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two competitors, and was the unanimous choice of
his party for a second term in 1848. His adminis-



HISTOKICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



177



tration was free from scandals. He was appointed
Bank Commissioner by Governor Matteson, and
later accepted the chair of Law in McKendree
College at Lebanon. In 1858 he was the nominee
of the Douglas wing of the Democratic party for
State Superintendent of Public Instruction,
' ex-Gov. John Reynolds being the candidate of
the Buchanan branch of the party. Both were
defeated. His last public service was as a mem-
ber from St. Clair County of the Constitutional
Convention of 1863. Died, at Lebanon, Sept. 4,
1864

FRENCH AND INDIAJf WAR. The first
premonition of this struggle in the West was
given in 1698, when two English vessels entered
the mouth of the Mississippi, to take possession
of the French Territory of Louisiana, which then
included what afterward became the State of
Illinois. This expedition, however, returned
without result. Great Britain was anxious to
have a colorable pretext for attempting to evict
the French, and began negotiation of treaties
with the Indian tribes as early as 1724, expecting
thereby to fortify her original claim, which was
based on the right of prior discovery. The
numerous sliif tings of the political kaleidoscope in
Europe prevented any further steps in this direc-
tion on the part of England until 1748-49, when
the Ohio Land Company received a royal grant
of 500,000 acres along the Ohio River, with exclu-
sive^trading privileges. The Company proceeded
to explore and survey and, about 1753, established
a trading post on Loramie Creek, 47 miles north
of Dayton. The French foresaw that hostilities
were probable, and advanced their posts as far
east as the Allegheny River. Complaints by the
Ohio Company induced an ineffectual remon-
strance on the part of Virginia. Among the
ambassadors sent to the French by the Governor
of Virginia was George Waslungton, %vho thus,
in early manhood, became identified with Illinois
history. His report was of such a nature as to
induce the erection of counter fortifications by
the British, one of which (at the junction of the
Allegheny and Mouongahela Ri%'ers) was seized
and occupied by the French before its completion.
Then ensued a series of engagements which,
while not involving large forces of men, were
fraught with grave consequences, and in which
the French were generally successful. In 1755
occurred "Braddock's defeat" in an expedition to
recover Fort Duquesne (where Pittsbm-g now
stands), which had been captured by the French
the previous year, and the Government of Great
Britain determined to redouble its efforts. The



final result was the termination of French domi-
nation in the Oliio Valley. Later came the down-
fall of French ascendency in Canada as the result
of the battle of Quebec ; but the vanquished yet
hoped to be able to retain Louisiana and Illinois.
But France was forced to indemnify Spain for the
loss of Florida, which it did by the cession of all
of Louisiana lying west of the Mississippi (includ-
ing the city of New Orleans), and this virtually
ended French hopes in Illinois. The last military
post in North America to be garrisoned by French
troops was Fort Chartres, in Illinois Territory,
where St. Ange remained in command until its
evacuation was demanded liy the English.

FRENCH GOVERNORS oiP ILLINOIS. French
Governors began to be appointed by the Company
of the Indies (which see) in 1733, the "Illinois
Country" having previously been treated as a
dependency of Canada. The first Governor ( or
"commandant") was Pierre Duque de Boisbriant.
who was commandant for only tliree years, when
he was summoned to New Orleans (1725) to suc-
ceed de Bienville as Governor of Louisiana. Capt.
du Tisne was in command for a short time after
his departure, but was succeeded by another
Captain in the royal army, whose name is vari-
ously spelled de Liette, de Lielte, De Siette and
Delietto. He was followed in turn by St. Ange
(the father of St. Ange de Bellerive), who died in
1742. In 1732 the Company of the Indies surren-
dered its charter to the crown, and tlie Governors
of the Illinois Country were thereafter appointed
directly by royal authority. Under the earlier
Governors justice had been administered under
the civil law ; with the cliange in the method of
appointment the code known as tlie "Common
Law of Paris" came into effect, although not
rigidly enforced because found in many particu-
lars to be ill-suited to the needs of a new country.
The first of the Royal Governors was Pierre
d' Artaguiette, who was appointed in 1734, but was
captured while engaged in an expedition against
the Chickasaws, in 1736, and burned at the stake.
(See D' Artaguiette.) He was followed by
Alphonse de la Buissoniere, who was succeeded,
in 1740, by Capt. BenoLst de St. Claire. In 1743
he gave way to the Chevalier Bertel or Berthet,
but was reinstated about 1748. The last of the
French Governors of the "Illinois Country" was
Louis St. Ange de Bellerive, who retired to St.
Louis, after turning over the command to Cap-
tain Stirling, the English officer sent to supersede
him, in 1765. (St. Ange de Bellerive died, Dec.
27, 1774.) The administration of the French
commandants, while firm, was usually conserva-



178



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



tive and benevolent. Local self-government was
encouraged as far as practicable, and, while the
Governors' power over commerce was virtually
unrestricted, they interfered but little with the
ordinary life of the people.

