Newton Bateman.

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became a Democrat, was a Delegate to the Con-
.stitutional Convention of 1863, and, in 1868, vvas
an unsuccessful candidate for Congress in opposi-
tion to Shelby M. Cullom. In 1869 he was elected
Circuit Judge of the Springfield Circuit, but
within eighteen months resigned the position,
preferring the excitement and emoluments of
private practice to the dignity and scanty salary
attaching to the bench. As a lawyer and as a
citizen he was universally respected. Died, at
his home in Springfield, Feb. 4, 1886, at the time
of his decease being President of the Illinois
State Bar Association.

EDWARDS, Richard, educator, ex-Superin-
tendent of Public Instruction, was born in Cardi-
ganshire, Wales, Dec. 23. 1822; emigrated with
his parents to Portage County, Ohio, and began
life on a farm; later graduated at the State
Normal School, Bridgewater, Mass., and from
the Polytechnic Institute at Troy, N. Y., receiv-
ing the degrees of Bachelor of Science and Civil
Engineer ; served for a time as a civil engineer
on the Boston water works, then beginning a
career as a teacher which continued almost unin-
terruptedly for thirty-five years. During this
period he was connected with the Normal School
at Bridgewater ; a Boys' High School at Salem,
and the State Normal at the same place, coming
west in 1857 to establish the Normal School at St.



Louis, Mo., still later becoming I'rinripiil of the
St. Louis High School, and, in 1»S62, accepting the
Presidency of the State Normal University, at
Normal, 111. It was here where Dr. Edwards,
remaining fourteen years, accomplished his
greatest work and left his deepest impress upon
the educational system of the State by personal
contact with its teachers. The ne.vt nine years
were spent as pastor of the First Congregational
church at Princeton, when, after eighteen
months in the service of Knox College as Finan-
cial Agent, he was again called, in 1886, to a
closer connection with the educational field by
his election to the office of State Superintendent
of Public Instruction, serving until 1891, when,
having failed of a re-election, he soon after
assumed the Presidency of Blackburn University
at Carlinville. Failing health, however, com-
pelled his retirement a year later, when he
removed to Bloomington, which is now (1898)
his place of residence.

EDWARDS COUXTY, situated in the south-
eastern part of the State, between Richland and
White on the north and south, and Wabash and
Wayne on the east and west, and touching the
Ohio River on its southeastern border. It was
separated from Gallatin County in 1814, during
the Territorial period. Its territory was dimin-
ished in 1824 by the carving out of Wabash
County. The surface is diversified by prairie
and timber, the soil fertile and well adapted to
the raising of both wheat and corn. The princi-
pal streams, besides the Ohio, are Bonpas Creek,
on the east, and the Little Wabash River on the
west. Pahnyra (a place no longer on the map)
was the seat for holding the first county court,
in 1S15, John Mcintosh, Seth (Jard and William
Barney being the Judges. Albion, the p'-esent
county -seat (population, 937), was laid out by
Morris Birkbeck and George Flower (emigrants
from England), in 1810, and settled largely by
their countrymen, but not incorporated until
186«(. The area of the county is 220 s(iuare
miles, and population, in 1890, 9,444. Grayville,
with a population of 2,000 in 1890, is partly in
this county, though mostly in White. Edwards
County was named in honor of Ninian Edwards,
the Territorial (Governor of Illinoi.s.

EDWARDSVILLE, the county-seat of Madison
County. 111. ; settled in 11^12 and named in honor
of Ninian Eiiwards. then the Territorial Gov-
ernor. It is situated on three lines of railway. 18
miles northeast of St. Louis, Mo. In early times
Edwardsville was the home of a number of the
most prominent men in the history of the State.



154



HISTOEICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



including Governor Edwards, Governor Coles
and others. It has brick yards, coal mines, flour
mills, and machine shops. In a suburb of the
city (Leclaire) is a cooperative manufactory of
sanitary supplies, using large shops and doing a
prosperous business. Edwardsville has three
newspapers, one issued semiweekly. Population
(1880), 2,887; (1890), 3,561; (1893, estimated),
with suburb, 5,000.

EFFINGHAM, an incorporated city, the county-
seat of Effingham County, 98 miles northeast
from St. Louis and 199 miles southwest of Chicago.
It has three weekly papers and various manu-
factures. Population (1880), 3,065; (1890), 3,260.

