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It was the first fortification (except Fort St.
Louis) in the "Illinois Countrj','" antedating
Fort Chartres by several years. The origin of
the name is uncertain. The best authorities are
of the opinion that it was so called in honor of
the engineer who superintended its construction ;
by others it has been traced to the name of the
French Minister of Marine ; others assert that it
is a .corruption of the word "Massacre," a name
given to the locality because of the massacre
there of a large number of French soldiers by the
Indians. The Virginians sometimes spoke of it
as the "Cherokee fort." It was garrisoned by
the French until after the evacuation of the
country under the terms of the Treaty of Paris.
It later became a sort of depot for American
settlers, a few families constantly residing within
and around the fortification. At a very early
day a military road was laid out from the fort to
Kaskaskia, the trees alongside being utilized as
milestones, the number of miles being cut with
irons and painted red. After the close of the
Revolutionary War, the United States Govern-
ment strengthened and garrisoned the fort by
way of defense against inroads by the Spaniards.
With the cession of Louisiana to the United
States, in 1803, the fort was evacuated and never
re-garrisoned. According to the "American
State Papers," during the period of the French



occupation, it was both a Jesuit missionary
station and a trading post.

FORT SACKVILLE, a British fortification,
erected in 1769, on the Wabash River a short
distance below Vincennes. It was a stockade,
with bastions and a few pieces of cannon. In
1778 it fell into the hands of the Americans, and
was for a time commanded by Captain Helm,
with a garri.son of a few Americans and Illinois
French. In December, 1778, Helm and one
private alone occupied the fort and surrendered
to Hamilton, British Governor of Detroit, who
led a force into the country around Vincennes.

FORT SHERIDAJf (formerly Highwood), a
village and United States Military Post, in Lake
County, on the Milwaukee Division of the Chi-
cago & Northwestern Railway. 34 miles north of
Chicago. Population (isiill), 4.""il.

FORT ST, LOriS, a French fortification on a
rock (widely known as "Starved Rock"), which
.consists of an isolateil cliff on the south side of
the Illinois River nearly opposite Utica, in La
Salle County. Its height is between 130 and 140
feet, and its nearly round summit contains an
area of about three-fourths of an acre. The side
facing the river is nearly perpendicular and, in
natural advantages, it is well-nigh impregnable.
Here, in the fall of 1682, La Salle and Tonty
began the erection of a fort, consisting of earth-
works, palisades, store-houses and a block house,
which also served as a dwelling and trading post.
A windlass drew water from the river, and two
small brass cannon, mounted on a parapet, com-
prised the armament. It was solemnly dedicated
by Father Membre, and soon became a gathering
place for the surrounding tribes, especially the
Illinois. But Frontenac having been succeeded
as Governor of New France by De la Barre, who
was unfriendly to La Salle, the latter was dis-
placed as Commandant at Fort St. Louis, while
plots were laid to secure his downfall by cutting
off his supplies and inciting the Iroquois to attack
him. La Salle left the fort in 1683, to return to
France, and, in 1702, it was abandoned as a
military post, though it continued to be a trad-
ing post until 1718, when it was raided by the
Indians and burned. (See La Salle.)

FORT WAYNE & CHICAGO RAILROAD.
(See Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway.)

FORT WAYNE & ILLINOIS RAILROAD. (See
New YorJc, Chicago & St. Louis Railway.)

FORTIFICATIONS, PREHISTORIC. Closely
related in interest to the works of the mound-
builders in Illinois — though, probably, owing their
origin to another era and an entirely different