FREW, Calvin Hamill, lawyer and State Sena-
tor, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, educated at
Finley (Ohio) High School, Beaver (Pa. ) Academy
and Vermilion Institute at Hayesville, Ohio. ; in
1863 was Principal of the High School at Kalida,
Ohio, where he began the study of law, which he
continued the next two years with Messrs. Strain
& Kidder, at Monmouth, 111., meanwhile acting
as Principal of a high school at Young America ;
in 1865 removed to Paxton, Ford County, which
has since been his home, and the same year was
admitted to the bar by the Supreme Court of Illi-
nois. Mr. Frew served as Assistant Superintend-
ent of Schools for Ford County (1865-68) ; in 1868
was elected Representative in the Twenty -sixth
General Assembly, re-elected in 1870. and again
in "78. While practicing law he has been con-
nected with some of the most important cases
before the courts in that section of the State, and
his fidelity and skill in their management are
testified by members of the bar, as well as
Judges upon the bench. Of late years he has
devoted his attention to breeding trotting horses,
with a view to the improvement of his health
but not with tlie intention of permanently
abandoning his profession.

FRY, Jacob, pioneer and soldier, was born in
Fayette County, Ky., Sept. 20, 1799; learned the
trade of a carpenter and came to Illinois in 1819,
working first at Alton, but, in 1820. took up his
residence near tlie present town of Carrolltou, in
which he built the first house. Greene County
was not organized until two years later, and this
border settlement was, at that time, the extreme
northern white settlement in Illinois. He served
as Constable and Deputy Sheriff (simultaneously)
for six years, and was then elected Sheriff, being
five times re-elected. He served through the
Black Hawk War (first as Lieutenant-Colonel and
afterwards as Colonel), having in his regiment
Abraham Lincoln, O. H. Browning, John Wood
(afterwards Governor) and Robert Anderson, of
Fort Sumter fame. In 1837 he was appointed
Commissioner of the Illinois & Michigan Canal,
and re appointed in 1839 and "41, later becoming
Acting Commissioner, with authority to settle up
the business of the former commission, which
was that year legislated out of office. He was
afterwards appointed Canal Trustee by Governor
Ford, and, in 1847, retired from connection with



canal management. In 1850 he went to Cali-
fornia, where he engaged in mining and trade
for three years, meanwhile serving one term in
the State Senate. In 1857 he was appointed Col-
lector of the Port at Chicago by President Buch-
anan, but was removed in 1859 because of his
friendship for Senator Douglas. In 1860 he
returned to Greene County ; in 1861, in spite of his
advanced age, was commissioned Colonel of the
Sixty-first Illinois Volunteers, and later partici-
pated in numerous engagements (among them the
battle of Shiloh), was captured by Forrest, and
ultimately compelled to resign because of im-
paired health and failing eyesight, finally becom-
ing totally blind. He died, June 27, 1881, and
was buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery, near Spring-
field. Two of Colonel Fry's sons achieved dis-
tinction during the Civil War. — James Barnet
(Fry), son of the preceding, was born at Car-
rollton. 111., Feb. 32. 1837; graduated at West
Point Military Academy, in 1847, and was
assigned to artillery service ; after a short experi-
ence as Assistant Instructor, joined his regiment,
the Third United States Artillery, in Mexico,
remaining there through 1847-48. Later, he was
employed on frontier and garrison duty, and
again as Instructor in 1853-54, and as Adjutant of
tlie Academy during 1854-59; became Assistant
Adjutant-General, March 16, 1861, then served as
Chief of Staff to General McDowell and General
Buell (1861-63), taking part in the battles of^Bull
Run, Shiloh and Corinth, and in the campaign in
Kentucky; was made Provost-Marshal-General
of the United States, in March, 1863, and con-
ducted the drafts of that year, receiving the rank
of Brigadier-General, April 31, 1864. He con-
tinued in this office until August 30, 1866, during
which time he put in the army 1,120,621 men,
arrested 76,562 deserters, collected .?36,366,316.78
and made an exact enrolhnent of the National
forces. After the war he served as Adjutant-
General with the rank of Colonel, till June 1,
1881, when he was retired at his own request.
Besides his various official reports, he published a
"Sketch of the Adjutant-General's Department,
United States Army, from 1775 to 1875," and "His-
tory and Legal Effects of Brevets in the Armies of
Great Britain and the United States, from their
origin in 1693 to the PresentTime," (1877), Died,
in Newport, R. 1., July 11, 1894.— William M.
(Fry), another son, was Provost Marshal of the
North Illinois District during the Civil War, and
rendered valuable service to the Government.

