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ing, was born in Jefl'erson County, N. Y., Feb.
15, 1823, came with his father to Galesburg, 111.,
in 1836, and was educated there. Having read
law with the Hon. James Knox, he was admitted
to the bar in 1845, but practiced only a few years,
as he began to turn his attention to measures for
the development of the country. One of these
was the Central Military Tract Railroad (now the
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy), of which he was
the most active promoter and a Director. He
was also a member of the Board of Supervisors of
Knox County, from the adoption of township
organization in 1853 to 1895, with the exception
of four years, and, during the long controversy
which resulted in the location of the county-seat
at Galesburg, was the leader of the Galesburg
party, and subsequently took a prominent part
in the erection of public buildings tliere. Other
positions held by him include the office of Post-
master of the city of Galesburg, 1849 53; member
of the State Constitutional Convention of 1862,
and Representative in the Twenty -sixth General
Assembly (1870-72); Presidential Elector in 1872;
Delegate to the National Republican Convention
of 1880; City Alderman, 1872-82 and 1891-95;
member of the Commission appointed by Gov-
ernor Oglesby in 1885 to revise the State Revenue
Laws; by appointment of President Harrison,
Superintendent of the Galesburg Government
Building, and a long term Trustee of the Illinois
Hospital for the Insane at Rock Island, by
appointment of Governor Altgeld. He has also
been a frequent representative of his party
(the Republican) in State and District Conven-
tions, and, since 1861, has been an active and
leading member of the Board of Trustees of



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IIISTOEK'AL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



Knox College. Mr. Gale was married, Oct. 6,
184.5, to Miss Caroline Ferris, granddaughter of
the financial representative of the Galesburg
Colony of 1836, and has had eight children, of
whom four are living.

GALENA, the county-seat of Jo Daviess County,
a city and port of entry, 180 miles west-north-
west of Chicago, on the Galena (or Fever) River,
five miles above its junction with the Mississippi,
and an intersecting point for three railroads. It
is built on bluffs overlooking the river, which,
through a system of lockage, is rendered navi-
gable for vessels of deep draft. Rich mines of
sulphide of lead (galena) abound in the vicinity,
from which the city takes it name. The high
and broken character of the site renders Galena
picturesque, and the city is adorned by handsome
public and private buildings and a beautiful park,
in which stands a fine bronze statue of General
Grant, who was a resident here at the beginning
of the Civil War. The river supplies an abun-
dance of water i^ower, and various descriptions of
manufacturing are carried on, notably of lumber,
furniture and carriages, hot water heaters
woolen goods, flour, pottery and castings. There
are also e.xtensive lead and zinc smelting works
and a considerable pork-packing interest Besides
commerce over the trunk lines. Galena enjo3's a
large trade by water in zinc ore, pig lead, grain,
flour, pork, provisions and manufactured goods.
Galena was one of the earliest towns to be settled
in Nortliern Illinois, Thomas H. January having
located there and engaged in trading with the
Indians in 1821. Many men of distinction in
State and national affairs came from that city,
including Col. Henry Gratiot, a pioneer of French
family; Elihu B Washburne, Minister to Paris
during the Franco Prussian War ; Gen. John A.
Rawlins, General Grant's Chief of Staff, and
later Secretary of War; Gen. E. D. Baker and
Tliompson Campbell, afterwards statesmen on
the Paciflc coast, and many more The city is
tlie seat of a German-English College. Popula-
tion (1880), 6,451; (1890), 5,635.

GALENA & CHICAGO UNION RAILROAD.
(See Chicago &■ Northwestern Railuxiij.)

GALESBURG, the county-seat of Knox County
and an important educational center. The first
settlers were emigrants from the East, a large pro-
portion of them being members of a colony organ-
ized by Rev. George W. Gale, of Whitesboro,
N. Y., in whose honor the original village was
named. It is situated in the heart of a rich
agricultural district 53 miles northwest of Peoria,
99 miles northeast of Quincy and 163 miles south-