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



178



race — are those works wliii'h hear evidence of
having been constructed for purposes of defense
at some period anterior to the arrival of white
men in the country. While there are no works
in Illinois so elaborate in construction as those to
which have been given the names of "Fort
Ancient" on the Maumee in Ohio. "Fort Azatlan"
on the Wabash in Indiana, and "B^ort Aztalan"
on Rock River in Southern Wisconsin, there are
a number whose form of construction shows that
they must have been intended for warlike pur-
poses, and that tliey were formidable of their
kind and for the period in which they were con-
structed. It is a somewhat curious fact that,
while La Salle County is the seat of the first
fortification constructed by the French in Illinois
that can be said to have had a sort of permanent
character ( see Fort St. Lou in and Starved Rock).
it is also the site of a larger number of prehistoric
fortifications, whose remains are in such a state
of preservation as to be clearly discernible, than
any other section of the State of equal area. One
of the most formidable of these fortifications is
on the east side of Fox River, opposite the mouth
of Indian Creek and some six miles northeast of
Ottawa. This occupies a position of decided
natural strength, and is surrounded by three lines
of circumvallation, showing evidence of consider-
able engineering skill. From the size of the trees
within tliis work and other evidences, its age has
been estimated at not less than 1,200 years. On
the present site of the town of Marseilles, at the
rapids of the Illinois, seven miles east of Ottawa,
another work of considerable strength existed.
It is also said that the American Fur Company
had an earthwork here for the protection of its
trading station, erected about 1816 or '18, and
consequently belonging to the present centurj'.
Besides Fort St. Louis on Starved Rock, the'out-
line of another fort, or outwork, whose era has
not been positively determined, about half a mile
south of the former, has been traced in recent
times. De Baugis, sent by Governor La Barre, of
Canada, to succeed Tonty at Fort St. Louis, is said
to have erected a fort on Buffalo Rock, on the
opposite side of tlie river from Fort St. Louis,
which belonged practically to the .same era as the
latter. — There are two points in Southern Illinois
where the aborigines had constructed fortifica-
tions to which the name "Stone Fort" has been
given. One of these is a hill overlooking the
Saline River in the southern part of Saline
Count}-, where there is a wall or breastwork five
feet in height enclosing an area of less than an
acre in extent. The other is on the west side of



Lusk's Creek, in Pt)pe County, where a breast
work has been constructed by loosely piling up
the stones across a ridge, or tongue of land, with
vertical sides and surrounded by a bend of the
creek. Water is easily obtainable from the creek
below the fortified ridge. — The remains of an old
Indian fortification were found by early settlers
of McLean County, at a point called "Old Town
Timber," about 1823 to 1825. It was believed
tlien that it had been occupied by the Indians
during the War of 1812. The story of the Indians
was, that it was burned by General Harrison in
1813; though this is improbable in view of the
absence of any historical mention of the fact.
Judge H. W. Beckwith, who examined its site in
1880, is of tlie opinion that its history goes back
as far as 17.52, and that it was erected by the
Indians as a defense against the French at Kas-
kaskia. There was also a tradition that there
had been a French mission at this point. — One of
the most interesting stories of early fortifications
in the State, is that of Dr. V. A. Boyer, an old
citizen of Chicago, in a paper contributed to the
Chicago Historical Society. Although the work
alluded to by him was evidently constructed after
the arrival of the French in the country, the
exact period to which it belongs is in doubt.
According to Dr. Boyer, it was on an elevated
ridge of timber land in Palos Township, in the
western part of Cook County. He says: "I first
saw it in 1833, and since then have visited it in
company with other persons, some of whom are
still living, I feel sure that it was not built dur-
ing the Sac War from its appearance. ... It
seems probable that it was the work of French
traders or explorers, as there were trees a century
old growing in its environs. It was evidently
the work of an enlightened people, skilled in the
science of warfare. ... As a strategic point it
most completely commanded the surrounding
country and the crossing of the swamp or 'Sag'."
Is it improbable that this was the fort occupied
by Colonel Durantye in 1695V Tlie remains of a
small fort, supposed to have been a French trad-
ing post, were found by the pioneer settlers of
Lake County, where the pre.sent city of Waukegan
stands, giving to that place its first name of
"Little Fort." This structure was seen in 18'25
by Col. William S. Hamilton (a son of Alexander
Hamilton, first Secretary of the Treasury), who
had served in the session of the General Assembly
of that year as a Representative from Sangamon
County, and was then on his way to Green Bay,
and the remains of the pickets or palisades were
visible as late as 1835. While the date of its



174



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



erection is unknown, it probably belonged to the
latter part of the eighteenth centurj-. Tliere is
also a tradition that a fort or trading post, erected
by a Frenchman named Garay (or Guarie) stood
on the North Branch of the Chicago River prior
to the erection of the first Fort Dearborn in 180:1

FOSS, tieorgre Edmund, lawyer and Congress-
man, was born in Franklin County, Vt. . July 3,
1863; graduated from Harvard University, in
1885; attended the Columbia Law School and
School of Political Science in New York City,
finally graduating from the Union College of Law
in Chicago, in 1889, when he was admitted to the
bar and began practice. He never held any
political office until elected as a Republican to
the Fifty-fourth Congress (1894), from the
Seventh Illinois District, receiving a ma.iority of
more than 8,000 votes over his Democratic and
Populist competitors. In 1896 he was again the
candidate of his party, and was re-elected by a
majority of over 20,000, as he was a third time,
in 1898, by more than 12,000 majority. In the
Fifty-fifth Congress Mr. Foss was a member of tlie
Committees on Naval Affairs and Expenditures in
the Department of Agriculture.