EFFINGHAM COUNTY, cut off from Fayette
(and separately organized) in 1831— named for
Gen. Edward Effingham. It is situated in the
central portion of the State, 62 miles northeast of
St. Louis; has an area of 490 square miles and a
population (1890) of 19.358. T. M. Short, I. Fanchon
and William I. Hawkins were the first County
Commissioners. Effingham, the coimty-seat, was
platted by Messrs. Alexander and Little in 1854.
Gillenwater. Hawkins and Brown were
the earliest settlers. Several lines of rail-
way cross the county. Agricultm-e and sheep-
raising are leading industries, wool being one of
the principal products.

EGAN, WiUiam Bradsliaw, M.D., pioneer phy-
sican, was born in Ireland, Sept. 28, 1808; spent
some time during his youth in the study of sur-
gery in England, later attending lectures at Dub-
lin. About 1828 he went to Canada, taught for
a time in the schools of Quebec and Montreal
and, in 1830, was licensed by the Medical Board
of New Jersey and began practice at Newark in
that State, later practicing in New York. In
1833 he removed to Chicago and was early recog-
nized as a prominent physician ; on July 4, 1836,
delivered the address at the breaking of ground
for the Illinois & Michigan Canal. During the
early years of his residence in Chicago, Dr. Egan
was owner of the block on which the Tremont
House stands, and erected a number of houses
there. He was a zealous Democrat and a delegate
to the first Convention of that party, held at
Joliet in 1843; was elected County Recorder in
1844 and Representative in the Eighteenth Gen-
eral Assembly (1853-54). Died, Oct. 37, 1860.

ELBURN, a village of Kane County, on the
Chicago & Northwestern Railway, 8 miles west
of Geneva. It has banks and a weekly news-
pai)er Population (1890), 584.

ELDORADO, a town in Saline County, on the
Cleveland, Cincinnati. Chicago & St. Louis, the



Louisville & Nashville, and the St. Louis, Alton
& Terre Haute Railroads; has a bank and one
newspaper; district argicultural. Population,
estimated, 1,200.

ELDRIDGE, Hamiltou N., lawyer and soldier,
was born at South Williamstown, Mass., August,
1837 ; graduated at Williams College in the class
with President Garfield, in 1856, and at Albany
Law School, in 1857; soon afterward came to
Chicago and began practice ; in 1862 assisted in
organizing the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh
Illinois Volunteers, of which he was elected
Lieutenant-Colonel, before the end of the year
being promoted to the position of Colonel; dis-
tinguished himself at Arkansas Post, Chicka-
mauga and in the battles before Vicksburg,
winning the rank of Brevet Brigadier-General,
but, after two years' service, was compelled to
retire on account of disability, being carried east
on a stretcher. Subsequently he recovered suffi-
ciently to resume his profession, but died in
Chicago, Dec. 1, 1882, much regretted by a large
circle of friends, with whom he was exceedingly
popular.

ELECTIONS. The elections of public officers
in Illinois are of two general classes : (I) those
conducted in accordance with United States
laws, and (II) those conducted exclusively under
State laws.

I. To the first class belong: (1) the election of
United States Senators; (2) Presidential Elect-
ors, and (3 ) Representatives in Congress. 1.
(United States Senators). The election of
United States Senators, while an act of the State
Legislature, is conducted solely under forms pre-
scribed by the laws of the United States. These
make it the duty of the Legislature, on the second
Tuesday after convening at the session next pre-
ceding the expiration of the term for which any
Senator may have been chosen, to proceed to
elect his successor in the following manner:
Each House is required, on the day designated, in
open session and by the viva voce vote of each
member present, to name some person for United
States Senator, the result of the balloting to be
entered on the journals of the respective Houses.
At twelve o'clock (M.) on the day following the
day of election, the members of the two Houses
meet in joint assembly, when the journals of both
Houses are read. If it appears that the same
person has received a majority of all the votes in
each House, he is declared elected Senator. If,
however, no one has received such majority, or
if either House has failed to take proceedings as
required on the preceding day, then the members



