Newton Bateman.

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became a circuit-rider in Indiana; during 1833-33
served as an itinerant in Missouri, gaining much
celebrity by his eloquence. In 1834 he began the
study of law. and having been admitted to the
bar, practiced for several years in Arkansas,
where he was sent to the Legislatui-e, and, in 18-14,
was the Whig candidate for Presidential Elec-
tor. Later he removed to Texas, where he .served
as Judge for six years. In 18.56 he removed to
Madison, Wis., but a year later came to Chicago,
where he attained distinction as a lawyer, dying
in that city Dec. 31, 1867. He was an accom-
plished scholar and gifted writer, having written
much for "The Democratic Review" and "The
Southern Literary Messenger, " over the signature
of "Charles Summerfield," and was author of an
"Apostrophe to Water," which he put in the
mouth of an itinerant Methodist preacher, and
which John B. Gough was accustomed to ([uote
with great effect. A volume of his poems witli a
memoir was published in Chicago in 1869.

ARROWSMITH, a village of McLean County,
on the Lake Erie & Western Railway, 20 miles
east of Bloomington ; is in an agricultural and
stock region ; has one newspaper. Population
(1890), 420.

ARTHUR, a village of Moultrie County, at the
junction of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois and
the St. Louis, Vandalia & Terre Haute Railroad,
9 miles west of Areola. The region is agricul-
tural. It has a bank and a weekly newspaper.
Population (1890), 536.

ASAY, Edward (i., lawyer, was born in Phila-
delphia, Sept. 17, 1825; was educated in private
schools and entered the ministrj' of the Methodist
Episcopal Church ; later spent some time in the
South, but in 1853 retired from the ministry and
began the study of law, meantime devoting a part
of his time to mercantile business in New York
Citj'. He was admitted to the bar in 1856, remov-
ing the same year to Chicago, where he built up
a lucrative practice. He was a brilliant speaker
and became eminent, especially as a criminal
lawyer. Politically he was a zealous Democrat
and was the chief attorney of Buckner S. Morris
and others during their trial for conspiracy in
connection with the Camp Douglas affair of No-
vember, 1864. During 1871 72 he made an ex-
tended trip to Europe, occupying some eighteen
months, making a second visit in 1882. His later
years were spent chiefly on a farm in Ogle
County. Died in Chicago, Nov. 24, 1898.

ASBURY, Henry, lawyer, was born in Harri-
son (now Robertson) County, Ky., August 10,

1810; came to Illinois in 1834, making the jour-
ney on horseback and finally locating in Quincy,
where he soon after began the study of law with
the Hon. O. H. Browning; was admitted to tlie
bar in 1837, being for a time the partner of Col.
Edward D. Baker, afterwards United States
Senator from Oregon and finally killed at Ball's
Bluff in 1863. In 1849 Mr. Asbury was appointed
by President Taylor Register of the Quincy Land
Office, and, in 1864-65, served by appointment of
President Lincoln (who was his close personal
friend) as Provost- Marshal of the Quincy dis-
trict, thereby obtaining the title of "Captain,"
by which he was widely known among his
friends. Later he served for several years as
Registrar in Bankru]itcy at Quincy, which was
his last official position. Originally a Kentucky
Whig, Captain Asbury was one of the founders
of the Republican party in Illinois, acting in co-
operation with Abram Jonas, Archibald Williams,
Nehemiah Bushnell, O. H. Browning and others
of his immediate neighbors, and with Abraham
Lincoln, with whom lie was a frequent corre-
spondent at that period. Messrs. Nicolay and
Haj', in their Life of Lincoln, award him the
credit of having suggested one of the famous
questions propounded by Lincoln to Douglas
which gave the latter so much trouble during
the memorable debates of 1858. In 1886 Captain
Asbury removed to Chicago, where he continued
to reside until his death, Nov. 19, 1896.