west of Chicago. It is one of tlie most important
railway centers in the State, the Chicago, Bur-
lington & Quincy, with various branch lines, and
the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe lines intersect-
ing here, while the city is also tapped by the Ful-
ton County Narrow-Gauge Railroad. Galesburg
was Originally granted a special charter, but is
now incorporated under the general law. The
governmental power is vested in a Mayor and a
Board of fourteen Aldermen, chosen by seven
wards. There are beautiful parks and the resi-
dence streets are well shaded, while there are
twenty miles of street paved with vitrified brick.
Both gas and electric lighting sy.stems are in use.
The city has an efficient and well-equipped paid
fire-department, an excellent water supply, and
an extensive and well managed street car system,
electricity being the traction power. While
Galesburg cannot be called a manufacturing cen-
ter, it boasts several flourishing mechanical in-
dustries. The manufacture of vitrified paving
brick, of excellent quality, is extensively carried
on at plants not far from the city limits, the city
itself being the shipping point, as well as the
point of administrative control. There are two
foundries, agricultural implement works, flour-
ing mills, carriage and wagon works, and a broom
factory, besides other industrial enterprises of
minor importance. The Chicago, Burlington &
Quincy Company has shops and stockyards
here. Coal is rfined in the vicinity. There are
handsome business blocks, a fine opera house and
numerous smaller public halls, five banks, nine-
teen churches, and ten public schools, including
a higli school, with a well appointed manual
training department. Knox College (non-secta-
rian), Lombard University (Universalist), and
Corpus Christi Lyceum and University, and St.
Joseph's Academy (both Roman Catholic) are
situated here. Population (18S0), 11,437; (1890),
15,2fi4; (1899) estimated, 30,500.

GALLATIN COUNTY, one of three counties
organized in Illinois Territory in 1812 — the others
being Madison and Johnson. Previous to that
date the Territory had consisted of only two coun-
ties, St. Clair and Randolph. The new county
was named in honor of Albert Gallatin, then
Secretary of the Treasury. It is situated on the
Ohio and Wabash Rivers, in the extreme south-
eastern part of the State, and has an area of 349
square miles; population (1890), 14,935. The first
cabin erected by an American settler was the
home of Michael Sprinkle, who settled at Shaw-
neetown in 1800. The place early became an
important trading post and distributing point.



HISTOKICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



183



A ferry across the Wabash was established in
1803, by Alexander Wilson, whose descendants
conducted it for more than seventy-five years.
Although Stephen Rector made a Government
survey as early as 1807, the public lands were not
placed on the market until 1818. Shawneetown,
the county-seat, is the most important town,
having a population of some 2.200. Bituminous
coal is found in large quantities, and mining is
an important industry. The prosperity of the
county has been much retarded by floods, particu-
larly at Shawneetown and Equality. At the
former point the ditfereuce between high and
low water mark in the Ohio River has been as
much as fifty-two feet.

GALLOWAY, Andrew Jackson, civil engineer,
was born of Scotch ancestry in Butler County,
Pa., Dec. 21, 1814; came with his father to Cory-
don, Ind., in 1830, took a course in Hanover Col-
lege, graduating as a civil engineer in 1837 ; then
came to Mount Carmel, White County. 111. . with
a view to employment on projected Illinois rail-
roads, but engaged in teaching for a year, having
among his pupils a number who have since been
.prominent in State affairs. Later, he obtained
employment as an assistant engineer, serving for
a time under William Gooding, Chief Engineer of
the Illinois & Michigan Canal; was also Assistant
Enrolling and Engrossing Clerk of the State
Senate in 1840-41, and held the same position in
the House in 1846-47. and again in 1848-49, in the
meantime having located a farm in La Salle
County, where the present city of Streator stands.
In 1849 he was appointed Secretary of the Canal
Trustees, and, in 1851. became assistant engineer
on the Illinois Central Railroad, later superin-
tending its construction, and finally being trans-
ferred to the land department, but retiring in
185.5 to engage in real-estate business in Chicago,
dealing largely in railroad lands. Mr. Galloway
was elected a County Commissioner for Cook
County, and has since been connected with many
measures of local importance.

GALVA, a town in Henry County, 45 miles
southeast of Rock Island and 48 miles north-
northwest of Peoria ; the point of intersection of
the Rock Island & Peoria and the Chicago, Bur-
lington & Quincy Railways. It stands at the
summit of the dividing ridge between the Mis-
sissippi and the Illinois Rivers, and is a manufac-
turing and coal-mining town. It has two banks,
excellent schools, and two weekly newspapers.
The surrounding country is agricultural and
wealthy, and is rich in coal. Population (1880),
2,148; (1890), 2,409.



GARDNER, a town in Greenfield Township,
Grundy County, on the Chicago & Alfon Rail-
road, 65 miles south-southwest of Chicago and 26
miles north-northeast of Pontiac. It is connected
with Coal City by a branch railroad. Coal-min-
ing and the manufacture of soap are principal
industries. It has a bank, five churches and a
weekly newspaper. Population (1880), 786;
(1890), 1,094.