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



155



I



of the two Houses, in joint assembly, proceed to
ballot for Senator by viva voce vote of members
present. Tlie person receiving a majority of all
the votes cast— a majority of the members of
both Houses being present and voting — is declared
elected ; otherwise tlie joint assembly is renewed
at noon eacli legislative day of the session, and at
least one ballot taken until a Senator is chosen.
When a vacancy exists in the Senate at the time
of the assembling of the Legislature, the same
rule prevails as to the time of holding an election
to fill it; and, if a vacancy occurs during the
session, the Legislature is required to proceed to
an election on the second Tuesday after having
received official notice of such vacancy. The
tenure of a United States Senator for a full term
is six years— the regular term beginning with a
new Congress — the two Senators from each State
belonging to different "cla.sses," so that their
terms expire alternately at periods of two and
four years from each other. — 3. (Presidential
Electors). The choice of Electors of President
and Vice-President is made by popular vote
taken quadrennially on the Tuesday after the
first Monday in November. The date of sucli
election is fixed by act of Congress, being the
same as that for Congressman, altliough the State
Legislature prescribes the manner of conducting
it and making returns of the same. The number
of Electors chosen equals the number of Senators
and Representatives taken together (in 1899 it
was twenty-four), and they are elected on a gen-
eral ticket, a plurality of votes being sufficient to
elect. Electors meet at the State capital on the
second Monday of January after their election
(Act of Congi-ess, 1887), to cast the vote of the
State —3. (Members of Congress). The elec-
tion of Representatives in Congress is also held
under United States law, occurring biennially ■
(on the even years) simultaneously with the gen-
eral State election in November. Should Congress
select a different date for such election, it would
be the duty of the Legislature to recognize it by
a corresponding change in the State law relating
to the election of Congressmen. The tenure of a
Congressman is two years, the election being by
Bistricts instead of a general ticket, as in the
case of Presidential Electors — the term of each
Representative for a full term beginning with a
new Congress, on the 4th of March of the odd
years following a general election. (See Con-
gressional Apportionment. )

II. All officers under the State Government —
except Boards of Trustees of cliaritable and penal
institutions or the heads of certain departments,



which are made appointive by the Governor — are
elected by popular vote. Apart from county
officers they consist of three classes; (1) Legisla-
tive; (3) Executive; (3) Judicial — which are
chosen at different times and for different periods.
1. (Legislature). Legislative officers consist of
Senators and Representatives, chosen at elections
held on the Tuesday after tlie first Monday of
November, biennially. The regular term of a
Senator (of whom there are flfty-one under the
present Constitution) is four years; twenty-five
(those in Districts bearing even numbers) being
chosen on the years in which a President and
Governor are elected, and the other twenty-six at
the intermediate period two years later. Thus,
one-half of each State Senate is composed of what
are called "hold-over" Senators. Representatives
are elected biennially at the November election,
and hold office two years. The qualifications as
to eligibility for a seat in the State Senate require
that the incumbent shall be 2.5 years of age,
while 31 years renders one eligible to a seat in
the House — the Constitution requiring that each
shall have been a resident of the State for five
years, and of the District for which he is chosen,
two years next preceding his election. (See
Legislative Appcrtionment and Minority Repre-
sentation.) — 2. (Executive Officers). The
officers constituting the Executive Department
include the Governor. Lieutenant-Governor,
Secretary of State, Auditor of Public Accounts,
Treasurer, Superintendent of Public Instruction,
and Attorney-General. Each of these, except the
State Treasurer, holds office four years and — with
the exception of the Treasurer and Superintend-
ent of Public Instruction^are elected at the
general election at which Pre.sidential Electors
are chosen. The election of State Superintendent
occurs on the intermediate (even) years, and that
of State Treasurer every two years coincidently
witli the election of Governor and Superintendent
of Public Instruction, respectively. (See E.vecu-
tire Officers.) In addition to the State officers
already named, three Tru.stees of the Universitv
of Illinois are elected biennially at the general
election in November, each holding office fur
six years. These trustees (nine in number),
with the Governor, President of the State Board
of Agriculture and the Superintendent of Public
Instruction, constitute the Board of Trustees of
the University of Illinois.— 3. (Judiciary), The
Judicial DeiJartment embraces Judges of the
Supreme, Circuit and County Courts, and such
other subordinate officials as may be connected
with the administration of justice. For the



166



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



election of members of the Supreme Court the
State is divided into seven Districts, each of
which elects a Justice of the Supreme Court for
a term of nine years. The elections in five of
these — the First, Second, Third, Sixth and
Seventh — occur on the first Monday in June every
ninth year from 1S79, the last election having
occurred in June, 1897. The elections in the
other two Districts occur at similar periods of nine
years from 1876 and 1873, respectively — the last
election in the Fourth District liaving occurred
in June, 1893, and that in the Fifth in 1891.—
Circuit Judges are chosen on the first Monday in
June every six years, counting from 1873. Judges
of the Superior Court of Cook County are elected
every six years at the November election. — Clerks
of the Supreme and Appellate Courts are elected
at the November election for six years, the last
election having occurred in 1896. Under the act
of April 3, 1897, consolidating the Supreme
Court into one Grand Division, the number of
Supreme Court Clerks is reduced to one, although
the Clerks elected in 1896 remain in office and have
charge of the records of their several Divisions
until the expiration of their terms in 1903. The
Supreme Court holds five terms annually at Spring-
field, beginning, respectively, on the first Tuesday
of October, December, February, April and June.