ASHLAND, a town in Cass County, at the
intersection of the Chicago & Alton and the
Baltimore & Ohio South-Western Railroad, 21
miles west-northwest of Springfield and 200
miles southwest of Chicago. It is in the midst of
a rich agricultural region, and is an important
shipping point for grain and stock. It has a
bank, three churches and a weekly newspaper.
Coal is mined in the vicinity. Population (1880),
609; (1890), 1,045.

ASHLEY, a large and growing village in Wash-
ington County, at the intersection of the Illinois
Central and the Louisville & Nashville Railways,
62 miles from St. Louis. The surrounding region
is agricultural, there being also many orchards.
Its manufactures include flour and agricultural
implements. Population (1880), 950; (1890), 1,035.

ASHMORE, a town of Coles County, on the
Cleveland. Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Rail-
way, 8 miles northeast of Charleston ; has a news-
paper and considerable local trade. Population
(1880), 403; (1890), 576.

ASHTOX, a village of Lee Covmty, on the Chi-
cago & North- Western Railroad, 84 miles west of



Chicago; has one newspaper. Population (1880),
646; (1890), 680.

ASPINWALL, Homer F., farmer and legisla-
tor, was born in Stephenson County, 111., Nov. 15,
1846, educated in the Freeport high school, and,
in early life, spent two years in a wholesale
notion store, later resinning the occupation of a
farmer. After holding various local offices, in-
cluding that of member of the Board of Supervis-
ors of Stephenson County, in 1893 Mr. Aspinwall
was elected to tlie State Senate and re-elected in
1896. Soon after the beginning of the Spanish-
American War in 1898, he was appointed by
President McKinley Captain and Assistant
Quartermaster in the Volunteer Army, but
before being assigned to duty accepted the Lieu-
tenant-Colonelcy of the Twelfth Illinois Pro-
visional Regiment. When it became evident that
the regiment would not be called into the service,
he was assigned to the command of the "Mani-
toba," a large transport steamer, which carried
some 13,000 soldiers to Cuba and Porto Rico with-
out a single accident. In view of the approach-
ing session of tlie Forty-first General Assembly,
it being apparent tliat the war was over, Mr.
Aspinwall applied for a discharge, which was
refused, a 80-days' leave of absence being granted
instead. A discharge was finally granted about
the middle of February, when he resumed his
seat in the Senate. Mr. Aspinwall owns and
operates a large farm near Freeport.

ASSUMPTION, a town in Christian County,
on the Illinois Central Railroad, 33 miles south
by west from Decatur and 9 miles north of Pana.
It is situated in a rich agricviltural and coal min-
ing district, and has a bank, four churches, a
public school, two weekly papers and coal mines.
Population (1880), 706; (1890), 1,0;6.

ASTORIA, a town in the southern part of Ful-
ton County, on the Rock Island & St. Louis Divi-
sion of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad,
106 miles north of Alton and 50 miles northwest
of Springfield. It has six churches, good schools,
two banks, some manufactiu-es, and a weekly
newspaper. It is in a coal region. Population
(1880), 1.380: (1890), 1,3.57.

WAY COMPANY. This Company operates three
subsidiary lines in Illinois — the Chicago, Santa
Fe & California, the Atchison, Topeka and Santa
Fe in Chicago, and the Mississippi River Rail-
road & Toll Bridge, which are operated as a
through line between Chicago and Kansas City,
with a branch from Ancona to Pekin, 111., hav-
ing an aggregate operated mileage of 515 miles, of

which 395 are in Illinois. The total earnings and
income for the year ending June 30, 1895, were
$1,398,600, while the operating expenses and fixed
charges amounted to §3,360,706. The accumu-
lated deficit on the whole line amounted, June 30,
1894, to more than §4,500,000. The total capitali-
zation of the whole line in 1895 was §52,775,351.
The parent road was chartered in 1859 under the
name of the Atchison & Topeka Railroad; but in
1863 was changed to the Atchison, Topeka &
Santa Fe Railroad. The construction of the main
line was begun in 1859 and completed in 1873.
The largest number of miles operated was in
1893, being 7,481.65. January 1, 1896, the road
was reorganized under the name of The Atchison,
Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company (its present
name), which succeeded by purchase iinder fore-
closure (Dec. 10, 1895) to the property and fran-
chises of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe
Railroad Companj', Its mileage, in 1895, was
6.481.65 miles. The executive and general officers
of the system (1898) are:

