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The inauguration of the new State officers took
place on the afternoon of Tue.sday, Jan. 10. This
Legislature was in session 164 days, adjourning
June 16, 1893. Not very much legislation of a
general character was enacted. New Congres-
sional and Legislative apportionments were
passed, the former dividing the State into twenty-
two districts; an Insurance Department was
created; a naval militia was established; the
scope of the juvenile reformatory was enlarged
and the compulsorj- education law was amended.

Thirty-ninth General Assembly. This
Legislature held two sessions — a regular and a
special. The former opened Jan. 9, 1895, and



closed June 14, following. The political com-
plexion of the Senate was — Republicans, thirty-
three; Democrats, eighteen; of the House,
ninety -two Republicans and sixty-one Democrats.
John Meyer, of Cook County, was elected Speaker
of the House, and Charles Bogardus of Piatt
County, President pro tem. of the Senate. Acts
were passed making appropriations for improve-
ment of the State Fair Grounds at Springfield ;
authorizing the establishment of a Western Hos-
pital for the Insane (§100,000); appropriating
$100,000 for a Western Hospital for the Insane;
SG5,000 for an Asylum for Incurable Insane; 850,-
000, each, for two additional Normal Schools — one
in Northern and the other in Eastern Illinois;
§25,000 for a Soldiers" Widows' Home— all being
new institutions — besides $15,000 for a State
exhibition at the Atlanta Exposition; $65,000 to
mark, by monuments, the position of Illinois
troops on the battlefields of Chickamauga, Look-
out Mountain and Missionary Ridge. Other acts
passed fixed the salaries of members of the Gen-
eral Assembly at $1,000 each for each regular
session ; accepted the custody of the Lincoln
monument at Springfield, authorized provision
for the retirement and pensioning of teachers in
public schools, and authorized the adoption of
civil service rules for cities. The .special session
convened, pursuant to a call by the Governor, on
June 25, 1895, took a recess, June 28 to July 9,
re-assembled on the latter date, and adjourned,
sine die, August 3. Outside of routine legisla-
tion, no laws were passed except one providing
additional necessary revenue for State purposes
and one creating a State Board of Arbitration.
The regular session continued 157 days and the
special twenty-nine — total 186.

Fortieth General Assembly met in regular
session at Springfield, Jan. 6. 1897, and adjourned,
sine die, June 4. The Republicans had a major-
ity in both branches, the House standing eighty-
eight Republicans to sixty-three Democrats and
two Populists, and the Senate, thirty-nine Repub-
licans to eleven Democrats and one Populist,
giving the Republicans a majority on joint ballot
of fifty votes. Both houses were promptly organ-
ized by the election of Republican officers, Edward
C. Curtis of Kankakee County being chosen
Speaker of the House, and Hendrick V. Fisher,
of Henry County, President pro tem. of the Sen-
ate. Governor Tanner and the other Republican
State officers were formally inaugurated on
Jan. 11, and, on Jan. 20, William E. Mason
(Republican) was chosen United States Senator
to succeed John M. Palmer, receiving in joint

session 125 votes to seventy-seven for John P.
Altgeld (Democrat). Among the principal laws
enacted at this session were the following: An
act concerning aliens and to regulate the right to
hold real estate, and prescribing the terms and
conditions for the conveyance of the same;
empowering the Commissioners who were ap-
pointed at the previous session to ascertain and
mark the positions occupied by Illinois Volunteers
in the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Moun-
tain and Missionary Ridge, to expend the remain-
ing appropriations in their hands for the erection
of monuments on the battle-grounds ; authorizing
the appointment of a similar Commission to
ascertain and mark the positions held by Illinois
troops in the battle of Shiloh ; to reimburse the
University of Illinois for the loss of funds result-
ing from the Spaulding defalcation and affirming
the liability of the State for "the endowment
fund of the University, amounting to $456,713.91,
and for so much in addition as may be received
in future from the sale of lands"; authorizing
the adoption of the "Torrens land-title system" in
the conveyance and registration of land titles by
vote of the people in any county ; the consolida-
tion of the three Supreme Court Districts of the
State into one and locating the Court at Spring-
field; creating a State Board of Pardons, and
prescribing the manner of applying for pardons
and commutations. An act of this session, which
produced much agitation and led to a great deal
of discussion in the press and elsewhere, was the
street railroad law empowering the City Council,
or other corporate authority of any city, to grant
franchises to street railway companies extending
to fifty years. This act was repealed by the
General Assembly of 1899 before any street rail-
way corporation had secured a francliise under it.
A special session was called by Governor Tanner
to meet Dec. 7, 1897, the proclamation naming
five topics for legislative action. The session
continued to Feb. 34, 1898, only two of the meas-
ures named by the Governor in his call being
affirmatively acted upon. These included: (1) an
elaborate act prescribing the manner of conduct-
ing primary elections of delegates to nominating
conventions, and (2) a new revenue law regulat-
ing the manner of assessing and collecting taxes.
One provision of the latter law limits the valuation
of property for assessment purposes to one-fifth
its cash value. The length of the regular session
was 150 days, and that of the special session
eighty days— total, 230 days.