(Other Officers), (a) Members of the State
Board of Equalization (one for every Congres-
sional District) are elective every four years at
the same time as Congressmen, (b) County
officers (excei^t County Commissioners not under
township organization) hold office for four years
and are chosen at the November election as
follows: (1) At the general election at whicli
the Governor is chosen — Clerk of the Circuit
Court, State's Attorney, Recorder of Deeds (in
counties having a population of 60,000 or over).
Coroner and County Surveyor. (3) On inter-
mediate years — Sheriff, County Judge, Probate
Judge (in counties having a population of 70,000
and over). County Clerk, Treasurer, Superintend-
ent of Schools, and Clerk of Criminal Com-t of
Cook County, (c) In counties not under town-
ship organization a Board of County Commission-
ers is elected, one being chosen in November of
each year, and eacli holding office three years,
(d) Under the general law the polls open at 8
a. m., and close at 7 p. m. In cities accepting an
Act of the Legislature passed in 1885, the hour of
opening the polls is 6 a. m., and of closing 4 p. m.
(See also Australian Ballot.)

ELECTORS, (JUALIFICATIOXS OP. (See
Suffrage. )



ELGIN, an important city of Northern Illinois,
situated in Kane County, on Fox River and
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul and the
Chicago & Northwestern Railroads, 36 miles
northwest of Chicago. It has valuable water-
power, and over forty manufacturing establish-
ments of different varieties, cliief among them
being the National Watch Factory, one of the
largest in the world. The city is also a great
dairy center, containing extensive creameries
and milk-condensing works, and having a butter
and cheese excliange whose quotations are tele-
graphed to all the principal commercial centers
of the country. It is the location of the Northern
(Illinois) Hospital for the Insane. The Fifty-
fifth Congress made an appropriation for the
erection of a Government (post-office) building
here. Population (1880), 8,787; (1890), 17,833.
The school census of 1891 placed the population at
30,000.

ELGIN, JOLIET & EASTERN RAILWAY. The
main line of this road extends west from Dyer on
the Indiana State line to Joliet, thence northeast
to Waukegan. The total lengtli of the line (1898)
is 193.72 miles, of which 159.93 miles are in Illi-
nois. The entire capital of the company, includ-
ing stock and indebtedness, amounted (1898), to
$13,799,630— more than $71,000 per mile. Its total
earnings in Illinois for the same j^ear were §1,213. -
026, and its entire expenditure in the State,
$1,156,146. The company paid in taxes, the same
year, $48,876. Branch lines extend southerly
from Walker Junction to Coster, where connec-
tion is made with the Cleveland, Cincinnati,
Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, and northwesterly
from Normantown, on the main line, to Aurora.
—(History). The Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Rail-
way was chartered in 1887 and absorbed the
Joliet, Aurora & Northern Railwaj', from Joliet to
Aurora (31 miles), which had been commenced in
1886 and was completed in 1888, with extensions
from Joliet to Spaulding, 111., and from Joliet to
McCool, Ind. In January, 1891, the Companj'
purchased all the properties and franchises of the
Gardner, Coal City & Normantown and the
Waukegan & Southwestern Railway Companies
(formerly operated under lease). The former of
these two roads was chartered in 1889 and opened
in 1890. The system forms a belt line around
Chicago, intersecting all railroads entering that
city from every direction. Its traffic is chiefly
in the transportation of freight.

ELIZABETHTOWN, the county -seat of Hardin
County. It stands on the north bank of the Ohio
River, 44 miles above Paducah, Ky., and about



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



157



I



125 miles southeast of Belleville. It has two
churches, two flouring mills, a bank and two
weekly newspapers. Population (1880), 484;
(1890), 652.

ELKHART, a town of Logan County, on the
Chicago & Alton Railroad, 18 miles northeast of
Springfield ; is a rich farming section ; has a coal
shaft. Population (1890), 361.