Aldace F. Walker, Cliairman of the Board,
New York ; E. P. Ripley, President, Chicago ; C.
M. Higginson, Ass't to the President, Chicago;
E. D. Kenna, 1st Vice-President and General
Solicitor, Chicago; Paul Morton, 3d Vice-Presi-
dent, Chicago; E. Wilder, Secretary and Treas-
urer, Topeka; L. C. Deming, Assistant Secretary,
New York ; H. W. Gardner, Assistant Treasurer,
New York; Victor Morawetz, General Counsel,
New York; Jno. P. Whitehead, Comptroller,
New York; H. C. Whitehead, General Auditor,
Chicago ; W. B. Biddle, Freight Traffic Manager,
Chicago; J. J. Frey, General Manager. Topeka;
H. W. Mudge, General Superintendent, Topeka;
W. A. Bissell, Assistant Freight Traffic Manager,
Chicago; W. F. Wliite, Passen.ger Traffic
Manager, Chic-ago; Geo. T. Nicholson, Assistant
Passenger Traffic Manager, Chicago; W. E.
Hodges, General Purchasing Agent, Chicago;
James A. Davis, Industrial Commissioner, Chi-
cago ; James Dun, Cliief Engineer, Topeka, Kan. ;
John Player, Superintendent of Machinery,
Topeka, Kan. ; C. W. Kouns. Superintendent Car
Service, Topeka, Kan. ; J. S. Hobson. Signal
Engineer, Topeka; C. G. Slides, Superintendent
of Telegraph, Topeka, Kan. ; C. W. Ryus, General
Claim Agent, Topeka ; F. C. Gay, General Freight
Agent, Topeka; C. R. Hudson, Assistant General
Freight Agent, Topeka; W. J. Black, General
Passenger Agent, Chicago; P. Walsh, General
Baggage Agent, Chicago.

ATHENS, a town in Slenard County, nortli-
northwest of Springfield, on the Chictigo, Peoria



& St. Louis Railroad. A valuable building stone
is extensively quarried here, which is susceptible
of a high polish and is commonly designated
Athens Marble. The town has three churches, a
bank, several mills, a newspaper office, and three
coal mines. Agi-iculture. stone-quarrying and
coal-mining are the principal industries of the
surroimding region. Population (1880), 410;
(1890), 944.

ATKIJfS, Smith D., soldier and joui-nalist, was
born near Elmira, N. Y., June 9, 1836; came with
his father to Illinois in 1846, and lived on a farm
till 18.50; was educated at Rock River Seminary,
Moimt Morris, meanwhile learning tlie printer's
trade, and afterwards established "The Savanna
Register" in Carroll County. In 1854 he began
the study of law, and in \X('M, while practicing at
Freeport, was elected Prosecuting Attorney, but
resigned in 1861, being the first man to enlist as a
private soldier in Stephenson County. He served
as a Captain of the Eleventh Illinois Volunteers
(three-months" men), re-enlisted with the same
rank for three 3-ears and took part in the capture
of Fort Donelson and the battle of Shiloh, serv-
ing at the latter on the staff of General Hurlbut.
Forced to retire temporarily on account of his
health, he next engaged in raising volunteers in
Northern Illinois, was finally commissioned Col-
onel of the Ninety-second Illinois, and, in June,
1863, was assigned to command of a brigade in
the Army of Kentucky, later serving in the Arm)-
of the Cumberland. On the organization of Sher-
man's great "March to the Sea," he efficiently
cooperated in it, was brevetted Brigadier-General
for gallantrj' at Savannah, and at the close of the
war, by special order of President Lincoln, was
brevetted Major-General. Since the war. Gen-
eral Atkins' chief occupation has been that of
editor of "The Freeport Journal," though, for
nearly twenty-four years, he served as Post-
master of that cit}'. He took a prominent part
in the erection of the Stephenson County Sol-
diers' Monument at Freeport, has been President
of the Freeport Public Library since its organiza-
tion, member of the Board of Education, and since
1895, by appointment of the Governor of Illinois,
one of the Illinois Commissioners of the Chicka-
mauga and Chattanooga Military Park.