GARDNER, COAL CITY & NORMANTOWN
RAILWAY. (See Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Rail-
wuy. )

GARY, Joseph Easton, lawyer and jurist, was
born of Puritan ancestry, at Potsdam, St. Law-
rence County, N. Y., July 9, 1821. His early
educational advantages were such as were fur-
nished by district schools and a village academy,
and, until he was 22 years old, he worked at the
carpenter's bench. In 1843 he removed to St.
Louis, Mo., where he studied law. After admis-
sion to the bar, he practiced for five years in
Southwest Missouri, thence going to Las Vegas,
N. M., in 1849, and to San Francisco, Cal, in
1853. In 1856 he settled in Chicago, where he
has since resided. After seven years of active
practice he was elected to the bench of the
Superior Court of Cook County, where he has sat
for thirty years, being four times nominated by
both political parties, and his last re-election — for
a term of six years, occurring in 1893. He pre-
sided at the trial of the Chicago anarchists in
1886 — one of the causes celebres of Illinois. Some
of his rulings therein were sharply criticised, but
he was upheld by the courts of appellate jurisdic-
tion, and his connection with the case has given
him world-wide fame. In November, 1888, the
Supreme Com-t of Illinois transferred him to the
bench of the Appellate Court, of which tribunal
he has been three times Chief Ju.stice.

GASSETTE, Norman Theodore, real estate
operator, wasbornatTownsend,Vt., April21, 1839,
came to Chicago at ten years of age, and, after
spending a year at Shurtletf College, took a prepar-
atory collegiate course at the Atwater Institute,
Rochester, N. Y. In June, 1861, he enlisted as
a private in the Nineteenth Regiment Illinois
Volunteers, rising in the second year to the rank
of First Lieutenant, and, at the battle of Chicka-
mauga, by gallantry displayed while serving as
an Aid-de-Camp, winning a recommendation
for a brevet Lieutenant-Colonelcy. The war
over, he served one term as Clerk of the Circuit
Court and Recorder, but later engaged in the real-
estate and loan business as the head of the exten-
sive firm of Norman T. Gassette & Co. He was -^



184



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



Republican in politics, active in Grand Army
circles and prominent as a Mason, holding the
position of Eminent Grand Commander of
Knights Templar of Illinois on occasion of the
Triennial Conclave in Washington in 1889. He
also had charge, as President of the Masonic
Fraternity Temple Association of Chicago, for
some time prior to his decease, of the erection of
the Masonic Temple of Chicago. Died, in Chi-
cago, March 26, 1891.

GATE WOOD, WilUam Jefferson, early lawyer,
was born in Warren County, Ky., came to
Franklin County, 111., in boyhood, removed to
Shawneetown in 1823, where he taught school
two or three years while studying law; was
admitted to the bar in 1828, and served in five
General Assemblies — as Representative in 1830-32,
and as Senator, 1834-42. He is described as a man
of fine education and brilliant talents. Died,
Jan. 8, 1842.

GAULT, John C, railway manager, was born
at Hooksett, N. H., May 1, 1829; in 1850 entered
the local freight office of the Manchester & Law-
rence Railroad, later becoming General Freight
Agent of the Vermont Central. Coming to Chi-
cago in 1859, he successively filled the positions
of Superintendent of Transportation on the
Galena & Chicago Union, and (after the consoli-
dation of the latter with the Chicago & North-
western), that of Division Superintendent,
General Freight Agent and Assistant General
Manager; Assistant General Manager of the
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul; General Mana-
ger of the Wabash (1879-83) ; Arbitrator for the
trunk lines (1883-85), and General Manager of
the Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific
(1885-90), when he retired. Died, in Chicago,
August 29, 1891.