ELKIX, William F., pioneer and early legisla-
tor, was born in Clark County, Ky., April 13,
1793; after spending several years in Ohio and
Indiana, came to Sangamon County, 111., in 1825;
was elected to the Sixth, Tenth and Eleventh
General Assemblies, being one of the "Long
Nine" from Sangamon County and, in 1861, was
appointed by his former colleague (Abraham
Lincoln) Register of the Land Ofiice at Spring-
field, resigning in 1873. Died, in 1878.

ELLIS, Edward F. W., soldier, was born at
Wilton, Maine, April 15, 1819; studied law and
was admitted to the bar in Ohio ; spent three years
(1849-53) in California, serving in the Legislature
of that State in 1851, and proving himself an
earnest opponent of slavery ; returned to Ohio the
next year, and, in 1854, removed to Rockford, 111.,
where he embarked in the banking business.
Soon after the firing on Fort Sumter, he organ-
ized the Ellis Rifles, which having been attached
to the Fifteenth Illinois, he was elected Lieuten-
ant-Colonel of the regiment ; was in command at
the battle of Shiloh, April 6, 1863. and was killed
while bravely leading on his men.

ELLIS, (Rev.) Jolin Millot, early home mis-
sionary, was born in Keene, N. H., July 14, 1793;
came to Illinois as a home missionary of the
Presbyterian Church at an early day, and served
for a time as pastor of churches at Kaskaskia and
Jacksonville, and was one of the influential
factors in securing the location of Illinois Col-
lege at the latter place. His wife also conducted,
for some years, a private school for young ladies
at Jacksonville, which developed into the Jack-
sonville Female Academy in 1833, and is still
maintained after a history of over sixty years.
Mr. Ellis was later associated with the establish-
ment of Wabash College, at Crawfordsville, Ind.,
finally returning to New Hampshire, where, in
1840, he was pastor of a church at East Hanover.
In 1844 he again entered the service of the Soci-
ety for Promoting Collegiate and Theological
Education in the West. Died, August 6, 1855.

ELLSAVORTH, Ephraim Elmer, soldier, first
victim of the Civil War. was born at Mechanics
ville, Saratoga County, N. Y., April 33, 1837. He
came to Chicago at an early age, studied law.



and became a patent solicitor. In 1860 he raised
a regiment of Zouaves in Chicago, which became
famous for the perfection of its discipline and
drill, and of which he was commissioned Colonel.
In 1861 he accompanied President Lincoln to
Washington, going from there to New York,
where he recruited and organized a Zouave
regiment composed of firemen. He became its
Colonel and the regiment was ordered to Alexan-
dria, Va. While stationed there Colonel Ells-
worth observed that a Confederate flag was
flying above a hotel owned bj- one Jackson.
Rushing to the roof, he tore it down, but before
he reached the street was shot and killed by
Jackson, who was in turn shot by Frank H.
Brownell, one of Ellsworth's men. He was the
first Union soldier killed in the war. Died, May
34, 1861.

ELMHURST (formerly Cottage Hill), a village
of Du Page County, and residence suburb of
Chicago, on the Chicago & Northwestern Rail-
road, 15 miles west of Chicago; is the .seat of
the Lutheran Evangelical Seminary, has two
weeklj' papers, good common schools and several
churches. Population (1880), 733; (1890). 1,050.

ELMWOOD, a town of Peoria County, on the
Rock Island & Peoria branch of the Chicago,
Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 36 miles west-
northwest of Peoria ; the principal industries are
coal-mining and paper manufacture; has banks
and two newspapers. Population (1880), 1,.504;
(1890), 1,548.

EL PASO, a city in Woodford County, 17 miles
north of Bloomington. It has several grain ele-
vators, large mills, a carriage factory and agri-
cultural implement works. Bituminous coal is
found in the surrounding region, and a coal shaft
lias been sunk. A weekly paper is published here.
Population (1880), 1,390; (1890), 1,353.

EMBARRAS RIVER, rises in Champaign
County and runs southward through the counties
of Douglas, Coles and Cumberland, to Newton, in
Jasper County, where it turns to the southeast,
passing through Lawrence County, and entering
the Wabash River about seven miles below Vin-
cennes. It is nearly 150 miles long.

EMMERSON, Cliarles, jm-ist, was bom at North
Haverhill, Grafton County, N. H., April 15, 1811;
came to Illinois in 1833, first settling at Jackson-
ville, where he spent one term in Illinois College,
then studied law at Springfield, and, having been
admitted to the bar, began practice at Decatur,
where lie spent the remainder of his life except



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