FOSTER, (Dr.) John Herbert, physician and
educator, was born of Quaker ancestry at Hills-
borough, N. H., March 8, 1796. His early years
were spent on his father's farm, but at the age
of 16 he entered an academy at Meriden, N. H.,
and, three years later, began teaching with an
older brother at Schoharie, N. Y. Having spent
some sixteen years teaching and practicing
medicine at various places in his native State, in
1832 he came west, first locating in Morgan
County, 111. While there he took part in the
Black Hawk War, serving as a Surgeon. Before
the close of the year he was compelled to come to
Chicago to look after the estate of a brother who
was an oflScer in the army and had been killed by
an insubordinate soldier at Green Bay. Having
thus fallen heir to a considerable amount of real
estate, which, in subsequent years, largely
appreciated in value, he became identified with
early Chicago and ultimately one of the largest
real-estate owners of his time in the city. He
was an active promoter of education during this
period, serving on both City and State Boards.
His death occurred. May 18, 1874, in consequence
of injuries sustained by being thrown from a
vehicle in which he was riding nine days previous.

FOSTER, John Wells, author and scientist,
was born at Brimfield, Mass., in 1815, and edu-
cated at Wesleyan University, Conn ; later studied
law and was admitted to the bar in Ohio, but



soon turned his attention to scientific pursuits,
being employed for several years in the geological
survey of Ohio, during which he investigated the
coal-beds of the State. Having incidentally
devoted considerable attention to the study of
metallurgy, he was employed about 1844 by
mining capitalists to make the first systematic
survey of the Lake Superior copper region, upon
which, in conjunction with J. D. Whitney, he
made a report which was published in two vol-
umes in 1850-51. Returning to Massachusetts, he
participated in the organization of the ' 'American
Party" there, though we find him soon after
breaking with it on the slavery question. In
1855 he was a candidate for Congress in the
Springfield (Mass.) District, but was beaten by a
small majority. In 1858 he removed to Chicago
and, for some time, was Land Commissioner of
the Illinois Central Railroad. The latter years of
his life were devoted chiefly to archaeological
researches and writings, also serving for some
years as Professor of Natural History in the (old)
University of Chicago. His works include "Tlie
Mississippi Valley; its Physical Geography, Min-
eral Resources," etc. (Chicago, 1869) ; "Mineral
Wealth and Railroad Development," (New York,
1873) ; "Prehistoric Races of the United States,"
(Chicago, 1873), besides contributions to numer-
ous scientific periodicals. He was a member of
several scientific associations and, in 18G9, Presi-
dent of the American Association for the Ad-
vancement of Science. He died in Hyde Park,
now a part of Chicago, June 29, 1873.

FOUKE, Philip B., lawyer and Congressman,
was born at Kaskaskia, 111., Jan. 23, 1818; was
cliiefly self-educated and began his career as a
clerk, afterwards acting as a civil engineer; about
1841-42 was associated with the publication of
"The Belleville Advocate," later studied law,
and, after being admitted to the bar, served as
Prosecuting Attorney, being re-elected to that
office in 1856. Previous to this, liowever, he had
been elected to the lower branch of the Seven-
teenth General Assembly (1850), and, in 1858,
was elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-sixth
Congress and re-elected two years later. While
still in Congress he assisted in organizing the
Thirtieth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, of which
he was commissioned Colonel, but resigned on
account of ill-health soon after the battle of Shiloh.
After leaving the army he removed to New
Orleans, where he was appointed Public Adminis-
trator and practiced law for some time. He then
took up tlie prosecution of the cotton-claims
against the Mexican Government, in which he



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HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



175



was engaged some seven years, finally removing
to Washington City and making several trips to
Europe in the interest of these suits. He won
his cases, but died soon after a decision in his
favor, largely in consequence of overtaxing his
brain in their prosecution. His death occurred
in Washington, Oct. 3, 1^70, when he was buried
in the Congressional Cemetery, President Grant
and a number of Senators and Congressmen acting
as pall-bearers at his funeral.

FOWLER, Charles Henry, Methodi.st Episcopal
Bishop, born in Burford, Conn., August 11, 1837;
was partially educated at Rock River Seminary,
Mount Morris, finally graduating at Genesee
College. N. Y. , in 1859. He then began the study
of law in Chicago, but, changing his purpose,
entered Garrett Biblical Institute, at Evanston,
graduating in 1861. Having been admitted to
the Rock River Methodist Episcopal Conference
he was appointed successively to Chicago churches
till 1872; then became President of tlie North-
western University, holding this ofiice fom- years,
when he was elected to the editorship of "The
Christian Advocate" of New York. In 1881 he
was elected and ordained Bishop. His residence
is in San Francisco, his labors as Bishop being
devoted largely to the Pacific States.