ATKINSON, a village of Henry County, on the
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway, 29 miles
east of Rock Island. It has a bank and a news-
paper. Population (1880), .504; (1890). 534.

ATLANTA, a city of Logan County, on the
Chicago & Alton Railroad, 20 miles southwest of
Bloomington and 39 miles north-northeast of

Springfield. It stands on a high and fertile
prairie and the surrounding region is rich in coal,
as well as a productive agricultural and stock
raising district. It has five churclies, a graded
school, a weekly newspaper, two banks and two
flouring mills. Coal is mined within the city
limits. Population(1880), 1,368; (1890), 1,178.

ATLAS, a hamlet in the southwestern part of
Pike County, 10 miles southwest of Pittsfield and
three miles from Rockport, the nearest station on
the Quincy & Louisiana Division of the Chicago,
Burlington & Quincy Railroad. Atlas has an in-
teresting history. It was settled by Col. William
Ross and four brothers, who came here from
Pittsfield, Mass., in the latter part of 1819. or
early in 1830, making there the first settlement
within the present limits of Pike County. The
town was laid out by the Rosses in 1823, and the
next year the county-seat was removed thither
from Coles Grove — now in Calhoun Coimty — but
which had been the first county-seat of Pike
County, when it comprised all the territory lying
north and west of the Illinois River to the Mis-
sissippi River and the Wisconsin State line.
Atlas remained the county-seat until 1833, when
the seat of justice was removed to Pittsfield.
During a part of that time it was one of the
most important points in the western part of the
State, and was, for a time, a rival of Quincy.
It now has only a postofflce and general store.
The population, according to the census of 1890,
was 52.

ATTORNEYS-tiiENERAL. The following is a
list of the Attorneys-General of Illinois under the
Territorial and State Governments, down to the
present time (1899), with the date and duration of
the term of each incumbent :

Territori.\l — Benjamin H. Doyle, July to De-
cember, 1809; John J. Crittenden, Dec. 30 to
April, 1810; Thomas T. Crittenden, April to
October, 1810; Benj. M. Piatt, October, 1810-13;
AVilliam Mears, 1813-18.

State— Daniel Pope Cook, March 5 to Dec. 14,
1819; William Mears, 1819-21; Samuel D. Lock-
wood. 1821-23; James Turney, 1823-29; George
Forquer, 1829-33; James Semple, 1833-34; Ninian
W. Edwards, 1834-35; Jesse B. Thomas, Jr.,
183.5-36; Walter B. Scates, 1836-37; Usher F.
Linder. 1837-38; George W. Obiey, 1838-39; Wick-
liffe Kitchell, 1839 40; Josiah Lamborn, 1840-43;
James Allen McDougal, 1843-46; David B. Camp-
bell, 1846-48.

The Constitution of 1848 made no provision for
the continuance of the office, and for nineteen
j'ears it remained vacant. It was re created,



liowever, by legislative enactment in 1867, and
on Feb. 28 of that year Governor Oglesby
ajipointed Robert G. Ingersoll, of Peoria, to dis-
charge the duties of the position, which he con-
tinued to do until 1869. Subsequent incumbents
of the office have been : Washington Bushnell,
1869-73 ; James K. Edsall, 1873-81 ; James McCart-
ney, 1881-85; George Hunt, 1885-93; M. T. Moloney,
1893-97; Ed\vard C. Akin, 1897 — . Under the
first Constitution (1818) the office of Attorney-
General was filled by appointment by the Legisla-
ture; under the Constitution of 1848, as already
stated, it ceased to exist until created by act of
the Legislature of 1867, but, in 1870, it was made
a constitutional office to be filled by popular
election for a term of four years.