tJENESEO, a city in Henry County, about two
miles south of the Green River. It is on the Chi-



cago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway, 23 miles
east of Rock Island and 75 miles west of Ottawa.
It is in the heart of a grain-growing region, and
has three large grain elevators. Manufacturing
is also carried on to a considerable extent, stoves,
furniture, wagons and fanning implements con-
stituting the chief output. Geneseo has eleven
churches, a graded and high school, a collegiate
institute, two banks and three newspapers, one
being a daily, beside two monthly publications.
Population (1880), 3 .'518i (1890), 3,183.

GENEVA, a city and railway junction on Fox
River, and the county -seat of Kane County; 3.5
miles west of Chicago. It has a fine court house,
completed in 1892 at a cost of .5250,000, and numer-
ous handsome churches and school buildings. A
State Reformatory for juvenile female offenders
has been located here. There is an excellent
water-power, operating six manufactories, includ-
ing extensive glucose works. The town has a
bank and two weekly newspapers. The sur-
rounding country is devoted to agriculture and
dairy farming. A large creamery is located at
Geneva. Population (1880), 1,239; (1890), 1,692;
(1899, estimated), 2,250.

GEXOA, a village of De Kalb County, on the
Omaha Division of the Chicago, ililwaukee & St.
Paul Railway, 59 miles west of Chicago. Dairy-
ing is a leading industry ; the place has a bank
and a newspaper. Population (1880). 449; (1890),

structure of Illinois embraces a representation,
more or less comi)lete, of the wliole paleonic
series of formations, from the calciferous group
of the Lower Silurian to the top of the coal meas-
ures. In addition to these older rocks there is a
limited area in the extreme southern end of the
State covered with Tertiary deposits. Over-
spreading these formations are beds of more
recent age, comprising sands, clays and gravel,
varying in thickness from ten to more than two
hundred feet. These superficial deposits may be
divided into Alluvium, and Drift, and con-
stitute the Quaternary system of modern geolo-

Lower Siia"RI-\n System. — Under this heading
may be noted three distinct groups : the Calcifer-
ous, the Trenton and the Cincinnati. The first
mentioned group comprises the St. Peter's Sand-
stone and the Lower Magnesian Lime.stone. The
former outcrops only at a single locality, in La
Salle County, extending about two miles along
the valley of tlie Illinois River in the vicinity of
Utica. The thickness of the strata appearing

above the surface is about 80 feet, thin bands of
Magnesian limestone altern.ating with layers of
Calciferous sandstone. Many of the layers con-
tain good hydraulic rock, which is utilized in the
manufacture of cement. The entire thickness of
the rock below the surface has not been ascer-
tained, but is estimated at about 400 feet. The
St. Peter's Sandstone outcrops in the valley of
the Illinois, constituting the main portion of the
bluffs from Utica to a point beyond Ottawa, and
forms the "bed rock" in most of tlie northern
townships of La Salle County. It also outcrops
on the Rock River in the vicinity of Oregon City,
and forms a conspicuous bluff on the Mississippi
in Calhoun County. Its maximum thickness in
the State may be estimated at about 200 feet. It
is too incoherent in its texture to be valuable as
a building stone, though some of the upper strata
in Lee County have been utilized for caps and
sills. It affords, however, a fine quality of sand
for the manufacture of glass. The Trenton
group, which immediately overlies the St. Peter's
Sandstone, consists of three divisions. The low-
est is a brown Magnesian Limestone, or Dolomite,
usually found in regular beds, or strata, varying
from four inches to two feet in thickness. The
aggregate thickness varies from twenty feet, in
the northern portion of the State, to sixty or
seventy feet at the bluff in Calhoun County. At
the quarries in La Salle County, it abounds in
fossils, including a large Lituites and several
specimens of Orthoceras, Maclurea, etc. The
middle division of the Trenton group consists of
light gray, compact limestones in the southern
and western parts of the State, and of light blue,
thin-bediled, shaly limestone in the northern por-
tions. The upper division is the well-know ii
Galena limestone, the lead-bearing rock of the
Northwest. It is a buff colored, porous Dolomite,
sometimes arenaceous and unevenly textured,
giving origin to a ferruginous, sandy clay when
decomposed. The lead ores occur in crevices,
caverns and horizontal seams. These crevices were
probably formed by shrinkage of the strata from
crystallization or by some disturbing force from
beneath, and have been enlarged by decomposi-
tion of the exposed surface. Fossils belonging to
a lower order of marine animal than the coral are
found in this rock, as are also marine shells,
corals and crustaceans. Although this limestone
crops out over a considerable portion of the terri-
tory between the Mississippi and the Rock River,
the productive lead mines are chiefly confined to
Jo Daviess and Stephenson Counties. All the
divisions of the Trenton group afford good build-