FOX RIVER (of Illinois)— called Pishtaka by
the Indians — rises in Waukesha County, Wis.,
and, after running southward through Kenosha
and Racine Counties in tliat State, passes into
Illinois. It intersects McHeury and Kane Coun-
ties and runs southward to the city of Aurora,
below which point it flows southwestward, until
it empties into the Illinois River at Ottawa. Its
length is estimated at 220 miles. The chief
towns on its banks are Elgin, Aurora and Ottawa.
It affords abundant water power.

FOXES, an Indian tribe. (See Sacs and
Fo.ves.)

FR.VNCIS, Simeon, pioneer journalist, was
born at Wethersfield, Conn., May 14, 1796,
learned the printer's trade at New Haven, and, in
connection with a partner, published a paper at
Buffalo, N. Y. In consequence of the excitement
growing out of the abduction of Morgan in 1828,
(being a Mason) he was compelled to suspend,
and, coming to Illinois in the fall of 1831, com-
menced the publication of "The Sangamo" (now
"The Illinois State") "Journal" at Springfield,
continuing his connection therewith until 1855,
when he sold out to Messrs. Bailhache & Baker.
Abraham Lincoln was his close friend and often
wrote editorials for his paper. Mr. Francis was
active in the organization of the State Agi-icul-



tural Society (1853), serving as its Recording
Secretary for several years. In 1859 he moved tn
Portland, Ore., where he published "Tlie Oregon
Farmer," and served as President of the Oregon
State Agricultural Society; in 1861 was ai>-
pointed by President Lincoln, Paymaster in the
regular army, serving until 1870, when he retired
on half-pay. Died, at Portland, Ore., Oct. 25,
1872. — Allen (Francis), brother of the preceding,
was born at Wethersfield, Conn., April 14, 1815;
in 1834, joined his brother at Springfield, 111., and
became a partner in the publication of "The
Journal" until its sale, in 1855. In 1861 he was
appointed United States Consul at Victoria, B. C. ,
serving until 1871, when he engaged in the fur
trade. Later lie was United States Consul at
Port Stanley, Can., dying there, about 1887. —
Josiah (Francis), cousin of the preceding, born
at Wethersfield, Conn., Jan. 17, 1804; was early
connected with "The Springfield Journal": in
1836 engaged in merchandising at Athens, Menard
County ; returning to Springfield, was elected to
the Legislature in 1840, and served one term as
Mayor of Springfield. Died in 1867.

FRANKLIN, a village of Morgan County, on
the Jacksonville & St. Louis Railroad, 13 miles
southeast of Jacksonville. The place has a news-
paper and one or more banks; the surrounding
country is agi-icultural. Population ri880), 316;
(1890), 578.

FRANKLIN COUNTY, located in the south-
central part of the State; was organized in 1818,
and has an area of 430 square miles. Population
(1890), 17,138. The county is well timbered and
is drained by the Big Muddy River. The soil is
fertile and the products include cereals, potatoes,
sorghum, wool, pork and fruit. Tlie county -seat
is Benton, with a population (1890) of 939. Tlie-
countj' contains no large towns, although large,
well-cultivated farms are numerous. The earli-
est white settlers came from Kentucky and Ten-
nessee, and the hereditary traditions of generous,
southwestern hospitality are preserved among
the re.sidents of to-day.

FRANKLIN GROVE, a town of Lee County,
on the Council Bluffs Division of the Chicago &
Northwestern Railway, 88 miles west of Chicago.
Grain and live-.stock are shipped from here in
considerable quantities. It has banks and a
weekly paper. Population (1880), 730; (1890),
736,

FRAZIER, Robert, a native of Kentucky, who
came to Southern Illinois at an early day and
served as State Senator from Edwards County, in
the .Second and Third General Assemblies, in the



176



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



latter beiug an opponent of the scheme to make
Illinois a slave .State. He was a farmer by occu-
pation and, at tlie time he was a member of the
Legislature, resided in what afterwards became
Wabash County. Subsequently he removed to
Edwards County, near Albion, where he died.
"Frazier's Prairie," in Edwards County, was
named for him.

FREEBUBtf, a village of St. Clair County, on
the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad, 8
miles southeast of Belleville. Population (1880),
1,038; (1890), 848.

