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Council for .Johnson County (1816-18); was a
citizen of Union County when it was organized
in 1818, and served as State Senator from that
county in the Third and Fourtli General Assem-
blies (1832-26), and again in the Seventh and
Eighth General Assemblies (1830-34), for the Dis-
trict composed of Union, Johnson and Alexander
Counties. He is described as having been very
illiterate, but a man of much shrewdness and
considerable influence.

GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC, a fra-
ternal, charitable and patriotic association,
limited to men who served in the Union army or
navy during the Civil War, and received hon-
orable discharge. Its founder was Dr. B. F.
Stephenson, who served as Surgeon of the Four-
teenth Illinois Infantry. In this task he had
the cooperation of Rev. William J Rutledge,
Chaplain of the same regiment. Col. John M.
Snyder, Dr. James Hamilton, Maj. Robert M.
Woods, Maj. Robert Allen, Col. Martin Flood,
Col. Daniel Grass, Col. Edward Prince, Capt.
John S. Phelps, Capt. John A. Lightfoot, Col.
B. F. Smith, Maj. A. A. North, Capt. Henry E.



Howe, and Col. B. F. Hawkes, all Illinois veter-
ans. Numerous conferences were held at Spring-
field, in this State, a ritual was prepared, and the
first post was chartered at Decatur, 111., April 6,
1866. The charter members were Col. I. C. Pugh,
George R. Steele, J. W. Routh, Joseph Prior,
J. H. Nale, J. T. Bishop, G. H. Dunning, B. F.
Sibley, M. F. Kanan, C. Reibsame, I. N. Coltriu,
and Aquila Toland. All but one of these had
served in Illinois regiments. At first, the work
of organization proceeded slowly, the ex-soldiers
generally being somewhat doubtful of the result
of the project ; but, before July 13, 1866, the date
fixed for the assembling of a State Convention to
form the Department of Illinois, thirty-nine posts
had been chartered, and, by 1869, there were 330
reported in Illinois. By October, 1866, Depart-
ments had been formed in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,
Wisconsin and Minnesota, and posts established
in Ohio, Missouri, Kentucky, Arkansas, Massa-
chussetts. New York, Pennsylvania, and the
District of Columbia, and tlie first National
Encanipment was held at Indianapolis, November
20 of that year. In 1894 there were 7,.'J00 posts,
located in every State and Territory of the Union,
with a membership of 4r)0,000. The scheme of
organization provides for precinct. State and
National bodies. Tlie first are known as posts,
each having a number, to wliicli the name of
some battle or locality, or of some deceased soldier
may be prefixed; the second (State organizations)
are known as Departments; and the supreme
power of the Order is vested in the National En-
campment, which meets annually. As has been
said, the G. A. R. had its inception in Illinois.
The aim and dream of Dr. Stephenson and his
associates was to create a grand organization of
veterans which, through its cohesion, no less than
its incisiveness, should constitute a potential fac-
tor in the inculcation and development of patriot-
ism as well as mutual support. Wliile he died
sorrowing that he had not seen the fruition of
his hopes, the present has witnessed the fullest
realization of his dream. (See Stephenson. B. F. )
The constitution of the order expressly prohibits
any attempt to use the organization for partisan
purposes, or even the discussion, at any meeting,
of partisan questions. Its aims are to foster and
strengthen fraternal feelings among members ; to
assist comrades needing help or protection and
aid comrades" widows and orphans, and to incul-
cate unswerving loyalty. Tlie "Woman's Relief
Corps" is an auxiliary organization, originating
at Portland. Maine, in 1869. The following is a list
of Illinois Department Commanders, chronolog-