iug material, some of the rock being susceptible
of a high polish and making a handsome, durable
marble. About seventj' feet are exposed near
Thebes, in Alexander County. All through the
Southwest this stone is known as Cape Girardeau
marble, from its being extensively quarried at
Cape Girardeau, Mo. The Cincinnati group
immediately succeeds the Trenton in the ascend-
ing scale, and forms the uppermost member of
the Lower Silurian system. It usually consists of
argillaceous and sandy shales, although, in the
northwest portion of the State, Magnesian lime-
stone is found with the shales. The prevailing
colors of the beds are light blue and drab,
weathering to a light ashen gray. This group is
found well exposed in the vicinity of Thebes,
Alexander County, furnishing a durable building
stone extensively used for foundation walls.
Fossils are found in profusion in all the beds,
many fine specimens, in a perfect state of preser-
vation, having been exhumed.

Upper Silurian System.— The Niagara group
in Northern Illinois consists of brown, gray and
buff magnesian limestones, sometimes evenly
bedded, as at Joliet and Athens, and sometimes
concretionary and brecciated, as at Bridgeport and
Port Byron. Near Chicago the cells and pockets
of this rock are filled with petroleum, but it has
been ascertained that only the thirty upper feet
of the rock contain bituminous matter. The
quarries in Will and Jersey Counties furnish fine
building and flagging stone. The rock is of a
light gray color, changing to buff on exposure.
In Pike and Calhoun Counties, also, there are out-
croppings of this rock and quarries are numerous.
It is usually evenly bedded, the strata varying in
thickness from two inches to two feet, and break-
ing evenly. Its aggregate thickness in Western
and Northern Illinois ranges from fifty to 150
feet. In Union and Alexander Counties, in the
southern part of the State, the Upper Silurian
series consists cliipfly ( tliiii bedded gray or
buff-colored limestoiit', sili(ii>nK and cherty, flinty
material largely prepoinlerating over the lime-
stone. Fossils are not aljundant in this formation,
although the quarries at Bridgeport, in Cook
County, have afforded casts of nearly 100 species
of marine organisms, the calcareous portion hav-
ing been washed away.

Devootan System.— This system is represented
in Illinois by three well marked divisions, cor-
responding to tlie Oriskany sandstone, the Onon-
daga limestone and the Hamilton and Corniferous
beds of New York. To these the late Professor
Worthen, for many years State Geologist, added,