FULLER, Allen Curtis, lawyer, jurist and
Adjutant-General, was born in Farmington,



IIISTUllICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



179



Conn., Sept. 24, 1822; studied law at Warsaw,
N. Y., was admitted to practice, in 1846 came to
Belvidere, Boone County, 111., and, after practic-
ing there some years, was elected Circuit Judge
in 1861. A few months afterward he was induced
to accept the office of Adjutant-General by
appointment of Governor Yates, entering upon
the duties of the office in November, 1861. At
first it was understood that liis acceptance was
only temporary, so that he did not formally
resign his place upon the bench until July, 1862.
He continued to discharge the duties of Adjutant-
General until January, 186.5, when, having been
elected Representative in tlie General Assembly,
he was succeeded in the Adjutant-General's office
by General Isham N. Haynie. He served as
Speaker of the House during the following ses-
sion, and as State Senator from 1867 to 1873—
in the Twenty-fifth, Twenty -si.xth and Twenty-
seventh General Assemblies. He was also elected
a Republican Presidential Elector in 1860, and
again in 1876. Since retiring from office. General
Fuller has devoted his attention to the practice of
liis profession and looking after a large private
business at Belvidere.

FFLIER, Charles E., lawyer and legislator,
was born at Flora. Boone County, 111., March 31,
1849 ; attended the district school until 12 years
of age, and, between 1861 and '67, served as clerk
in stores at Belvidere and Cherry Valley. He
then spent a coujjle of years in the book business
in Iowa, when ^1869) he began the study of law
with Hon. Jesse S. Hildrup, at Belvidere, and
was admitted to the bar in 1870. Since then
Mr. Fuller has practiced his profession at Belvi-
dere, was Corporation Attorney for that city in
187.5-76, the latter year being elected State's
Attorney for Boone County. From 1879 to 1891
he served continuously in the Legislature, first
as State Senator in the Thirty-first and Thirty-
second General Assemblies, then as a member of
the House for three sessions, in 1888 being
returned to the Senate, where he served the
next two sessions. Mr. Fuller established a high
reputation in the Legislature as a debater, and
was the candidate of his party (the Republican)
for Speaker of the House in 1885. He was also a
delegate to the Republican National Convention
of 1884. Mr. Fuller was elected Judge of the
Circuit Court for the Seventeenth Circuit at the
judicial election of June, 1897.

FULLER, Melville Weston, eighth Chief Jus-
tice of the United States Supreme Court, was
born at Augusta, Maine. Feb. 11, 1833, graduated
from Bowdoin College in 1853, was admitted to



the bar in 18.55, and became City Attorney of his
native city, but resigned and removed to Chicago
the following year. Through his mother's
family lie traces his descent back to the Pilgrims
of the Mayflower. His literary and legal attain-
ments are of a high order. In politics he has
always been a strong Democrat. He served as a
Delegate to the Constitutional Convention of
1862 and as a member of the Legislature in 1863,
after that time devoting his attention to the
practice of his profession in Cliicago. In 1888
President Cleveland appointed him Chief Justice
of the Supreme Court, since which time he has
resided at Wasliington, although still claiming a
residence in Chicago, where he has considerable
property interests.

FULLERTO\, Alexander N., pioneer settler
and lawyer, born in Chester, Vt., in 1804, was
educated at Middlebury College and Litchfield
Law School, and, coming to Chicago in 1833,
finally engaged in real-estate and mercantile
business, in which he was very successful. His
name has been given to one of the avenues of
Chicago, as well as associated with one of the
prominent business blocks. ' He was one of the
original members of the Second Presbyterian
Church of that city. Died, Sept. 29, 1880.