FREEMAN, Norman L., lawyer and Supreme
Court Reporter, was born in Caledonia, Living-
ston County, N. Y. , May 9, 1823 ; in 1831 accom-
panied his widowed mother to Ann Arbor, Mich.,
removing six years afterward to Detroit ; was edu-
cated at Cleveland and Ohio University, taught
school at Lexington, Ky., while studying law,
and was admitted to the bar in 1846; removed to
Shawneetown, 111., in 1851, was admitted to the
Illinois bar and practiced some eight years. He
then began farming in Marion County, Mo., but,
in 1862, returned to Shawneetown and, in 1863,
was appointed Reporter of Decisions by the
Supreme Court of Illinois, serving until his
death, which occurred at Springfield near the
beginning of his sixth term in office, August 23,
1894.

FREE MASONS, the oldest secret fraternity in
the State — known as the "Ancient Order of Free
and Accepted Masons" — the first Lodge being
instituted at Kaskaskia, June, 3, 1806, with Gen.
John Edgar, Worshipful Master; Michael Jones,
Senior Warden; James Galbraith, Junior War-
den ; William Arundel, Secretary ; Robert Robin-
son, Senior Deacon. Tliese are names of persons
who were, without exception, prominent in the
early history of Illinois. A Grand Lodge was
organized at Vandalia in 1823, with Gov. Shad-
rach Bond as first Grand Master, but the organi-
zation of the Grand Lodge, as it now exists, took
place at Jacksonville in 1840. The number of
Lodges constituting the Grand Lodge of Illinois
in 1840 was six, with 1.57 members: the number
of Lodges within the same jurisdiction in 1895
was 713, with a membership of 50,727, of which
47,335 resided in Illinois. The dues for 1895
were §37,834.50; the contributions to members,
their widows and orphans, $35,038.41; to non-
members, 86,306.38, and to the Illinois Masonic
Orphans' Home, §1,315.80. — Apollo Conmiandery
No. 1 of Knights Templar — the pioneer organi-
zation of its kind in this or any neighboring
State— was organized in Chicago, May 20, 1845,



and the Grand Commandery of the order in Illi-
nois in 1857, with James V. Z. Blaney, Grand
Commander. In 1895 it was made up of sixty-
five subordinate commanderies, with a total
membership of 9,355, and dues amounting to
$7,754.75. The principal officers in 1895-96 were
Henry Hunter Montgomery, Grand Commander ;
John Henry Witbeck, Grand Treasurer, and Gil-
bert W. Barnard, Grand Recorder. — The Spring-
field Chapter of Royal Arch-Masons was organized
in Springfield, Sept. 17, 1841, and the Royal Arch
Chapter of the State at Jacksonville, April 9,
1850, the nine existing Chapters being formally
chartered Oct. 14, of the same year. The number
of subordinate Chapters, in 1895, was 186, with a
total membership of 16,414. — The Grand Council
of Royal and Select Masters, in 1894, embraced 33
subordinate Councils, with a membership of
3,318.

FREEPORT, a city and railway center, the
county-seat of Stephenson County, 131 miles
west of Chicago. It has good water power from
the Rock River and several manufacturing estab-
lishments, among the manufactured output being
carriages, wagon wheels, windmills, coffee mills,
flour, leather, foundry products and vinegar.
The Illinois Central Railroad has shops here.
Population (1880), 8,516; (1890), 10,189. The
Fifty-fifth Congress made an appropriation for a
Government l)uilding at Freeport.

FREEPORT COLLE(}E,an institution at Free-
port, III, incorporated in 1895; is co-educational;
had a faculty of six instructors in 1896, with 116
pupils.

FREER, Lemuel Covell Paine, early lawyer,
was born in Dutchess County, N. Y., Sept. 18,
1815; came to Chicago in 1836, studied law and
was admitted to the bar in 1840 ; was a zealous
anti-slavery man and an active supporter of the
Government during the War of the Rebellion;
for many years was President of the Board of
Trustees of Rush Medical College. Died, in
Chicago, April 14, 1893.

FRENCH, Augustus C, ninth Governor of
Illinois (1846-53), was born in New Hampshire,
August 3, 1808. After coming to Illinois, he
became a resident of Crawford County, and a
lawyer by profession. He was a member of the
Tenth and Eleventh General Assemblies, and
Receiver, for a time, of the Land Office at Pales-
tine. He served as Presidential Elector in 1844,
was elected to the office of Governor as a Demo-
crat in 1846 by a majority of nearly 17,000 over



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