although with some hesitancy, the black shale
formation of Illinois. Although these comprise
an aggregate thickness of over 500 feet, their
exposure is limited to a few isolated outcroppings
along the bluffs of the Illinois, Mississippi and
Rock Rivers. The lower division, called "Clear
Creek Limestone," is about 350 feet thick, and is
only found in the extreme southern end of the
State. It consists of cliert, or impure flint, and
thin-bedded silico-magnesian limestones, rather
compact in texture, and of buff or light gray
to nearly white colors. When decomposed by
atmospheric influences, it forms a fine white cla3',
resembling common chalk in appearance. Some
of the cherty beds resemble burr stones in poros-
ity, and good mill-stones are made therefrom in
Union County. Some of the stone is bluish-gray,
or mottled and crystalline, capable of receiving
a high polish, and making an elegant and durable
building stone. The Onondaga group comprises
some sixty feet of quartzose sandstone and
striped silicious shales. The structure of the
rock is almost identical with that of St. Peters
Sandstone. In the vicinity of its outcrop in
Union Comity are found fine beds of potter's clay,
also variegated in color. The rock strata arc
about twenty feet thick, evenly bedded and of a
coarse, granular structure, which renders the
stone valuable for heavy masonry. The group
has not been found north of Jackson County.
Large quantities of characteristic fossils abound.
The rocks composing the Hamilton group are the
jnost valuable of all the divisions of the Devonian
system, and the outcrops can be identified only by
their fossils. In Union and Jackson Counties it is
found from eighty to 100 feet in thickness, two
beds of bluish gray, fetid limestone being sepa-
rated by about twenty feet of calcareous shales.
The limestones are highly bituminous. In Jersey
and Calhoun Counties the group is only six to
ten feet thick, and consists of a hard, silicious
limestone, passing at some points into a quartzose
sandstone, and at others becoming argillaceous,
as at Grafton. The most northern outcrop is in
Rock Island County, where the rock is concretion-
ary in structure and is utilized for building pur-
poses and in the manufacture of quicklime.
Fossils are numerous, among them being a few
fragments of fishes, which are the oldest remains
of vertebrate animals yet found in the State.
The black shale probably attains its maximum
development in Union Count}', where it ranges
from fifty to seventy -five feet in thickness. Its
lower portion is a fine, black, laminated slate,
sometimes closely resembling the bituminous



shales associated with the coal seams, which cir-
cumstance has led to tlie fruitless expenditure of
much time and money. The bituminous portion
of the mass, on distillation, yields an oil closely
resembling petroleum. Crystals of iron pyrites
are abundant in the argillaceous portion of the
group, which does noi. extend north of the coun-
ties of Calhoun, Jersey and Pike.

Lower Cakboniferous System. — This is di-
visible into five groups, as follows: The Kinder-
hook group, the Burlington limestone, and the
Keokuk, St. Louis and Chester groups. Its
greatest development is in the soutliern portion
of the State, where it has a thickness of 1,400 or
l.oOO feet. It thins out to the northward so rapidly
tliat, in the vicinity of tlie Lower Rapids on the
Mississippi, it is only 300 feet thick, while it
wholly disappears below Rock Island. Tlie Kinder-
hook group is varial)le in its lithological charac-
ter, consisting of argillaceous and sandj' shales,
with thin beds of compact and oolitic limestone,
passing locally into calcareous shales or impure
limestone. The entire formation is mainly a
mechanical sediment, with but a very small por-
tion of organic matter. The Burlington lime-
stone, on the other hand, is composed almost
entirely of the fossilized remains of organic
beings, with barely enough sedimentary material
to act as a cement. Its maximum thickness
scarcely exceeds 200 feet, and its principal out-
crops are in the counties of Jersey, Greene, Scott,
Callioun, Pike, Adams, Warren and Henderson.
The rock is usually a light gray, buff or brown
limestone, either coarsely granular or crystalline
in structure. The Keokuk group immediately
succeeds the Burlington in the ascending order,
with no well defined line of demarcation, the
chief points of difference between the two being
in color and in the character of fossils found. At
the upper part of this group is found a bed of
calcareo-argillaceous sliale, containing a great
variety of geodes, which furnish beautiful cabinet
specimens of crj'stallized (juartz, chalcedony,
dolomite and iron pyrites. In Jersey and Monroe
Counties a bed of hydraulic limestone, adapted to
the manufacture of cement, is found at the top of
this formation. The St. Louis group is partly
a fine-grained or semi-crystallized bluish-graj-
limestone, and partly concretionary, as around
Alton. In the extreme soutliern part of tlie State
the rock is highlj' bituminous and susceptible of
receiving a high polish, being used as a black
marble. Beds of magnesian limestone are found
here and there, whicli furnish a good stone for
foundation walls. In Hardin Coimty, the rock

is traversed by veins of fluor spar, carrying
galena and zinc blonde. The Chester group is
only found in the southern part of the State,
thinning out from a tliickness of eight hundred
feet in Jackson and Randolph Counties, to about
twenty feet at Alton. It consists of hard, gray,
crystalline, argillaceous limestones, alternating
with sandy and argillaceous shales and .sandstones,
which locally replace each other. A few species
of true carboniferous flora are found in the are-
naceous sliales and sandstones of tliis group, the
earliest traces of pre-historic lanil plants found in
tlie State. Outcrops extend in a narrow belt
from the southern part of Hardin County to the
southern line of St. Clair County, passing around
tlie soutliwest border of the coal field.