FULTON, a city and railway center in White-
side County, 135 miles west of Chicago, located
on the Mississippi River and the Chicago &
Northwestern, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy
and the Chicago, ililwaukee & St. Paul Railways.
It is the southern terminus of a line of steamers
wliich annually brings millions of bushels of grain
down the Mississippi from Minnesota, Wisconsin
and Northern Illinois, carrying, on their return,
large quantities of merchandise, agricultural
implements, etc. Fulton has a capacious eleva-
tor and factories for the making of drain- pipe,
stoneware and carriages, besides important
lumber industries. The Northern Illinois Col-
lege is situated here. Population (1880), 1,733;
(1890), 2,099.

FULTOX COUNTY, situated west of and bor-
dering on the Illinois River ; was originally a part
of Pike County, but separately organized in 1823
— named for Robert Fulton. It has an area of 870
square miles with a population (1890) of 43.110.
The soil is ricli, well watered and wooded. Drain-
age is eflfected bj- the Illinois and Spoon Rivers
(the former constituting its eastern boundary)
and by Copperas Creek. Lewistown became the
county-seat immediately after county organi-
zation, and so remains to the present time (1899)
The surface of the county at a distance from the



180



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OP ILLINOIS.



river is generally flat, although along the Illinois
there are bluffs rising to the height of 125 feet.
The soil is rich, and underlying it are rich, work-
able seams of coal. A thin seam of cannel coal
lias been mined near Avon, with a contiguous
vein of fire-clay. Some of the earliest settlers were
Messrs. Craig and Savage, who, in 1818, built a
saw mill on Otter Creek; Ossian M. Ross and
Stephen Dewey, who laid off Lewistown on his
own land in 1822. The first hotel in the entire
military tract was opened at Lewistown by Tru-
man Phelps, in 1827. A flat-boat ferry across the
Illinois was established at Havana, in 1823. The
principal towns are Lewistown (population, 2, 166),
Farmiugton (1,375), and Vermont (1,158).

FULTON COUNTY NARROW-GAUtiE RAIL-
WAY, a line extending from the west bank of the
Illinois River, opposite Havana, to Galesburg,
61 miles. It is a single-track, narrow-gauge
(3-foot) road, although the excavations and
embankments are being widened to accommodate
a track of standard gauge. The grades are few,
and, as a rule, are light, although, in one instance,
the gradient is eighty -four feet to the mile.
There are more than 19 miles of curves, the maxi-
mum being sixteen degrees. The rails are of
iron, thirty-five pounds to the yard, road not
ballasted. Capital stock outstanding (1895),
3636,794; bonded debt, §484,000; miscellaneous
obligations, 5462,362; total capitalization, §1,583,-
156. The line from Havana to Fairview (31 miles)
was chartered in 1 878 and opened in 1880 and the
extension from Fairview to Galesburg chartered
in 1881 and opened in 1882.

FUNK, Isaac, pioneer, was born in Clark
County, Ky., Nov. 17, 1797; grew up with meager
educational advantages and, in 1823, came to Illi-
nois, finally settling at what afterwards became
known as Funk's Grove in McLean County.
Here, with no other capital than industry, per-
severance, and integrity, Mr. Funk began laying
the foundation of one of the most ample fortunes
ever acquired in Illinois outside the domain of
trade or speculation. By agriculture and dealing
in live-stock, he became the possessor of a large
area of the finest farming lands in the State,
which he brought to a high state of cultivation,
leaving an estate valued at his death at not less
than §2,000.000. Mr. Funk served three sessions
in the General Assembly, first as Representative
in the Twelfth (1840-42), and as Senator in the
Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth (1862-66), dying
before the close of his last term, Jan. 29, 1865.
Originally a Whig in politics, he became a Repub-
lican on the organization of that party, and gave



a liberal and patriotic support to the Government
during the war for the preservation of the Union.
During the session of the Twenty-third General
Assembly, in February, 1863, he delivered a
speech in the Senate in indignant condemnation
of the policy of the anti-war factionists, which,
although couched in homely language, aroused
the enthusiasm of the friends of the Government
throughout the State and won for its author a
prominent place in State history. — Benjamin F.
(Funk), son of the preceding, was born in Funk's
Grove Township, McLean County, 111., Oct. 17,
1838. After leaving the district schools, he
entered the Wesleyan University at Blooming-
ton, but suspended his studies to enter the army
in 1862, enlisting as a private in the Sixty-eighth
Illinois Volunteers. After five months' service
he was honorably discharged, and re-entered the
University, completing a three-years' course.
For three years after graduation he followed
farming as an avocation, and, in 1869, took up
his residence at Bloomington. In 1871 he was
chosen Mayor, and served seven consecutive
terms. He was a delegate to the National
Republican Convention of 1888, and was the suc-
cessful candidate of that party, in 1892, for Repre-
sentative in Congress from the Fourteenth Illinois
District. — Lafayette (Funk), another son of Isaac
Funk, was a Representative from McLean County
in the Thirty-third General Assembly and Sena-
tor in the Thirty-fourth and Thirty-fifth. Other
sons wlib have occupied seats in the same body
include George W. , Representative in the Twenty-
seventh, and Duncan M., Representative in the
Fortieth and Forty-first Assemblies The Funk
family have been conspicuous in the affairs of
McLean County for a generation, and its mem-
bers have occupied many other positions of im-
portance and influence, besides those named, under
the State, County and municipal governments.