GENERAL ASSEMBLIES. The following is a
list of the General Assemblies which have met
since the admission of Illinois as a State up to
1898— from the First to the Fortieth inclusive—
with the more important acts passed by each and
the duration of their respective sessions:

First General Assembly held two sessions,
the first convening at Kaskaskia, the State Capi-
tal, Oct. 5, and adjourning Oct. 13, 1818. The
second met, Jan. 4, 1819, continuing to March 31.
Lieut-Gov. Pierre Menard presided over the Sen-
ate, consisting of thirteen members, while John
Messinger was chosen Speaker of the House,
containing twenty-seven members. The most
important business transacted at the first session
was the election of two United States Senators —
Ninian Edwards and Jesse B. Thomas, Sr. — and



the filling of minor State and judicial offices. At
the second session a code of laws was enacted,
copied chiefly from the Virginia and Kentucky
statutes, including the law concerning "negroes
and mulattoes," which long remained on the
statute book. An act was also passed appointing
Commissioners to select a site for a new State
Capital, which resulted in its location at Van-
dalia. The sessions were held in a stone building
with gambrel-roof pierced by dormer-windows,
the Senate occupying the lower floor and the
House the upper. The length of the first session
was nine days, and of the second eighty-seven —
total, ninety-six days.

Second General Assembly convened at Van-
dalia, Dec. 4, 1820. It consisted of fourteen
Senators and twenty -nine Representatives. John
McLean, of Gallatin County, was chosen Speaker
of the House. A leading topic of discussion was
the incorporation of a State Bank. Money was
scarce and there was a strong popular demand
for an increase of circulating medium. To
appease this clamor, no less than to relieve traders
and agriculturists, this General Assembly estab-
lished a State Bank (see State Bank), despite
the earnest protest of McLean and the executive
veto. A stay-law was also enacted at this session
for the benefit of the debtor class. The number
of members of the next Legislature was fixed at
eighteen Senators and thirty-six Representatives
— this provision remaining in force until 1831.
The session ended Feb. 15, having lasted seventy-
four days.

Third General Assembly convened, Dec. 2,

1822. Lieutenant-Governor Hubbard presided in
the Senate, while in the organization of the
lower house, William M. Alexander was chosen
Speaker. Governor Coles, in his inaugural,
called attention to the existence of slavery in
Illinois despite the Ordinance of 1787, and urged
the adoption of repressive measures. Both
branches of the Legislature being pro-slavery in
sympathy, the Governor's address provoked
bitter and determined opposition. On Jan. 9,

1823, Jesse B. Thomas was re-elected United
States Senator, defeating John Reynolds, Leonard
White and Samuel D. Lockwood. After electing
Mr. Thomas and choosing State officers, the
General Assembly proceeded to discuss the major-
ity and minority reports of the committee to
which had been referred the Governor's address.
The minority report recommended the abolition
of slavery, while that of the majority favored
the adoption of a resolution calling a convention
to amend the Constitution, the avowed object



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



185



being to make Illinois a slave State. The latter
report was adopted, but the pro-slavery party in
the House lacked one vote of the number neces-
sary to carry the resolution by the constitutional
two-thirds majority. What followed has always
been regarded as a blot upon the record of the
Third General Assembly. Nicholas Hansen, who
had been awarded the seat from Pike County
at the beginning of the session after a contest
brought by his opponent, John Shaw, was un-
seated after the adoption of a resolution to
reconsider the vote by which he had been several
weeks before declared elected. Shaw having
thus been seated, the resolution was carried by
the necessary twenty-four votes. Mr. Hansen,
although previously regarded as a pro-slavery
man, had voted with the minority when the
resolution was first put upon its passage. Hence
followed his deprivation of his seat. The triumph
of the friends of the convention was celebrated
by what Gov. John Reynolds (himself a conven-
tionist) characterized as "a wild and indecorous
procession by torchlight and liquor." (See
Slavei'y and Slave Laws.) The session adjourned
Feb. 18, having continued seventy-nine days.

Fourth General Assembly. Tliis body held
two sessions, the first being convened, Nov. 15,
1824, by proclamation of the Executive, some
three weeks before the date for the regular
session, in order to correct a defect in the law
relative to counting the returns for Presidential
Electors. Thomas Mather was elected Speaker
of the House, while Lieutenant-Governor Hub-
bard presided in the Senate. Having amended
the law concerning the election returns for Presi-
dential Electors, the Assembly proceeded to the
election of two United States Senators— one to
fill the unexpired term of ex-Senator Edwards
(resigned) and the other for the full term begin-
ning March 4, 182.5. John McLean was chosen
for the first and Elias Kent Kane for the second.
Five circuit judgeships were created, and it was
provided that the bench of the Supreme Court
should consist of four Judges, and that semi-
annual sessions of that tribunal should be held at
the State capital. (See Judicial Department.)
The regular session came to an end. Jan. 18, 1825,
but at its own request, the Lieutenant-Governor
and acting Governor Hubbard re-convened the
body in special session on Jan. 2, 182G, to enact a
new apportionment law under the census of 1825.
A sine die adjournment was taken, Jan. 28, 1826.
One of the important acts of the regular session
of 1825 was the adoption of the first free-school
law in Illinois, the measure having been intro-



duced by Joseph Duncan, afterwards Governor of
the State. This Legislature was in session a total
of ninety-two days, of which sixty-five were
during the first session and twenty-seven during
the second.