206



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



ically arranged: B. F. Stephenson (Provisional,
1866), John M. Palmer (1866-68), Thomas O.
Osborne (1869-70), Charles E. Lippincott (1871),
Hubert Dilger (1873), Guy T. Gould (1873), Hiram
Hilliard (1874 76), Joseph S. Reynolds (1877),
T. B. Coulter (1878), Edgar D. Swain (1879-80),
J. W. Burst (1881), Thomas G. Lawler (1882),
S. A. Harper (1883), L. T. Dickason (1884),
William W. Berry (1885), Philip Sidney Post
(1886), A. C. Sweetser (1887), James A. Sexton
(1888), James S. Martin (1889), William L. Distin
(1890), Horace S. Clark (1891), Edwin Harlan
(1893), Edward A. Blodgett (1898), H. H.
McDowell (1894), W. H. Powell (1895), William
G. Cochran (1896), A. L. Schimpff (1897), John
C. Black (1898), John B. Inman (1899). The fol-
lowing lUinoisans have held the position of Com-
mander-in-Chief : S. A. Hurlbut, (two terms)
1866-67; John A. Logan, (three terms) 1868-70;
Thomas G. Lawler, 1894; James A. Sexton, 1898.

GRAND PRAIRIE SEMINARY, a co-educa-
tional institution at Onarga, Iroquois County, in-
corporated in 1863 ; had a faculty of eleven teach-
ers in 1897-98, with 285 pupils— 145 male and 140
female. It reports an endowment of §10,000 and
property valued at §55,000. Besides the usual
classical and scientific departments, instruction
is given in music, oratory, fine arts and prepara-
tory studies.

GRAND TOWER, a town in Jackson County,
situated on the Mississippi River, 27 miles south-
west of Carbondale ; the western terminus of the
Grand Tower & Carbondale Railroad. It received
its name from a high, rocky island, lying in the
river opposite the village. It has four churches,
a weekly newspaper, and two blast furnaces for
iron. Population (1880), 966; (1890). 634.

GRAND TOWER & CAPE GIRARDEAU
RAILROAD. (See Chicago & Texas Railroad.)

GRAND TOWER & CARBONDALE RAIL-
ROAD. (See Chicago & Texas Railroad. )

GRANGER, Flavel K., lawyer, farmer and
legislator, was born in Wayne County, N. Y.,
May 16, 1833, educated in public scliools at Sodus
in the same State, and settled at Waukegan, 111.,
in 1853. Here, having studied law, lie was
admitted to the bar in 1855, removing to McHenry
County the same year, and soon after engaging in
the live-stock and wool business. In 1872 he was
elected as a Republican Representative in the
Twenty-eighth General Assembly, being succes-
sively re-elected to the Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth
and Thirty-first, and being chosen Temporary
Speaker of the Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth. He
is now a member of the State Senate for the



Eighth District, having been elected in 1896. His
home is at West McHenry.

GRANT, Alexaoder Fraeser, early lawyer and
jurist, was born at Inverness, Scotland, in 1804 ;
came to Illinois at an early day and located at
Shawneetown, where he studied law with Henry
Eddy, the pioneer lawyer and editor of that place.
Mr. Grant is described as a man of marked ability,
as were many of the early settlers of that region.
In February, 1835, he was elected by the General
Assembly Judge for the Third Circuit, as succes-
sor to his preceptor, Mr. Eddy, but served only a
few months, dying at Vandalia the same year.

GRANT, Ulysses Simpson, (originally Hiram
Ulysses), Lieutenant ■ General and President,
was born at Point Pleasant, Clermont County,
Ohio, April 37, 1833 ; graduated from West
Point Military Academy, in 1843, and served
through the Mexican War. After a short resi-
dence at St. Louis, he became a resident of Galena
in 1860. His war-record is a glorious part of the
Nation's history. Entering the service of the
State as a clerk in the ofiice of the Quartermaster-
General at Springfield, soon after the breaking out
of the war in 1861, and still later serving as a
drill-master at Camp Yates, in June following he
was commissioned by Governor Yates Colonel of
the Twenty-first Illinois Volunteers, which he
immediately led into the field in the State of
Missouri ; was soon after promoted to a Brigadier-
Generalship and became a full Major-General of
Volunteers on the fall of Forts Donelson and
Henry, in February following. His successes at
Fort Gibson, Raymond, Champion Hill, and Big
Black River, ending with the capture of Vicks-
burg, were the leading victories of the Union
armies in 1863. His successful defense of Chat-
tanooga was also one of his victories in the West
in the same year. Commissioned a Major-General
of the Regular Army after the fall of Vicksburg,
he became Lieutenant-General in 1864, and, in
March of that year, assumed command of all the
Northern armies. Taking personal command of
the Army of the Potomac, he directed the cam-
paign against Richmond, which resulted in the
final evacuation and downfall of the Confederate
capital and the surrender of General Lee at
Appomattox on April 8, 1865. In July, 1866, he
was made General — the office being created for
him. He also served as Secretary of War, ad
interim, imder President Johnson, from Au-
gust, 1867, to January, 1868. In 1868 he was
elected President of the United States and re-
elected in 1872. His administration may not
have been free from mistakes, but it was charac-