Upper Carboniferous System.— This includes
the Conglomerate, or "Mill Stone Urit" of Euro-
pean authors, and the true coal measures. In the
southern portion of the State its greatest thick-
ness is about 1,200 feet. It becomes tliinner
toward the north, scarcely exceeding 400 or 500
feet in the vicinity of La Salle. The word "con-
glomerate" designates a thick bed of sandstone
that lies at tlie base of the coal measures, and
appears to have resulted from the culmination of
the arenaceous sedimentary accumulations. It
consists of massive quartzose sandstone, some-
times nearly white, but more frequently stained
red or brown by the ferruginous matter which
it contains, and i.s frequently composed in
part of rounded quartz pebbles, from the size
of a pea to several inches in diameter. When
higlily ferruginous, the oxide of iron cements
the sand into a hard crust on the surface
of the rock, which successfully resists the de-
nuding influence of the atmosphere, so that the
rock forms towering cliffs on the banks of the
stream along which are its outcrops. Its thickness
varies from 200 feet in the southern part of the
State to twenty-five feet in the northern. It has
afforded a few species of fossil plants, but no
animal remains. Tlie coal measures of Illinois
are at least 1,000 feet thick and cover nearly
three-fourths of its entire area. The strata are
horizontal, the dip rarely exceeding six to ten
feet to the mile. The formation is made up of
sandstone, shales, thin beds of limestone, coal,
and its associated fire clays. The thickness of
the workable beds is from si.x to twenty-four
inches in the upper measures, and from two to
five feet in the lower measures. Tlie fire clays,
on which the coal seams usually rest, probably
represent the ancient soil on wliich grew the
trees and plants from which the coal is formed.


When pure, these clays are valuable for the
manufacture of fire brick, tile and common
pottery. Illinois coal is wholly of the bitumi-
nous variety, the metamorphio conditions which
resulted in the production of anthracite coal in
Pennsylvania not having extended to this State.
Fossils, both vegetable and animal, abound in
the coal measures.

Tertiary System. — This system is represented
only in the southern end of the State, where cer-
tain deposits of stratified sands, shales and con-
glomerate are found, which appear to mark the
northern boundary of the great Tertiary forma-
tion of the Gulf States. Potter's clay, lignite and
silicious woods are found in the formation.

Quaternary System.— This system embraces
all the superficial material, including sands, clay,
gravel and soil which over.spreads the older for-
mations in all portions of the State. It gives
origin to the soil from which the agricultural
wealth of Illinois is derived. It may be properly
separated into four divisions: Post-tertiary
sands. Drift, Loess and Alluvium. The first-
named occupies the lowest position in the series,
and consists of stratified beds of yellow sand and
blue clay, of variable thickness, overlaid by a
black or deep brown, loamy soil, in which are
found leaves, branches and trunks of trees in a
good state of preservation. Next above lie the
drift deposits, consisting of blue, yellow and
brown clays, containing gravel and boulders of
various sizes, the latter the water-worn frag-
ments of rocks, many of which have been washed
down from the northern shores of the great
lakes. This drift formation varies in thickness
from twenty to 130 feet, and its accumulations
are probably due to the combined influence of
water currents and moving ice. The subsoil
over a large part of the northern and central
portions of the State is composed of fine brown
clay. Prof. Desquereux (Illinois Geological Sur-
vey, Vol. I. ) accounts for the origin of this clay
and of the black prairie soil above it, by attribut-
ing it to the growth and decomposition of a
peculiar vegetation. The Loess is a tine nieohan-
ical sediment that appears to have accumulated in
some body of fresh water. It consists of marly
sands and clays, of a thickness varying from five to
sixty feet. Its greatest development is along the
bluffs of the principal rivers. The fossils found
in this formation consist chiefly of the bones and
teeth of extinct mammalia, such as the mam-
moth, mastodon, etc. Stone implements of
primeval man are also discovered. The term
alluvium is usually restricted to the deposits

forming the bottom lands of the rivers and
smaller streams. They consist of irregularly
stratified sand, clay and loam, which are fre-

Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 41 of 207)