Fifth General Assembly convened, Dec. 4,
1826, Lieutenant-Governor Kinney presiding in
the Senate and John McLean in the House. At
the request of the Governor an investigation into
the management of the bank at Edwardsville was
had, resulting, however, in the exoneration of its
officers. The circuit judgesliips created by the
preceding Legislature were abrogated and their
incumbents legislated out of office. Tlie State
was divided into four circuits, one Justice of the
Supreme Court being assigned to each. (See
Judicial Department.) This General Assembly
also elected a State Treasurer to succeed Abner
Field, James Hall being chosen on the ninth
ballot. The Supreme Court Judges, as directed
bj' the preceding Legislature, presented a well
digested report on the revision of the laws, which
was adopted without material alteration. One of
the important measures enacted at this session
was an act establishing a State penitentiary, tlie
funds for its erection being obtained by the
sale of saline lands in Gallatin County. (See
Alton Penitentiary; also Salt Manufacture.)
The session ended Feb. 19 — having continued
seventy-eight days.

Sixth General Assembly convened, Deo. 1,
1828. The Jackson Democrats had a large major-
ity in both houses. John JIcLean was, for the
third time, elected Speaker of the House, and,
later in the session, was elected United States
Senator by a unanimous vote. A Secretary of
State, Treasurer and Attorney-General were also
appointed or elected. The most important legis-
lation of the session was as follows : Authorizing
the sale of school lands and the borrowing of the
proceeds from the school fund for the ordinary
governmental expenses; providing for a return
to the viva voce method of voting; creating a
fifth judicial circuit and appointing a Judge
therefor ; providing for the appointment of Com-
missioners to determine upon the route of tlie
Illinois & Michigan Canal, to sell lauds and com-
mence its construction. The Assembly adjourned.
Jan. 23, 1829, having been in session fifty-four days.

Seventh General Assembly met, Dec. 6, 1830.
The newly-elected Lieutenant-Governor, Zadoc
Casey, and William L. D. Ewing presided
over the two houses, respectively. John Rey-
nolds was Governor, and, the majority of the
Senate being made up of his political adversaries,



186



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



exiserienced no little difficulty in securing the
confirmation of his nominees. Two United
States Senators were elected: Elias K. Kane
being chosen to succeed himself and John M.
Robinson to serve the unexpired term of John
McLean, deceased. The United States census of
1830 gave Illinois three Representatives in Con-
gress instead of one, and this General Assembly
passed a re-apportionment law accordingly. The
number of State Senators was increased to
twenty-six, and of members of the lower house
to fifty-five. The criminal code was amended by
the substitution of imprisonment in the peni-
tentiary as a penalty in lieu of the stocks and
public flogging. This Legislature also authorized
the borrowing of §100,000 to redeem the notes of
the State Bank which were to mature the follow-
ing year. The Assembly adjourned, Feb. 16, 1831,
tlie session having lasted seventy-three days.

Eighth General Assembly. The session
began Dec. 3, 1832, and ended March 2, 1833.
William L. D. Ewing was chosen President pro
tempore of the Senate, and succeeded Zadoc
Casey as Lieutenant-Governor, the latter having
been elected a Representative in Congress.
Alexander M. Jenkins presided over the House as
Speaker. This Legislature enacted the first gen-
eral incorporation laws of Illinois, their provisions
being applicable to towns and public libraries.
It also incorporated several railroad companies,
— one line from Lake Michigan to the Illinois
River (projected as a substitute for the canal),
one from Peru to Cairo, and another to cross the
State, running through Springfield. Other char-
ters were granted for shorter lines, but the incor-
porators generally failed to organize under them.
A notable inci dent in connection with this session
was the attempt to impeach Tlieophilus "W. Smith,
a Justice of tlie Supreme Court. This was the first
and last trial of this character in the State's his-
tory, between 1818 and 1899. Failing to secure a
conviction in the Senate (where the vote stood
twelve for conviction and ten for acquittal, with
four Senators excused from voting), the House
attempted to remove him by address, but in this
the Senate refused to concur. The first mechan-
ics' lien law was enacted by this Legislature,



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