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OK ILLINOIS.



•H)7



terized by patriotism and integrity of purpose.
During 1877-79 he made a tour of the world, being
received every wliere witli tlie highest honors. In
1880 his friends made an unsuccessful effort to
secure his renomination as a Presidential candi-
date on the Republican ticket. Died, at ilount
McGregor, N. Y., July 23, 1885. His chief literary
work was his "Memoirs" (two volumes, 1885-8ti),
which was very extensively sold.

GRAPE CREEK, a surburban mining village in
VermiUon County, on the Big Vermilion River
and the Chicago & Eastern IlUnois Railroad, six
miles south of Danville. The chief industry is
coal mining, which is extensively carried on.
Population (1890), 778.

GRATIOT, Charles, of Huguenot parentage,
bom at Lausanne, S%vitzerland, in 1752. After
receiving a mercantile training in the counting
house of an uncle in London, he emigrated to
Canada, entering the employ of another uncle at
Montreal. He first came to the "Illinois Coun-
try" in 1775, as an Indian trader, remaining one
year. In 1777 he returned and formed a partner-
ship with David McRae and Jolm Kay, two young
Scotchmen from Montreal. He established depots
at Cahokia and Kaskaskia. Upon the arrival of
Col. George Rogers Clark, in 1778, he rendered
that commander material financial assistance,
becoming personally responsible for the supplies
needed by the penniless American army. When
the transfer of sovereigntj' took place at St.
Louis, on March 10, 1804, and Louisiana TeiTitory
became a part of the L'nited States, it was from
the balcony of his house that the first American
flag was unfurled in Upper Louisiana. In recom-
pense for his liberal expenditure, he was promised
30,000 acres of land near the present site of
Louisville, but this he never received. Died, at
St. Louis, April 21, 1817.

GRAVIER, Father Jacques, a Jesuit mission-
ary, born in France, but at what date cannot be
stated with certainty. After some years spent in
Canada he was sent by his ecclesiastical superiors
to the IlUnois Mission (1688), succeeding Allouez
as Superior two j-ears later, and being made
Vicar-General ui 1691. He labored among the
Miamis, Peorias and Kaskaskias — his most numer-
ous conversions being among the latter tribe — as
also among the Cahokias, Osages, Tamaroas and
Missouris. It is said to have been largely through
his influence that the Ilhnois were inducted to
settle at Kaskaskia instead of going south. In
1705 he received a severe wound during an attack
by the Illinois Indians, incited, if not actually
led, by one of their medicine men. It is said



that he visited Paris for treatment, but faili'd
to find a cure. Accounts of liis ileath vary a.-i
to time and place, but all agree that it resulted
from the woimd above mentioned. Some of his
biographers assert that lie died at sea; others
that he returned from France, yet suffering from
the Indian poison, to Louisiana in February,
1708, and died near Mobile, Ala., the same year.