ATWOOD, a village lying partly in Piatt and
partly in Douglas County, on the Indianapolis,
Decatur & Western Railway, 27 miles east of
Decatur. The region is agricultural; the town
has a bank and a newspaper Population (1880),
212; (1890), 530.

ATWOOD, Charles B., arcliitect, was born at
Millbury, Mass., May 18, 1849; at 17 began a full
course in architecture at Harvard Scientific
School, and, after graduation, received prizes for
public buildings at San Francisco, Hartford and
a number of other cities, besides furnishing
designs for some of the finest private residences
in the country. He was associated with D. H.
Burnham in preparing plans for the Columbian
Exposition buildings, at Chicago, for the World's
Fair of 1893, and distinguished himself by pro-
ducing plans for the "Art Building," the "Peri-
.style," the "Terminal Station" and other
prominent structures. Died, in the midst of his
highest successes as an architect, at Chicago,
Dec. 19, 1895.

AUBURN, a town in Sangamon County, on the
Chicago & Alton Railroad, 15 miles south-south-
west of Springfield. Manufacturing is carried on
to some extent, the output consisting of flour, car-
riages and farm implements. It has several
churches, a graded school, a bank and a weekly
newspaper. Population (1880), 788; (1890), 874.

Auditors of Public Accounts under the Terri-
torial Government were H. H. Maxwell, 1812-16;
Daniel P. Cook, 181617; Robert Blackwell, (April
to August), 1817; Elijah C. Berry, 1817-18. Under
the Constitution of 1818 the Auditor of Public •
Accounts was made appointive by the legislature,
without limitation of term ; but by the Constitu-
tions of 1848 and 1870 the office was made
elective by the people for a term of four years.

The following is a list of the State Auditors
from the date of the admission of the State into
the Union down to the present time (1899), with
the date and dm-ation of the term of each:
Elijah C. Berry, 1818-31; James T. B. Stapp,
1831-35; Levi Davis, 183.5-41; James Sliields,
1841-43; WilUam Lee D. Ewing, 1843-46; Thomas
H. Campbell, 1846-57; Jesse K. Dubois, 1857-64;
Orlin H. Miner, 1864-69; Charles E. Lippinoott,
1869-77; Thomas B. Needles, 1877-81; Charles P.
Swigert, 1881-89; C. W. Pavey, 1889-93; David
Gore, 1893-97; James S. McCullough, 1897 — .

AUttUSTA, a town in Augusta township, Han-
cock County, on the Chicago, Burlington &
Quincy Railroad, 36 miles northeast of Quincy.
Carriages, plows, flour, brooms and woolen goods
are the principal manufactures. The town has
two newspapers, a bank, fom- churches and a
graded school. The surrounding country is a
fertile agricultural region and abounds in coal.
Fine qualities of potter's clay and mineral paint
are obtained here. Population (1880), 1,015;
(1890), 1,077.

AUGUSTANA COLLEGE, an educational insti-
tution controlled by the Evangelical Lutheran
denomination, located at Rock Island and founded
in 1863. Besides preparatory and collegiate de-
partments, a theological school is connected with
the institution. To the two first named, young
women are admitted on an equality with
men. More than 500 students were reported in
attendance in 1896, about one-fourth being
women. A majority of the latter were in the
preparatory (or academic) department. The col-
lege is not endowed, but owns property (real
and personal) to the value of §350,000. It has a
library of 12,000 volumes.

