Jacksonville Journal. " Paul Selby
was chosen Chairman and W. J. Usrey, Secre-
tary. The convention adopted a platform and
recommended the calling of a State convention
at Bloomington on May 29, following, appointing
the following State Central Committee to take the
matter in charge : W. B. Ogden, Chicago ; S. M.
Church, Rockford; G. D. A. Parks, Joliet; T. J.
Pickett, Peoria; E. A. Dudley, Quincy; William
H. Herndon, Springfield; R. J. Oglesby, Deca-
tur; Joseph Gillespie, EdwardsviUe ; D. L. Phil-
lips, Jonesboro; and Ira O. Wilkinson and
Gustavus Koerner for the State-at-large. Abia-



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



19



ham Lincoln was present and participated in the
consultations of tlie committees. All of these
served except Messrs. Ogden, Oglesby and Koer-
ner, the two former declining on account of ab-
sence from the State. Ogden was succeeded by
the late Dr. John Evans, afterwards Territorial
Governor of Colorado, and Oglesby by Col. Isaac
C. Pughof Decatur. (See Bloomington Conven-
iioti of 1S56.)

APPLE RIVER, a village of Jo Daviess
County, on the Illinois Central Railroad, 21 miles
east-northeast from Galena. Population (1880),
636; (1890), .'572.

APPLINtrTON, (Maj.) Zeiias, soldier, was born
in Broome County, N. Y., Dec. 24, 181.5; in 1837
emigrated to Ogle County, 111., where he fol-
lowed successively the occupations of farmer,
blacksmith, carpenter and merchant, finally
becoming the founder of the town of Polo. Here
he became wealthy, but lost much of his property
in the financial revulsion of 18.57. In 1858 he
was elected to tlie State Senate, and, during the
session of 1859, was one of the members of that
body appointed to investigate the "canal scrip
fraud" (which see) , and two years later was one of
the earnest supporters of the Government in its
preparation for the War of the Rebellion. The
latter year he assisted in organizing the Seventh
Illinois Cavalry, of which he was commissioned
Major, being some time in command at Bird's
Point, and later rendering important service to
General Pope at New Madrid and Island No. IQ.
He was killed at Corinth, Miss., May 8, 1863.
while obeying an order to charge upon a band of
rebels concealed in a wood.

APPORTIONMENT, a mode of distribution of
the counties of the State into Districts for the
election of members of the General Assembly
and of Congress, which will be treated under
separate heads:

Legislative.— The first legislative apportion-
ment was provided for by the Constitution of
1818. That instrument vested the Legislature
with power to divide the State as follows; To
create districts for the election of Representatives
not less than twenty -seven nor more than thirty-
six in number, imtil the population of the State
should amount to 100,000; and to create sena-
torial districts, in number not less than one-third
nor more than one-half of the representative dis-
tricts at the time of organization.

The schedule appended to the first Constitution
contained the first legal apportionment of Sena-
tors and Representatives. The first fifteen
counties were allowed fourteen Senators and



twenty-nine Representatives. Each county
formed a distinct legislative district for repre-
.sentation in the lower house, with the number of
members for eacli varying from one to three;
while Johnson and Franklin were combined iu
one Senatorial district, the other counties being
entitled to one Senator ,each. Later apportion-
ments were made in 1831, '26, '31, '36, '41 and '47.
Before an election was lield under the last, liow-
ever, the Constitution of 1848 went into effect,
and considerable clianges were effected in this
regard. The number of Senators was fixed at
twenty-five and of Representatives at seventy -
five, until the entire population should equal
1,000,000, wlien five members of the House were
added and five additional members for eacli 500,-
000 increase in population until the whole niun-
ber of Representatives reached 100. Tliereafter
the nmuber was neither increased nor dimin-
ished, but apportioned among the several coun-
ties according to the number of white inhabit-
ants. Should it be found necessary, a single
district might be formed out of two or more
counties.

The Constitution of 1848 established fifty-four
Representative and twenty-five Senatorial dis-
tricts. By the apportionment law of 1854, the
number of the former was increased to fifty-eight,
and, in 1861, to sixty-one. Tlie number of Sen-
atorial districts remained imchanged, but their
geograijhical limits varied under each act. while
the number of members from Representative
districts varied according to population.

The Constitution of 1870 provided for an im-
mediate reapportionment (subsequent to its
ad()i)tion) by the Governor and Secretary of
State upon the basis of the United States Census
of 1870. Under the apportionment thus made,
as prescribed by the scliedule, the State was
divided into twenty-five Senatorial districts (each
electing two Senators) and ninety-seven Repre-
sentative districts, with an aggregate of 177 mem-
bers varying from one to ten for the several
districts, according to population. This arrange-
ment continued in force for only one Legislature
— that chosen in 1870.

In 1872 this Legislature proceeded to reappor-
tion the State in accordance with the principle of
"minority representation," which had been sub-
mitteil as an independent section of the Constitu-
tion and adopted on a separate vote. This
provided for apportioning the State into fifty-one
districts, each being entitled to one Senator an. I
three Representatives. The ratio of representa-
tion in the lower hou.se was ascertained by divid-



20



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



ing the entire population by 153 and each coiinty
to be allowed one Representative, provided its
population reached three-fifths of the ratio ; coun-
ties having a population equivalent to one and
tliree-fifths times the ratio were entitled to two
Representatives : while each county with a larger
population was entitled to one additional Repre-
sentative for each time the full ratio was repeated
in the number of inhabitants. Apportionments
were made on this principle in 1872, '82 and '93.
Members of the lower house are elected bienni-
ally; Senators for four years, those in odd and
even districts being chosen at each alternate
legislative election. The election of Senators for
the even (numbered) districts takes place at the
same time with that of Governor and other State
officers, and that for the odd districts at the inter-
mediate periods.

CoNGEESSiONAL. — For the first fourteen years
of the State's history, Illinois constituted but one
Congressional district. The census of 1830 show-
ing sufficient population, the Legislature of 1831
(by act, approved Feb. 13) divided the State into
three districts, the first election under this law
being held on the first Monday in August, 1882.
At that time Illinois comprised fifty-five coun-
ties, which were apportioned among the districts
as follows: First — Gallatin, Pope, Johnson,



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