GRAY, Elisha, electrician and inventor, was
born at Barnesville, Ohio, August 2, 1835; after
serving as an apprentice at various trades, took a
coiu-se at Oberlin College, devoting especial
attention to the physical sciences, meanwhile
supporting himself by manual labor. In 1865 he
began liis career as an electrician and, in 1867,
received his first patent; devised a method of
transmitting telephone signals, and, in 1875, suc-
ceeded in transmitting four messages simultane-
ously on one wire to New York and Boston, a
year later accomplishing the same with eight
messages to New York and Philadelphia. Pro-
fessor Gray has invented a telegraph switch, a
repeater, enunciator and type-writing telegraph.
From 1869 to "73 he was employed in the manu-
facture of telegraph apparatus at Cleveland and
Chicago, but has since been electrician of the
Western Electric Company of Chicago. His latest
invention, tlie "telautograph" — for reproducing
by telegraph the handwriting of tlie sender
of a telegram — attracted great interest at the
World's Colmubian Exposition of 1893. He is
author of "Telegraphy and Telephony" and
"Experimental Researches in Electro-Harmonic
Telegraphy and Telephony."

GRAY, William C, Ph.D., editor, was bom in
Butler County, Ohio, in 1830; graduated from
the Farmers' (now Belmont) College in 1850,
read law and began secular editorial work in
1852, being connected, in the next fourteen years,
with "The Tiffin Tribune," "Cleveland Herald"
and "Newark American." Tlien, after several
years spent in general publishing business in
Cincinnati, after the great fire of 1871 he came to
Chicago, to take charge of "The Interior," the
organ of the Presbyterian Church, which he has
since conducted. The success of the paper under
his management affords the l)e.st evidence of his
practical good sense. He holds the degree of
Ph.D., received from Wooster University in 1881.

GRAYVILLE, a city situated on the torder of
White and Edwards Counties, lying chiefly in
the former, on the Wabash River, 35 miles north-
west of Evansville, Ind., 16 miles northeast of
Carmi, and forty miles southwest of Vincennes.
It is located in the heart of a heavily timbered



HISTOKICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



region and is an important hard-wood market.
Valuable coal deposits also exist. The manufac-
turing establisliments include ilour, saw and
planing mills, and stave factories. The city has
two banks, six churches, and three weekly news-
papers. Population (1880), 1,5.33; (1890), 1,999.

GKAYTILLE & MATTOON RAILROAD. (See
Peoria, Decatur d- Emnsville Railway.)

GREATHOUSE, Lucien, soldier, was born at
Carlinville, 111., in 1843; gradviated at Illinois
Wesleyan University, Bloomington, and studied
law ; enlisted as a private at the beginning of the
War of the Rebellion and rose to the rank of
Colonel of the Forty-eighth Illinois Volunteers;
bore a conspicuous part in the movements of the
Army of the Tennessee; was killed in battle near
Atlanta, Ga., June 21, 186-1.

GREAT WESTERN RAILROAD (of 1843 and
'49). (See BUnois Central Railroad.)

GREAT WESTERN RAILROAD (2). (See
Wabash Railway. )

GREEN RIVER, rises in Lee County, and,
after draining part of Bureau County, flows west-
ward through Henry County, and enters Rock
Eiver about 10 miles east by south from Rock
Island. It is nearly 120 miles long.

GREEN, William H., State Senator and Judge,
was born at Danville, Ky., Dec. 8, 1830. In 1847
he accompanied his father's family to Illinois,
and, for three years following, taught school, at
the same time reading law. He was admitted to
the bar in 1852 and began practice at Mount
Vernon, removing to Metropolis the next year,
and to Cairo in 1863. In 1858 he was elected to
the lower house of the General Assembly, was
re-elected in 1860 and, two years later, was
elected to the State Senate for four years. In
December, 1865, he was elected Judge of the
Third Judicial Circuit, to fill the unexpired term
of Judge Mulkey, retiring with the expiration of
his term in 1867. He was a delegate to the
National Democratic Conventions of 1860, '64,
'68, '80, '84 and '88, besides being for many years
a member of the State Central Committee of that
party, and also, for four terms, a member of the
State Board of Education, of which he has been
for several years the President. He is at present
(1899) engaged in the practice of his profession at
Cairo.