AURORA, a city and an important railroad
center in Kane County, situated on Fox River, 39
miles southwest of Chicago. Machine and repair
shops of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Rail-
road are located here. Other important manufac-
turing industries are: iron works, extensive
cotton and woolen mills, flour mills, silver-plating
works, carriage factories, stove and smelting-
works and establisliments for turning out road
scrapers, carpet-sweepers, buggy tops and wood-
working machinery. The water-works and elec-
tric-lighting plants are owned by the city. Five
banks supply the demand for banking facilities.
The city has twenty-five churches, admirable
schools and a public library. The periodicals
(1896) embrace five dail3', one semi-weekly and
five or six weekly papers. Population (1880),
11,873; (1890), 19,688; (1898), estimated, 27,500.



AUSTIN, a suburb of Chicago, iu Cook County.
It is accessible from that city by either the Chi-
cago & Northwestern Railway, or by street
railway lines. A weekly newspaper is issued, a
graded school is supported (including a high
school department) and there are numerous
churches, representing the various religious
denominations. Population (1880), 1,359; (1890),

AUSTIN COLLEGE, a mixed school at Effing-
ham, 111., founded in 1890. It has eleven teachers
and' reports a total of 312 pupils for 1897-98—162
males and 150 females. It has a library of 2,000
volumes and reports property valued at 837,000.

AUSTRALIAN BALLOT," a form of ballot for
popular elections, thus named because it was
first brought into use in Australia. It was
adopted by act of the Legislature of Illinois in
1891, and is applicable to the election of all public
officers except Trustees of Schools, School Direct-
ors, members of Boards of Education and officers
of road districts in counties not under township
organization. Under it, all ballots for the elec-
tion of officers (except tliose just enumerated)
are required to be printed and distributed to the
election officers for use on the day of election, at
public These ballots contain the names,
on the same sheet, of all candidates to be voted
for at such election, such names having been
formally certified previously to the Secretary of
State (in the case of candidates for offices to be
voted for by electors of the entire State or any
district greater than a single county) or to the
County Clerk (as to all others), by the presiding
officer and secretary of the convention or caucus
making such nominations, when the party repre-
sented cast at least two per cent of the aggregate
vote of the State or district at the preceding gen-
eral election. Other names may be added to the
ballot on the petition of a specified number of the
legal voters under certain prescribed conditions
named in the act. The duly registered voter, on
presenting himself at the poU, is given a copy of
the official ticket by one of the judges of election,
upon which he proceeds to indicate his prefer-
ence in a temporary booth or closet set apart for
his use, by making a cross at the head of tlie col-
umn of candidates for whom he wishes to vote, if
he desires to vote for all of the candidates of the
same party, or by a similar mark before the name
of each individual for whom be wishes to vote, in
case he desires to distribute his support among
the candidates of different parties. The object of
the law is to secure for the voter secrecy of the
ballot, with independence and freedom from dic-

tation or interference by others in the exercise of
his right of suffrage.

AVA, a town in Jackson County, on the Mobile
& Ohio Railroad (Cairo & St. Louis Division), 75
miles south-southeast from St. Louis. It has
one or more banks and a newspaper. Population
(1880), 365; (1890), 807.

AVON, a village of Fulton County, on the Chi-
cago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 20 miles
south of Galesburg; has two newspapers and
drainpipe works. Considerable live-stock and
farm produce are shipped here. Population
(1880), 689; (1890), 692.

AYER, Benjamin F., lawyer, was born in
Kingston, N. H., April 22, 1825, graduated at
Dartmouth College in 1846, studied law at Dane
Law School (Harvard University), was admitted
to the bar and began practice at Manchester,
N. H. After serving one term in the New Hamp-
shire Legislature, and as Prosecuting Attorney
for Hillsborough County, in 1857 became to Chica-
go, soon advancing to the front rank of lawyers
then in practice there ; became Corporation Counsel
in 1861, and, two years later, drafted the revised
city charter. After the close of his official career,
he was a member for eight years of the law firm of
Beckwith, Ayer & Kales, and afterwards of the
firm of Ayer & Kales, until, retiring from general
practice, Mr. Ayer became Solicitor of the Illinois
Central Railroad, then a Director of the Company,
and is at present its General Counsel and a potent
factor in its management.

AYERS, Marshall Paul, banker, Jacksonville,

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