GAGE, Lyman J., Secretary of the Treasury,
was born in De Ruyter, Madison County, N. Y. ,
June 28, 1836; received a common school educa-
tion in his native county, and, on the removal of
his parents, in 1848, to Rome, N. Y., enjoyed the
advantages of instruction in an academy. At
the age of 17 he entered the employment of the
Oneida Central Bank as office-boy and general
utility clerk, but, two years afterwards, came to
Chicago, first securing employment in a planing
mill, and. in 1858, obtaining a position as book-
keeper of the Merchants' Loan and Trust Com-
pany, at a salary of §500 a year. By 1861 he had
been advanced to the position of cashier of the



HISTOEICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



181



concern, but, in 1868, he accepted the cashiership
of the First National Bank of Chicago, of which
he became the Vice-President in 1881 and, in
1801, the President. Mr. Gage was also one of the
prominent factors in securing the location of the
World's Fair at Chicago, becoming one of the
guarantors of the §10,000.000 promised to be ijiised
b}' tlie city of Chicago, and being finally chosen
the first President of the Exposition Company.
He also presided over the bankers" section of tlie
World's Congress Auxiliary in 1893, and, for a
number of years, was President of the Civic Feder-
ation of Chicago. On the assumption of the
Presidency by President McKinley, in March,
1897, Mr. Gage was selected for the position of
Secretary of the Treasury, which he has con-
tinued to occupy up to tlie present time ( 1899).

GALATIA, a village of Saline County, on the
St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad, 40 miles
southeast of Duquoin. It has a bank and a news-
paper. Population (1880). 674; (1890), 519.

GALE, George Washington, D.D., LL.D.,
clergyman and educator, was born in Dutchess
County, N. Y., Dec. 3, 1789. Left an orphan at
eight years of age, he fell to the care of older
sisters who inherited the vigorous character of
their father, which they instilled into the son.
He graduated at Union College in 1814, and, hav-
ing taken a course in the Theological Seminary
at Princeton, in 1816 was licensed by the Hudson
Presbytery and assumed the charge of building
up new churches in Jefferson County, N. Y.,
serving also for six years as pastor of the Presby-
terian church at Adams. Here his labors were
attended by a revival in which Charles G. Fin-
ney, the eloquent evangelist, and other eminent
men were converts. Having resigned his charge
at Adams on account of illness, he spent the
winter of 1823-24 in Virginia, where his views
were enlarged by contact with a new class of
people. Later, removing to Oneida County,
N. Y., by his marriage with Harriet Selden he
acquired a considerable property, insuring an
income which enabled him to extend the field of
his labors. The result was the establishment of
the Oneida Institute, a manual labor school, at
Whitesboro, with which he remained from 1827
to 1834, and out of which grew Lane Seminary
and Oberlin and Knox Colleges. In 1835 he con-
ceived tlie idea of establishing a colony and an
institution of learning in the West, and a com-
mittee representing a party of proposed colonists
was appointed to make a selection of a site, which
resulted, in the following year, in the choice of
a location in Knox County, 111., including the



site of the present city of Galesburg, which was
named in honor of Mr. Gale, as the head of the
enterprise. Here, in 1837, were taken the first
practical steps in carrying out plans which had
been previously matured in New York, for the
establishment of an institution which first
received the name of Knox Manual Labor Col-
lege. The manual labor feature having been
finally discarded, the institution took the name
of Knox College in 1857. Mr. Gale was the lead-
ing promoter of the enterprise, by a liberal dona-
tion of lands contributing to its first endowment,
and, for nearly a quarter of a century, being
intimately identified with its history. From
1840 to '42 he served in the capacity of acting
Professor of Ancient Languages, and. for fifteen
years thereafter, as Professor of Moral Philosophy
and Rhetoric. Died, at Galesburg. Sept. 31, 1861.
—William Selden (Gale), oldest son of the preced-



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