GREENE, Henry Sacheveral, attorney, was
born in the North of Ireland, July, 1833, brought
to Canada at five years of age, and from nine com-
pelled to support himself, sometimes as a clerk
and at others setting type in a printing oflSce.
After spending some time in Western New York,



in 1858 he commenced the study of law at Dan-
ville, Ind.. with Hugh Crea, now of Decatur, 111. ;
four years later settled at Clinton, DeWitt
County, where he taught and studied law with
Lawrence Weldou, now of the Court of Claims,
"Washington. In 1859 he was admitted to the bar
at Springfield, on the motion of Abraham Lin-
coln, and was associated in practice, for a time,
with Hon. Clifton H. Moore of Clinton ; later
served as Prosecuting Attorney and one term
(1867-69) as Representative in the General Assem-
bly. At the close of his term in the Legislature
he removed to Springfield, forming a law partner-
ship with Milton Hay and David T. Littler, under
the firm name of Hay, Greene & Littler, still later
becoming the head of the firm of Greene &
Humphrey. From the date of his removal to
Springfield, for some thirty years his chief employ-
ment was as a corporation lawyer, for the most
part in the service of the Chicago & Alton and
the Wabash Railways. His death occurred at his
home in Springfield, after a protracted illness,
Feb. 25, 1899. Of recognized ability, thoroughly
devoted to his profession, high minded and honor-
able in all his dealings, he commanded respect
wherever he was known.

GREENE, William G., pioneer, was born in
Tennessee in 1812 ; came to Illinois in 1822 with
his father (Bowling Greene), who settled in the
vicinity of New Salem, now in Menard County.
The younger Greene was an intimate friend and
fellow-student, at Illinois College, of Richard
Yates (afterwards Governor), and also an early
friend and admirer of Abraham Lincoln, under
whom he held an appointment in Utah for some
years. He died at Tallula, Menard County, in
1894.

GREENFIELD, a city in the eastern part of
Greene County, on the Chicago, Burlington &
Quincy and the Litchfield, Carrollton & Western
Railways, twelve miles east of Carrollton and
fifty-five miles north of St. Louis. It is in an
agricultural and stock-raising region. The city
contains several churches, a seminary, a steam
flouring mill and two weekly newspapers. It is
an important shipping point for cattle, horses,
swine, corn, grain and produce. Population
(1880), 985; (1890), 1,131.

GREENE COUNTY, cut off from Madison and
separately organized in 1821 ; has an area of 544
square miles; population (1890), 33,787; named
for Gen. Nathaniel Greene, a Revolutionary sol-
dier. The soil and climate are varied and adapted
to a diversity of products, wheat and fruit being
among the principal. Building stone and clay



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



20;i



are abundant. Probably the first English-speak-
ing settlers were David Stockton and Janie.s
"Whiteside, who located south of 5Iacoupin Creek
in June, 1S17. Samuel Thomas and others
(among them Gen. Jacob Fry) followed soon
afterward. The Indians were niunerous and
aggressive, and had destroyed not a few of tlie
monuments of the Government surveys, erected
some years before. Immigration of the whites,
liowever, was rapid, and it was not long before
the nucleus of a village was established at Car-
roUton, where General Fry erected the first house
and made the first coffin needed in the settle-
ment. This town, the county -seat and most
important place in the county, was laid off by
Thomas Carlin in 1821. Other flourishing towns
are Whitehall (population. 1.061). and Roodhouse
(an important railroad center) with a population
of 0.360.

(iREENUP, a village of Cumberland County, at
the intersection of the Indianapolis & Terre
Haute (Vandalia Line) and the Peoria, Decatur
& Evansville Railroads, 22 miles northeast of
Effingham. It is a lumbering and fruit-growing
region. Population (1880), 60.5; (1.S90). 8.58.

GREENVIEAV. a town in Menard County, on
the Jacksonville branch of the Chicago & Alton
Railroad, 22 miles north-northwest of Springfield
and 36 miles northeast of Jacksonvilla It has a
bank, two weekly newspapers, se^en churches
and a graded and high school. Population (1880),
4.50, (1890), 1,106.

GREENVILLE, an incorporated city, the
county-seat of Bond County, on the East Fork of
Big Shoal Creek, at the junction of the Jackson-
ville. Louisville & St. Louis and the St. Louis.
Vandalia & Terre Haute Railroads. .50 miles east-
northeast of St. Louis. Corn and wheat are ex-
tensively raised in the surrounding country, and
extensive coal mines are in and adjacent to the
city. The manufactures include flour and saw-
mills, and plow and wagon factories. It is the
seat of Greenville College for ladies, and has
several banks and three weekly newspapers.
Population (1880), 1,886; (1890), 1.H68.

GREENTILLE, TREATY OF, a treaty negoti-
ated by Gen. Anthony Wayne with a number of
Indian tribes (see Indian Treaties), at Green-
ville, after his victory over the savages at the
battle of JIaumee Rapids, in August, 1795. This
was the first treaty relating to Illinois lands in
which a number of tribes united The lands con-
veyed within the present limits of the State
of Illinois were as follows: A tract six miles
square at the mouth of the Chicago River;



another, twelve miles sciuare, ivenr the mouth of
the Illinois River; another, six miles siiuare,
around the old fort at Peoria ; the post of Fort
Massac; the 150,000 acres set apart as bounty
lands for the army of Gen. George Rogers Clark,
and "the lands at all other places in the pos.ses-
sion of the French people and other white set
tiers among them, the Indian title to which has
been thus extinguished. " On the other hand, the
United States relinquished all claim to all other
Indian lands north of the Ohio, east of the Mis
sissippi and south of the great lakes. The casli
consideration paid by the Government was
!5210,000.

GREGG, David L., lawyer and Secretary of
State, emigrated from Albany, N. Y., and began
the practice of law at Joliet, 111., where, in 1839,
he also edited "The Juliet Courier," the fir.st
paper established in Will County. From 1842 to
1846, he represented Will, Du Page and Iroquois
Counties in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Gen-
eral Assemblies ; later removed to Chicago, after
which he served for a time as United States Dis-
trict Attorney; in 1847 was chosen one of the
Delegates from Cook County to the State Consti-
tutional Convention of that year, and served as
Secretary of State from 1850 to 1858. as successor
to Horace S. Cooley. who died in office the former
year. In the Democratic .State Convention of
1852, Jlr. Gregg was a leading candidate for the
nomination for Governor, though finally defeated
by Joel A. Matteson ; served as Presidential
Elector for that year. and. in 18.53, was appointed
by President Pierce Commissioner to the Sandwich
Islands, still later for a time acting as the minis-
ter or adviser of King Kamehamaha IV, who died
in 1863. Returning to California he was ap-
pointed by President Lincoln Receiver of Public
Moneys at Carson City, Nev., where he died, Dec.
23, 1868.

GREGORY, John Milton, clergyman and edu
cator, was born at Sand Lake. Rensselaer Co.,
N. Y., July 6. 1822; graduated from Union Col-
lege in 1846 and, after devoting two years to the
study of law, studied theology and entered the
Baptist ministry. After a brief pastorate in the
East he came West, becoming Principal of a
classical .school at Detroit. His ability as an
educator was soon recognized, and, in 1858, he
was elected State .Superintendent of Public
Instruction in Michigan, but declined a re-elec-
tion in 1863. In 1854. he a.ssisted in founding
"The Michigan Journal of Education," of whicli
he was editor-in-chief. In 1863 he accepted the
Presidency of Kalamazoo College, and four years



^10



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



later was called to that of the newly founded
University of Illinois, at Champaign, where he
remained until 18S0. He was United States
Commissioner to the Vienna Exposition in 1873,
Illinois State Commissioner to the Paris "Exposi-
tion of 1878, also serving as one of the judges in



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